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great perspicuity and conclusiveness. Suffice it to say, that as a result of the vicious system of striking the Fiars, it may be actually shewn, with strong probability on the side of the conclusion, that every minister within the County of Lanark, and whose stipend is 16 chalders, suffered a diminution of income to the extent of no less than £27, 17s. 4d. on barley alone!

This state of matters ought to be remedied. If no other means of producing a change for the better in an equitable sense exists, an Act of Parliament should be sought. The Legislature surely would not hesitate to step in and contribute its power towards the remedy of what is a crying injustice, and what defeats the purposes of the State towards the ministers of the Church of Scotland. In this case, too, the public should offer no obstacle to so proper and becoming a measure. Church property is the least protected part of the public wealth; but on this very account it is the bulwark of all sorts of wealth. The clergy, so far as property matters are concerned, are the least protected of any portion of her Majesty's subjects. This very fact entitles them to the more sympathy. As matter of public policy, besides, all obstacles to the realisation of lawful claims ought to be removed, otherwise a great injustice is left unremedied. The Legislature of late has done a deal towards securing justice betwixt man and man; and certainly the rights of the clergy ought not to weigh less in high quarters than that of other members of the same community.

Free Church Door for the Seceders; or, Dr. Candlish's Altered Overture, as passed in the late Free Church Assembly, and lauded in the "Original Secession Magazine," Considered. By Rev. ARCHIBALD BROWN, A.M., Minister of the United Original Secession Congregation, Adam Square, Edinburgh. Edinburgh: William Whyte & Co.

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Mr. Brown's lengthy pamphlet shews, that its writer possesses no small share of that pugnacity which has frequently been exhibited by the adherents of our lesser Scottish sects; though we cannot say that we can clearly make out the exact point which he wishes to establish, not having seen the article in the Original Secession Magazine" to which his animadversions refer. It would seem that there has been a species of courtship going on between the Free Church and the body in connection with whom, we have no doubt that Mr. Brown is a worthy and efficient minister; but some unforeseen circumstance has prevented the consummation of the alliance. The Free Church, judging from present appearances, is more disposed to contract than to enlarge her boundaries; and we see in recent discussions in her Courts, more especially in the metropolitan Presbytery, symptoms of distress and fear, that appear to indicate a dwindling treasury and a hampered cause, originating in the mistaken ambition of covering the land with the edifices belong

*It was a Jewish maxim, that "tythes are the hedge of property."

ing to her adherents. If we mistake not, she has reached the height of her progress in the meantime ;-the storm is lowering, and, as our friend Dr. Guthrie would phrase it, the ship is labouring in a heavy sea, and the flag of distress is flying at her mast-head; the gale of propitious fortune does not fill her sails so much as formerly; and the cry is heard-To your posts, Deacons :-Assess more largely :-or, as Dr. Candlish has it, Adjust, which Dr. Begg interprets most correctly, Tax, Tax! Wring out larger supplies, or most reluctantly she must retrograde instead of advancing.

We quote a passage from Mr. Brown's pamphlet, exhibiting an "Original Seceder's" views of the pretensions of this body to be regarded as the National Church of Scotland,-a view most agreeable to common sense, although, of course, Mr. Brown naturally regards the principles of the Free Church as bearing a certain affinity to his own.

"Free Churchmen say, they left the Establishment 'under protest that it is being Free, and not being Established, which constitutes the real historical, hereditary identity of the Reformed National Church of Scotland.' What argumentations and mystifications have there been among wrangling wits on the subject of the identity of the Reformed National Church of Scotland! how many documents have been brought forward, and, in learned fashion examined on this point, all to no purpose? It is to be regretted that Free Churchmen, with their clear heads, should have entered into this maze in their Protest. Let us not confound things that differ. Hereditary historical identity with the National Reformed Church of Scotland is one thing-actual nationality is quite another thing. There may be identity in principle, and profession, with the Reformed Church of Scotland where there is no nationality; there may be, on the other hand, actual nationality where there is no such identity. Here are two questions, let them be kept distinct. I shall afterwards inquire whether the Free Church claim to identity of principle and profession with the Reformed Covenanted Church of Scotland be valid; but in the meantime, it is her claim to nationality with which I have to do.

"What is it, then, which makes any institution national? Just the appointment of the nation, by its organs, Crown and Parliament. What is it which makes a Church national, but just the nation giving that Church a national sanction? A reformed nation sanctioned the Reformed Presbyterian Church, and that Church thereby became the National Church; the nation, in a state of defection from Reformation attainments, sanctioned the Presbyterian Church, likewise in a state of defection from them, at the Revolution; and the consequence was, that the defecting Church became the Church of the defecting nation, or the National Church. If Free Churchmen could say, Here is the national deed by which the Free Church is constituted the National Church of Scotland, then the case is settled at once, and decisively, in her favour; but if she does not pretend to that, her claim to nationality cannot be admitted. Free Church leaders can no more make an institution national than they can make nations,-that is certain. It is very useless for any body of men to push themselves forward as national, without or against the nation's leave. If the nation gives its sanction, then the thing is done; if the nation refuse its sanction, it cannot be done. No matter whatever be the excellencies in point of profession or attainment which the Free Church can show, no matter however famous, or influential, or faithful, or energetic she may be, such things will not, of themselves, give her a claim to nationality-they will not make up for the want of a national


appointment; they may make it evident, that it would be highly desirable and beneficial that she should be made a National Church, but so long as the nation refuses to own her as such, any claim she may put forward is groundless. By assuming such a claim, she puts herself in a wrong position in relation to the nation, a position which is neither warrantable, nor wise, nor safe, nor honourable. It has no foundation save mere popular transient


“But if, on the other hand, that Church which the Free Church left at the Disruption, can shew the deed of the nation in her favour as a National Church, her claim to nationality stands, and no body of men in the nation can disannul or invalidate that claim. When she was at the farthest stage of defection from Reformation attainments, that did not destroy her nationality; and whatever abuses and corruptions may now be found in her, however deeply these are to be regretted, however hurtful these are to the best interests of the community, and to herself, they do not affect her claim to nationality."

Daily Bible Illustrations, being Original Readings for a Year. By JOHN KITTO, D.D., F.A.S. Evening Series-Job and the Poetical Books-January to March. Edinburgh: William Oliphant & Sons. London: Hamilton, Adams, & Co. 1852.

Ir is with peculiar pleasure that we hail another series of the Daily Bible Illustrations, by Dr. Kitto. We have more than once, in this Journal, expressed the great gratification we received in the perusal of Dr. Kitto's writings; and we are happy to state that this additional volume confirms, to the full, the opinion which we have formerly expressed. We greatly like the idea of the Evening series, of which this is the first, as it will divide the day with the former, and thus we have in these Daily Bible Illustrations, a complete service for "the Church in the house." The charm about Dr. Kitto's writings is this-their elegant simplicity. They are suited for all classes-for the accomplished scholar, the Christian gentleman, and the humble peasant. There is nothing, either in sentiment or style, beyond the reach of the illiterate. There is nothing, at the same time, to offend the most refined. The work, when completed, will be a monument of research and successful authorship, as well as a storehouse of Biblical information. As we formerly recommended, so would we again suggest to Dr. Kitto, that he furnish each series with an index. The work, as a whole, will be incomplete without this, and its immense mass of Scriptural lore be comparatively useless in the way of reference. We do hope this will not be forgotten. The present volume extends from January to March, and embraces what may be called the Poetical Books of Scripture,-Job, the Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. Each of these is handled in the most interesting and instructive manner; and we give the two following specimens from the first and last, as illustrative of the able and satisfactory style in which these valuable volumes are compiled :

"About the leviathan there is nearly as much question, as regarding the behemoth. It is met with oftener in the Bible than appears in our version,

the term being sometimes translated. The idea given by the name is that of some creature wreathed or gathering itself up in folds, and in this general signification it seems to be applied to various creatures in the same general sense as our English word monster.' In some places it seems to denote a monstrous serpent, as in chap. iii. 8. of this book (Job), where the word rendered 'mourning' is leviathan; and still more distinctly in Isaiah xxvii. 1, where, indeed, it is more distinctly so called, leviathan, the piercing (fleet) serpent-leviathan, the crooked (coiling or convolved) serpent.' In other places it denotes a great sea-monster, perhaps the whale, but not excluding any other of the large and monstrous forms inhabiting the great deep, especially such as, when seen in the water, or rather with parts of their bodies above the surface, exhibit that wreathed or convolved appearance, in which has originated the various reports and traditions respecting the sea-serpent.' It is distinctly a marine animal, as in Psalm civ. 26,This great and wide sea, wherein are things creeping innumerable, both small and great beasts. There go the ships; there is the leviathan, whom thou hast made to play therein. In short, we take the word to be as nearly as possible equivalent to our word 'monster' in its use, being sometimes employed generally and indeterminately, and sometimes with regard to particular animals, which may or may not, but commonly are, recognizable from the context. It is generally admitted, that whatever be the animals specially referred to in other places, in this place it does mean and can mean no other than the crocodile. This is so evident that no one could ever have attempted to show that it was any other creature, but from the necessity supposed to be imposed by other texts, such as those we have cited of showing that the leviathan must be something else than a crocodile. All difficulty from this source is obviated by the explanation which has just been given, and we can, without any doubt or misgiving, from other texts, conclude that the word does here denote a crocodile.' Those generally who have questioned this, conceived that it must be a 'whale, not because they denied that the present passage more obviously refers to the crocodile, but because they perceived that, in some other places, where the name occurs, the whale was more clearly denoted, and thought that, therefore, it must bear the same meaning in this place. But surely the two points of the strong armour of the animal described, and his formidable rows of teeth, are almost peculiar to the crocodile among aquatic animals, and are wholly inapplicable to the whale, which has neither scales nor teeth, and which is, in fact, ordinarily taken with fish-spears or harpoons, the very mode against which the leviathan is here considered to be invulnerable. Do men, in company, lay snares for him? Do they divide him among the merchants? Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons, or his head with fish-spears?'-verses 6 and 7. Perhaps the real meaning of this passage may be, that it cannot be taken by snares on land, like most of the land animals, nor in water by harpoons, like most of the merely aquatic animals. This is obviously the case, for no one ever heard of a crocodile being snared on land, or harpooned in the water. The last is, indeed, nearly impossible, as the animal presents above the surface only its least vulnerable parts. But the crocodile may be harpooned on the land, and, therefore, out of the element in which it has its chief power. Indeed, this is the mode in which it is captured in Angola, where it is taken by the natives for the sake of its flesh."


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Again, from the Readings on the Song of Solomon, we extract the following, entitled "Notes of Time:"—

"It seems that during the interview between Shelomoh and Shulamith, the latter, overcome by the strength of her emotions, falls into a slumber, and has an ecstatic dream. Shelomoh, both at the commencement and at

the close of her dream, charges the daughters of Jerusalem not to awaken her; and these injunctions are most skilfully interposed to mark out the visionary from the waking scenes. It begins in chapter ii. and 7, and ends in chapter iii. and 5,-but the perception of the meaning is unhappily obscured to the English reader, by the rendering in both places, “Wake not my love till he please," whereas in the original the pronoun is feminine, till she please."-By not overlooking a circumstance so plainly and carefully marked out, but viewing the whole passage as the recital of a dream, we clear away a multitude of difficulties, and apparent incongruities, which commentators have found in taking it as part of the primary recital of the poem. We shall confine our attention to-day to "The Notes of Time," which the poem furnishes, by which it will, we apprehend, be seen that the scene is laid in Spring, or perhaps, we should say, with regard to Palestine, early in Summer, that is, in the early part of May; and so much attention is paid to this, that all the circumstances are made to refer to that time of the year. The first and leading sign of the season is "that the vine is in blossom," or rather has begun to furnish "its first tender grapes." It appears that in Palestine, although the vintage does not begin before September, small quantities of grapes are gathered from certain kinds of vines, from the end of May until that season, at the same time that other kinds have not ceased to blossom. The early grapes, thus supplied, were accounted great delicacies by the Hebrews, and are doubtless among "the first ripe fruits, which the bride so earnestly desired, and well might she do so, if she were of Egypt, the grapes of that country being altogether inferior to those of Palestine. The allusions to this as one of the signs of early summer, are of repeated occurrence in this song. Here we have, "The vines with the tender grapes give a good smell," and just after, "Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vines, for our vines have tender grapes." that tender grapes, and not merely blossoms, as some suppose, are really meant, is clear from this, as blossoms would offer small temptation to the little foxes. The love these animals bear to grapes is proverbial, but no one ever heard of their appetite for blossoms. Again, towards the close of the poem, the bridegroom says, "I went down to the garden of sweets, to see whether the vine flourished, and the pomegranates budded." Upon the whole, we seem to find that we can resolve all the circumstances alluded to in the book, which afford any indications of seasons, into a few weeks-say, from about the middle of April to the middle of May, and in the southern parts of Palestine, they may all be brought into April. The blossoming of the pomegranate coincides with this blossoming of the vine; and at the season indicated, the country is in its fullest bloom. In beautiful accordance with nature, therefore, it represents the time of the blossoming of the vines and the pomegranates, of the singing of the birds, and of the cooing of the turtles; as the time of flowers too,-it is the time when they are in the greatest abundance."


The Revelation of Saint John. Expounded for those who search the Scriptures. By E. W. HENGSTENBERG, Doctor and Professor of Theology in Berlin. Translated from the Original by the Rev. PATRICK FAIRBAIRN, Author of " Typology of Scripture," "Ezekiel, an Exposition," Jonah," &c., Volume I. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 38, George Street. London: Hamilton, Adams, & Co.; Simpkin, Marshall, & Co., 1851.

The two countries which, at this moment, are doing most for Theological Literature, are undoubtedly Germany and America. An eclipse,

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