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member the resurrection of Jesus Christ, for it is fitted to sustain aud comfort amid the afflictions and trials of life. All the privations, and sufferings, and sorrows of our Lord terminated in his glorious resurrection, and so shall all the privations, and sorrows, and sufferings of his people. When a Christian, however deeply afflicted, is enabled to remember that Jesus Christ has risen from the dead, he may be troubled on every side, but not distressed; perplexed, but not in despair; persecuted, but not forsaken; cast down, but not destroyed.' He knows that Jesus lives; and the life of Jesus shall,' in due time, 'be made manifest in his mortal flesh,' when, in all the extent of meaning belonging to the words, he shall experience the power of his resurrection,' obtaining the adoption, to wit, the redemption of his body. He can even look death in the face without alarm, and go to the grave with no fear that it is to be his everlasting abode. Christ lives, and I shall live also. His grave is empty, and in due time mine shall be empty too-empty, like his, by a glorious resurrection.
“(3.) It is a motive to diligence and perseverence in duty. Finally, we should remember the resurrection of Christ, because it is fitted to present powerful motives to diligence and perseverence in duty amid all discouragements. It keeps before the mind the great fact that Jesus is our Lord-the Lord of all. Of this the resurrection is the great evidence. Our Lord 'both died and rose and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and of the living. God hath given assurance unto all men, by the resurrection of Jesus, that he is the man by whom, during that day which reaches from his resurrection to the end of time, He is to judge' or rule the world.' It is the divine voice, hear him,' 'worship him," honour him' as you honour me. It naturally calls up the thought of the Christian's fellowship with Christ in his resurrection, which the Apostle Paul employs, as the grand motive to holy obedience. Planted in the likeness of his resurrection, walking in newness of life, they learn to reckon themselves alive unto God, through Jesus Christ their Lord; and therefore, ‘suffer not sin to reign in their mortal bodies;' but yield themselves to God, as those who are alive from the dead.' Being risen with Christ, they feel themselves both bound and inclined to seek the things which are above, where Christ sitteth at God's right hand; to set their affections on things that are above, and not on things that are on the earth;' to mortify their members, that are on the earth; and to crucify the flesh, with the affections and lusts.'
"And it animates by the thought that, by a constant continuance in welldoing by forgetting the things which are behind, reaching forth to those which are before,' and keeping close to the appropriated race-course, we too shall reach the goal, and gain the prize-attaining the resurrection of the dead. It is thus that the Apostle exhorts the Hebrew Christians to look to the risen Saviour, while they perseveringly run the race that is set before them; and it is thus that he enforces the closely-connected doctrine of Christ's resurrection and the Christian's resurrection, in the close of that wonderful chapter, the fifteenth of the First Epistle to the Corinthians. Therefore, because Christ has risen, and ye shall rise through the efficacy of his atonement, by the exertion of his power. Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye stedfast, immovealle, always abounding in the work of the Lord; forasmuch as ye know that your labour is not in vain in the Lord.' It is chiefly in reference to this last view of the practical use of the resurrection of Christ that the Apostle here presses the remembrance of it on his son, Timothy: Endure hardness,' says he, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ.' Devote yourself entirely to his service as a racer, strive according to the laws of the game; as a husbandman, forget not that the labour must precede the partaking of the fruits; Remember that Jesus Christ, of the seed of David, was raised from the dead, according to my
gospel.' Imitate Him, and you shall have His reward; be faithful to death, and, like Him, you shall have life as your crown!"
The Hexaglot Pentateuch or the Five Books of Moses in the original Hebrew, with the corresponding Samaritan, Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic. Edited by ROBERT YOUNG, Translator of the " Assembly's Shorter Catechism" into Hebrew; the "Pirke Aboth;” the " Sepher Hammitsvoth," &c. &c.
THE HISTORY OF ADAM.
WE formerly noticed two small, but learned treatises, by the Editor whose name occurs in the title page of the work now before us—and we are happy to meet with him again, in the commencement of a still larger and more laborious undertaking.
We beg to remind our readers, that Mr. Young is an Edinburgh bookseller, who, unlike the greater portion of his professional brethren, is not only a seller of books, but a most learned and respectable Editor of works, which few even of those commonly called "the learned" are in a condition to bring so well before the notice of the public. His acquaintance with not only the venerable Hebrew language, but all the cognate dialects, is at once accurate, varied, and comprehensive-and, induced by his love for such kinds of literature, he is exerting himself most meritoriously in an attempt, at once, to extend the knowledge of those languages, and to edit such specimens of them as are likely to be instrumental in aiding the extension of Christian principles among the many interesting tribes by whom the languages, now termed the Semitic, are at present familiarly spoken. The attempt is excellent, and well deserves, both on its own account and in approbation of the well-meant endeavour of the translator, to be met by every encouragement which the friends of literature and the well-wishers of Christianity may have it in their power to bestow.
We have said that we formerly noticed two small treatises by this editor-the first, being a collection, translated from the Hebrew, of "the choice sayings of the great men of the Jewish Church, who flourished between the return from the Babylonian captivity and the compilation of the Mishna, A.D. 190"-and the second, a translation from English into Hebrew of our own excellent and deservedly admired "Shorter Catechism." We are pleased to understand that, from the approbation expressed by competent judges of the merits of Mr. Young's translation of this latter work, he intends occasionally to issue translations of the same elementary treatise into all the rest of the Semitic languages. The collection will be exceedingly curious, and cannot fail of being ultimately productive. on a greater or less scale, of very desirable results.
The work now immediately before us, is entitled, "The Hexaglot Pentateuch" and is designed to be a reproduction of the Five Books of Moses, in the original Hebrew-accompanied with versions of the same, in the Hebrew-Samaritan, the Chaldee-Samaritan, the Chaldee, the Sy
riac, and the Arabic. The part already published, and by which we have been led to these observations, occupies nearly sixty pages, contains the history of Adam as given in all the languages already enumerated, and, so far as typography goes, is so beautifully distinct, and so well arranged, that the eye even of the most unlearned reader must be pleased with the appearance of the work.
Instead of prolonging our own preliminary observations, we think we shall do better for giving our readers an idea of the intended treatise, by transcribing, at this point of our progress, the Prospectus issued some time ago by the Editor himself :
PROSPECTUS OF A HEXAGLOT PENTATEUCH.
“I. The benefits to be derived by Biblical and Philological Students from a comparison of the Original HEBREW TEXT with the ANCIENT VERSIONS are too well known to require any lengthened proof. Hence the several POLYGLOT BIBLES which have been published at different times. The INTERLINEAR system, too, has several important advantages, especially in those cases where a similarity exists between the Languages made use of. This is particularly the case in the present Work, as all the six Languages are intimately connected with each other-descended from the same common stock.
II. The Languages and Versions employed are:-~
1. The Original HEBREW Text, from Vanderhooght.
3. The CHALDEE-SAMARITAN Version, or Translation of the Pentateuch into the Samaritan Language, a dialect of the Aramaean. It is thought unnecessary in printing this version to use the Samaritan character, as it can be equally well expressed by the usual square Hebrew type, which, moreover, enables the student to perceive the similarity of the dialects at a single glance.
4. The CHALDEE Version of ONKELOS, from Walton, with a collation of Landau's edition of Mendelsohn.
5. The Syriac Peshito Version, from the texts of Walton and Lee.
6. The ARABIC Version of Saadiah Gaon, from the texts of Walton and Carlile.
III. The Work will be completed in FIVE VOLUMES demy octavo, same size of page as specimen annexed. Each Book of the Pentateuch will form a volume by itself.
It is proposed also to issue Grammars and Vocabularies of the Languages which are employed in this Work, of which full particulars will be given at the commpletion of the FIRST volume."
For the due accomplishment of so extensive, but valuable a work, mere knowledge of the Eastern languages, however correct and comprehensive that knowledge may be, is not alone sufficient-encouragement from the public, or at least from that portion of the public denominated the learned, is also of primary consequence-but even with that, there are difficulties essentially connected with the progress of a work so little like that to which the ordinary press of this country is accustomed, which it must require the utmost exertion of time, of labour, and of conscientious accuracy of supervision to overcome-and which would of themselves deter most persons, however competent in other respects, from venturing in an undertaking so hazardous in its results; and even if carried to a
successful termination, so inevitably laborious and distracting. But time will overcome almost any obstacles or difficulties that may come in the way of a much valued pursuit. Mr. Young's fondness for his favourite studies is sufficiently evident from the whole facts of his previous history as an Editor-and, as the specimen of the entire work, which is now before us, is satisfactory evidence of the admirable style in which, if properly supported, he will accomplish the whole, so the following prefatory notice will shew, better than any thing we could say, with what difficulties the Editor has had to contend-and how manfully, under the true influence of a spirit of love, he has struggled with these difficulties, and so far has overcome them :
"In presenting the First Part of the 'Hexaglot Pentateuch,' the Editor has to apologize for the delay which has occurred in its publication since the prospectus was issued. He cannot, however, take much blame to himself in this matter. The very small number of friends who were not content with merely admiring the plan, but who also subscribed to it, the contradictory suggestions proposed by several scholars whose opinions were worthy of all respect, the strong desire he had to please all parties,--and the excessive amount of labour connected with the typographical execution, must form his apology. As it was impossible to find a compositor with such an acquaintance with the whole six languages as was necessary to secure the proper arrangement of the words and phrases in the different versions, he had no alternative but to become his own best servant' during those hours which he could spare from his usual business of bookselling.
"The mere superficial observer can scarcely form an idea of the labour which has been expended on this work,—the outward bulk of which is so small. But when it is borne in mind that it contains all the Oriental Texts which are to be found in the first volume of Walton's Polyglot Bible,—that the Chaldee-Samaritan Version had to be transcribed into the square Hebrew character, that the numerous errata (upwards of SIX HUNDRED!) to be found in the text of this version as printed by Walton, had to be corrected by a comparison of the Extracts given by Cellarius and Uhlemann,-that the other versions had to be transcribed for the purpose of printer's copy (thus rendering the danger of mistakes doubly great), that he was disappointed in the assistance of a learned Professor whose health and professional engagements prevented him from rendering his aid in the final revisal,— that each text had to be compared five or six times word for word,—that the very familiarity which such repeated revisals have produced, was nearly the means of leaving mistakes uncorrected, drawing the attention from the letter to the sense, that with the single exception of the assistance of a friend, who has had considerable experience in correcting for the press, the whole burden from first to last was undivided;-when these things are calmly considered, it will be admitted that the task was no easy one, that might be accomplished in a few weeks or months at most.
"It is not intended, at present, to enter into details regarding the advantages of such a work as this. Whether it be considered in a philological or theological point of view, it can hardly fail to prove useful to the student in his researches after Truth. The intimate connection and relationship which it exhibits as existing between these Semitic languages, is singularly interesting. A view is here laid open to the inspection of the comparative philologist in his examination of these tongues which, it is believed, can be found nowhere else. By abstracting the affixes and prefixes, by a careful attention to the rules by which letters of the same organ are interchanged in the several languages, the inquirer will find little difficulty in discovering
that, in a vast majority of instances, the same roots prevail throughout all these dialects; and thus he will be able to discover in some one or other of them the true origin of many of those obscure words which form such stumblingblocks to the mere Hebraist. Eichhorn, Schultens, Michaelis, Gesenius, and Lee have done this to some extent, and with considerable success.
"To the Theological Student there are few better modes of ascertaining the true meaning of the original Scriptures than by comparing different Translations. The older the version,-the more literal the translation.--the closer the affinity between the original language and that into which the translation is made, so much the better Now, with the exception of the Greek Version of the Septuagint no other versions can rival in antiquity most of those contained in this work, while, in close adherence to the original, they stand pre-eminent above all others.
"With the view of producing a new recension of the Syriac Text, the Editor made application to various quarters to obtain the use of uncollated MSS., but without success. He still hopes to be able to supply this desideratum at some future opportunity.
"The Comparative Tables of the Semitic Languages,' specially designed as a companion to the present work, will be completed in about 100 sheets, and thus afford the most distinct and copious display of their structure ever hitherto exhited.
"It may also be mentioned, that, during the progress of the present Part through the press, the Editor, with the view of aiding the progress of Christianity among the Jews. and of obtaining an agreeable relaxation from the toils of this work, issued a Translation of the Westminster Assembly's Shorter Catechism into Hebrew. The favourable opinions expressed regarding it by those most capable of judging, joined with a strong conviction that the surest plan for securing a thorough knowledge of any language is to compose in it, have induced the Translator to prosecute his intention of issuing versions of the same Work into the rest of the Semitic Languages, all of which may be expected in due course.
"That the reader may reap as much benefit in studying this work as the Editor has received in preparing it, is the heartfelt desire of
It will be observed, from the "Prospectus" already quoted, that it is Mr. Young's intention to publish "Grammars and Vocabularies" of the languages employed in this work, and that full particulars of such intended publications will be given at the end of each volume. We consider this to be a most desirable portion of the entire volumes; and we may notice that, prefixed to the section already published, are two very beautiful and instructive tables, on a large scale,--the first containing the alphabets and pronunciation, together with appended notes of the different Semitic languages; and the second an example of a verb conjugated in each of these dialects. That our readers, however, may see how correctly Mr. Young has adapted himself to all the portions of his work, we transcribe from page 7th the following notice of the series of his publications:
"The Westminster Assembly's Shorter Catechism, translated for the first time into Hebrew.
"Pirke Aboth, or the Ethics of the Fathers, translated from the original Hebrew, with an Introduction to the Babylonian Talmud.
"The History of Adam as contained in the Book of Genesis, in the original Hebrew, with the corresponding Hebrew-Samaritan, Chaldee-Samaritan,