Изображения страниц
PDF
EPUB

CHAPTER XXII.

War at the South, in Georgia and South Carolina-Charleston taken

Gen. Lincoln commanded American Troops—Constitution reported

for Massachusetts, and accepted-Alterations in it proposed by Peo-

ple of Boston-John Hancock chosen Governor--Finances--Congress

propose to call in old bills-- New emission of paper-Continental and

State debt-Agent sent to Europe-People in Maine harassed by the

British--Academy of Arts and Sciences-Gen. Washington calls for

more of the Militia--Complaints of the People.

293

CHAPTER XXIII.

Session of General Court, October, 1780--Recommendations of the

Governor--Sale of Refugees' estates---Loans--- Appeals to the People

---Massachusetts' Regiments reduced---State of the debt of the Com-

monwealth---Laws revised---Impost duties---Duty on sales at public

auction---Troops sent to Rhode Island, and Executive authorized to

call out more---

-- Treachery of Arnold---Gen. Washington called on

Massachusetts for six thousand of the Militia---Capture of Lord Corn-

wallis, in Virginia --Great Expenses--- British offer to negotiate---

Terms not acceptable to Congress---More Men called for in 1782---

Additional sums required by Congress---People complain of heavy

taxes--- Negotiations for peace---Cod Fishery---Massachusetts' propor-

tion of Continental debt--- The People ready to despair---Population---

Members of Congress.

298

CHAPTER XXIV.

Slavery discountenanced in Massachusetts---Supreme Judicial Court

decide against it---John Lowell an advocate for its abolition--- General

Court request an adjustment of accounts and claims on the United

States---And object to the appointment, by Congress, of any of its

Members to lucrative offices---Requisitions of Congress---Military

Peace Establishment---Terms of Treaty and Peace with England---

Massachusetts objects to some of the conditions -- Time of complaint

for high taxes---Gov. Hancock resigns--- James Bowdoin chosen Gov-

ernor--- His political opponents---Parties forming---Public discontents

Great debt, and no system to discharge it---Speech of Gov. Bow-

doin, on the occasion---Proposes to pay off the debt, and to enlarge

the powers of Congress to regulate Foreign Trade---Immense public

debt---Difficult to provide for it---People complain, and resort to force

---Punishment for crime.

305

CHAPTER XXV.

The Governor urges payment of part of the debt, and a system to main-

tain public credit---The General Court do not respond to his advice--

Conventions of the People, complaining of the Courts of Law---of Le-

gal processes for collecting debts, and of laying so large taxes---Ex-

tra session of General Court, in September, 1786---Conventions of

People increase---Open opposition to Law---Proclamation and ener-

getic measures of the Governor---Militia called out to protect the

Court---Measures for the relief of the People, but not satisfactory to

ther---Lenity to the Insurgents, and an Address to the People---In-

surgents continue their opposition, and attempt to stop the Courts---

They assemble at Springfield to prevent the sitting of the Court---
Militia called out under Gen. Lincoln, and marched to Worcester

and Springfield---Insurgents flee from Springfield, and are pursued

to Hadley, Amherst and Petersham, where many are taken, and

the residue flee---Affairs in Berkshire.

313

CHAPTER XXVI.

Boundary Line between Massachusetts and New York settled both on

West and East of Hudson River.--Delegates to a General Conven.

tion to revise the confederation-Mr. Hancock chosen Governor in

1787---Objections to Mr. Bowdoin unjust---The most intelligent were

his supporters---Produce a tender for debts--- Governor's salary re-

duced---Domestic Manufactures encouraged---Attempts to pay off

the public debt---Federal Constitution formed and presented to the

States for adoption---Objections to Constitution; a subject of great

discussion---Small majority in its favor---Amendments proposed by

the Convention.

324

CHAPTER XXVII.

Federal Government favorable to Commerce---Assumes the debt of the

State in part---Debt and Taxes--Public Credit restored---Slave Trade

prohibited---Conduct of Mr. Hancock towards the Lt. Governor---

New York and Virginia propose another Convention--- Massachusetts

disapproves the plan---Members of Congress---Address of the Gen-

eral Court to President Washington---The Brass Field-Pieces, Han-

cock and Adams---President Washington's Tour---Address to him--

Reply of Washington.

331

CHAPTER XXVIII.

Opposers of the Federal Constitution---Federal Officers declared ineligi-

ble as Legislators of the State---Debt of United States---Congress as-

sumed the Debts of the States---Expenses of War to Massachusetts

Public. Taxes---Lotteries disapproved ---Gov. Hancock's views of

Federal Government---Prosecutions against persons concerned in the

Slave Trade---Justices of the Supreme Judicial Court---Plan for a

Theatre --Canal proposed across Cape Cod--- Internal Improvements

---Laws for keeping Lord's Day--- The suability of a State-.- Death of

Gov. Hancock---Samuel Adams Lieutenant Governor.--His opinion

of the Federal Government.

338

CHAPTER XXIX.

Dispute with France ;---and with England--- Formation of parties---At-

tachment to France---Antipathy to England--- Censures on the con-

duct of the Federal Executive Treaty with England, 1794---Objec-

tions to it---Causes of party opinions---Views of Federalists and of

Anti-Federalists---Gov. Adams---His political opinions---His recom-

mendations of support for Schools and Teachers of Religion. 348

CHAPTER XXX.

Mr. Adams President of United States---Political parties continue; and

party feelings strong---Mr. Adams' opinions and character --Gov-

ernor Adams declines---Judge Sumner elected---State of public opin-

ion---Gov. Sumner rechosen ---Difficulties with France--.Measures of

defence.

355

CHAPTER XXXI.

Legal provision for Public Worship, and Religious Teachers---Com-

plaints by minor sects of the Constitution on the subject---A law in

1800, more favorable to religious liberty---Reference to law of 1811--

Complaints of Alien and Sedition Acts---Resolutions of Virginia,

condemnning them---General Court of Massachusetts disagrees to

Resolutions of Virginia---Death of Gov. Sumner---Gov. Strong.--His

character and opinions--- Death of General Washington---Gov. Strong

re-elected---His Conciliatory Speech.

359

CHAPTER XXXII.

Gov. Strong continued in office several years---Mr. Jefferson President

---His Policy and Measures---Political opinions and Parties---Finan-

ces of the State --Public Debt---Electors of President and Vice Presi.
dent.--Gov. Sullivan---His Character and Opinions---Political Parties

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

XXXIV.

New Embargo Act--- Very obnoxious---Gov. Gore--- His Character---

Charge against Federal Leaders as friends of England---Mr. Gerry

chosen Governor--- His political character and Views---Measures of

the Democratic Administration---Political intolerance and proscrip-

tion in 1811---Party spirit increases---The Governor denounces Fed-

eralists as enemies to the Country; and directs an examination of

Newspapers for libels---Complains of the Opinions of the Judicial

Court.

374

CHAPTER XXXIV.

Gov. Strong, 1812--- His political opinions--- Political Character of the

House---Bitterness of party feelings---Memorial against War---Gov-

ernor's Speech---War declared against England---Call for the Militia

---Objections to the War---And to ordering out the Militia--- General

Order of the Governor, for the Militia to be in readiness to repel in-

vasion ---Extra session of the General Court --The Governor's state-

382

CHAPTER XXXV.

Gov. Strong re-elected---Measures of defence against invasion---Arms

provided by the state for the People in the Seaports---Regular Troops

ordered out of the State --Opinions of Political Parties---Public De-

clarations of a distinguished Federalist---Senate of Massachusetts---

Resolutions in New York---Senators commissioned as Officers in the

Army.--Speech of Gov. Strong.--Disapproves of the War--- Party De-

clarations and Opinions---Governor's Speech---Answer of Senate and

House--- Militia called out for defence, in 1814---Dispute with Military

Officer of the United States.--Castine taken by the British---Extra

Session of the General Court---Governor's Speech---Answer of Rep-

resentatives---Resolutions of General Court---Convention at Hartford
General Orders of Gov. Strong repeated, for the Militia to repel in-
vasions -- Who defended the State by his Orders.

389

CHAPTER XXXVI.

Hartford Convention-Its Proceedings---Approved by the General

Court of Massachusetts--- Objects of the Convention---Act of Con-

gress to authorize a State to employ the Militia for Defence--- Intelli-

gence of Peace---Controversy touching the right to call out the Mili-

tia---Governor's Speech on the subject---Mr. Gore's opinion on State

Rights--- Terms of Peace---Manufactures---Mr. Strong again Gov-

ernor, in 1815.

407

CHAPTER XXXVII.

Gov. Brooks---His character and Political opinions---Extracts from his

public speeches---Candid and magnanimous---Recommends the inter-

ests of Education and Religion; and a veneration for the Republican

Institutions of the Commonwealth---State Prison---Separation of

Maine---Revision of the Constitution---Society of Cincinnati--Claim

of the State on the United States.

. 417

APPENDIX.

429

XXXVII.

.

HISTORY

OF

MASSACHUSETTS.

CHAPTER I.

Discovery of North America-Causes of Emigrating to America-Character

and Adventures of the Plymouth Pilgrims--Claim to America by Kings of England-Patents and Grants—The Native Indians-Civil Compact at Cape Cod-Settlement of Wessaguscus and Mount Wollaston-Morton, Lyford, Oldham, Conant, Blaxton,

Cape Ann, Salem, Endicott, Charlestown, Sprague-Arrivals in 1629_Higginson, Skelton-Salem ChurchOpinions of the Errors of Church of England-Buildings at Salem-State and Number of Indians-Arrival of Winthrop and Company at Charlestown, Johnson at Boston, Saltonstal at Watertown, Pynchon at Roxbury, Wilson and Phillips, Warham and Maverick-Settlement of Boston-Tax on the several Plantations-Death of Johnson-Eminent FemalesFriendly Connexion with Plymouth-Patent, Formation of Company in England -First Court of Governor and Assistants at CharlestownChurch Government-Purchases of Indians-Fortified Town-Early Sickness in the Colony-Execution for Murder in Plymouth-Power and Influence of Clergy, of Assistants and Freemen-First Vessel built by Gov. Winthrop—Tax on the Colony and Committees, or DeputiesWatertown objects-Dudley Governor A few Disaffected-Character of First Settlers, and love of Liberty.

In 1497, about four years and a half after Columbus first discovered the West India Islands, and before he visited the Continent, John and Sebastian Cabot sailed from England, and made the coasts of North America, in latitude 45 north. They proceeded northward to the 60th degree, and south to the 38th. But it is not certain that they landed on, or discovered any part of the country included in what is now Massachusetts.* Bartholomew Gosnold was, probably, the first

*

According to Ramusio, Cabot stated, “that, having proceeded as far north as 56° under the pole, and despairing of finding a passage, (to India,) he turned back to search for the same towards the equinoctial, always with a view of finding a passage to India, and at last reached the country called Florida.” This was Sebastian Cabot, and in his second voyage, 1498. And he might have entered some bays on the coast.

European who landed on its coasts, which was in the year 1602. He visited the Elizabeth Islands, in Buzzard's Bay, and the Vineyard, and probably, also, the main land, which is within the limits of the present town of Dartmouth. The whole country, from Florida to Newfoundland, was then known by the name of Virginia ; and the part still so called was first settled by the English in 1585. At first, Gosnold proposed a permanent settlement on these islands; but his men soon became dissatisfied with the plan, and he returned to England the same year. In this voyage, Gosnold also discovered the southeastern parts of Cape Cod.

In the Spring of 1603, Martin Pring and William Brown, under the direction and by the permission of Sir Walter Raleigh, in two vessels, one of fifty tons, and one of twenty-six, with thirty men in the largest, and thirteen in the smaller, fell in with the coasts of North Virginia, in latitude 43; and thence, sailing south, visited Cape Cod, and passed round it to latitude 41, where they landed and remained several weeks, in the month of June, and then returned to England.

Captain George Weymouth was employed by Lord Arundel to visit North Virginia in 1605, who discovered the coast in latitude 41. 30. And Henry Challons was sent out soon after to make discoveries, but was attacked by the Spaniards, and his vessel and property confiscated. Afterwards, in 1614, Captain John Smith, whose exploits in Virginia have been often celebrated, and who had been a great traveller in the extreme eastern parts of Europe, sailed along the coasts of Massachusetts, and made more discoveries of the islands and harbors than any one had done before. On his return, soon after, and at his suggestion, the name of New England was given to this part of the country, hitherto called North Virginia, by the Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles I. king of Great Britain. There is no proof, however, that Smith entered many of the harbors, in this voyage. Four years

later Thomas Dermer was sent to the coasts of New England, by Sir Ferdinando Gorges, in a ship of two hundred tons; and with him, Squanto, (or Tisquantum,) an Indian native of the country, who had been decoyed and carried to England by one Hunt, formerly in the employment

of Captain Smith. It is probable, that in his second voyage, in 1619, Captain Dermer visited Boston and Plymouth harbors. The country was then thinly inhabited; it being only two or three years after the prevalence of a very mortal disease among the natives.

The great design of these voyages was the acquisition of

« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »