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or had resort to the Old Testament, and Then, because it was known that Brewgave their sons such names as Jonathan and ster held some government appointment, Zachary. We may add that the name and that Scrooby was a post-town, Mr. Yankee declares him an Englishman, the Hunter betook himself to the accounts of word having arisen during the colonial the postmaster-general, in hope of diswars, as a corruption of the French covering some mention of Brewster as \'Anglais, by Indians unable to pronounce living at Scrooby, in further corroborathe letter 1.
tion of his theory. The result was a disThe English part of the history of the covery corroborative in the fullest sense first colonists of New England, the found of the whole fact, and at the same time ers of New Plymouth, as here narrated, tending to throw a flood of new light on was discovered only a few years ago by its details : it was found that William Mr. Hunter, in the manner following & Brewster held for many years, at Scrooby, It had been said by Governor Bradford, the office of postmaster. that the Separatists in England were of the research and discover more corroboseveral towns and villages, some in Not- rative and illustrative details now became tinghamshire, some in Lincolnshire, and easy, and in this way the whole of the some in Yorkshire, where they bordered first chapter in the story of the Pilgrim nearest together. Of the members of Fathers, even to the connection between his own church he writes elsewhere, that Scrooby men and the Virginia company they ordinarily met at William Brewster's established naturally through the family house, which was a manor of the bishop's. of Sandys—a narrative of great historiPutting these statements together, Mr. cal importance—was brought suddenly to Hunter made research, and found that light. The whole story admirably shows there was only a single episcopal manor how, by the study of apparent trifles, near the borders of the three counties antiquarians may find their way to hidden named, Scrooby to wit, ancient possession treasure. of the Archbishop of York. So far good.
THE Travels of the Honorable Miss Amelia M. Messrs. DEWITT & DAVENPORT publish a spirited Murray in the United States, Canada and Cuba, re- tale, by the daughter of Rev. Dr. Dowling, of Philacently republished by Messrs. PUTNAM & Co., are delphia, entitled, “Kate Weston; or, to Will and to remarkably chiefly for the attention which the author Do." It is a temperance tale, and sets forth the evils pays to the botany of this country, and for the favor- of intoxication in a variety of striking aspects. In able views taken of the subject of slavery. The its conception and style it is a work of extraordinary tone of her remarks contrasts strikingly with that of power and interest. other English tourists, though perhaps quite as far from a just estimate. Easy and familiar in style, as
Messrs. TICKNOR & FIELDS have issued a new and befits the form of letters, good-natured and disposed beautiful work from the pen of Grace Greenwood, so to be pleased, her book gives a flattering impression, long silent, entitled, "A Forest Tragedy, and other which will not be without good effect upon the aris. Tales.". The principal story, from which the volume tocratic circles in which the author moves.
takes its title, is a powerfully-wrought picture of bor.
der life, in which the traits of Indian characterare deThe Messrs. CARTER have reproduced a work of picted with fearless pencil. The other tales are moro scholarship and judgment in Dr. Eadre's Commentary agreeable, and are full of the piquancy and grace on the Epistle to the Colossians. Dr. E. is one of which have made this author so popular. Her reäpthe finest Biblical scholars of the age, and has given pearance in literature after so long a silence will be a very happy exemplification of solid evangelical quite welcome. commentary-learned, critical, yet cordial and full of instruction. It is designed for the Greek text, but is The issues of the London press have not been very not unfitted for the general Bible reader.
numerous or important during the month. Among
those published the following are the most notice- numerous Examples. By P. G. Tait and the late W. able:
J. Steele. 8vo, pp. 304. Atlas to Alison's History of Europe. Constructed Lady Mary and her Nurse; or, a Peep into the and arranged under the direction of Sir Archibald Canadian Forest. By Mrs. Traill. Alison.
Widow Bedott Papers. With an Introduction by Annals of Christian Martyrdom--Ancient Martyrs. Alice B. Neal. By the Author of " Lives of the Popes.” 18mo, pp. Health and Comfort: their Attainment and Pres. 384.
ervation, Intended for Distribution among the Annie Leslie; or, the Little Orphan. 18mo. Working Classes. By George Wyld, M.A.
Selections of the Best Specimens of German Poet- A Dictionary of Latin Epithets, Classified accord ry, for the use of Schools and Private Instruction. ing to their English Meaning; being an Appendix By H. Apel. 12mo, pp. 452.
to the “Latin Gradus." By C. D. Yonge. Words in Season: a Series of Practical Homilies Inside Sebastopol, and Experiences in the Camp; for every Sabbath Morning and Evening in a being a Narrative of a Journey to the Crimea by the Year, specially adapted to the Young. 32mo, pp. way of Gibraltar, Malta, and Constantinople, and 315.
back by the way of Turkey, Italy, and France, acThe Papal Conspiracy Exposed; or, the Romish complished in the Autumn and Winter of 1855. Corporation Dangerous to the Political Liberty and The Force and Importance of Habit: a New. Social Interests of Man. By Edwd. Beecher, D.D. Year's Address. By the Rev. John Angell James.
A Comparative Grammar of the Sanscrit, Zend, Meister Karl's Sketch-Book, By C. G. Leland. Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Gothic, German, and Scla- The Poetical Works of Henry Wadsworth Longvonic Languages. By Professor F. Bopp. 3 vols. 8vo, fellow. New and complete edition ; including the pp. 1360.
Song of Hiawatha. Commentaries on the Common Law: designed as Married Life: its Duties, Trials, and Joys. By the Introductory to its Study. By Herbert Brown. Rev. W. B. Mackenzie. 18mo, pp. 130. Byron's Poetical Works. In 6 vols. Vol. 4, 8vo, History of Christian Churches and Sects, from the
Earliest Ages of Christianity. By the Rev. J. B The Nature of the Atonement, and its Relation to Marsden. 2 vols., 8vo. Remission of Sins and Eternal Life. By John M'Leod Remarkable Providences illustrative of the Earlier Campbell. 8vo, pp. 308.
Days of American Colonization. By Increase MaHistory of Scotland and Ireland. By Miss Corner. ther. Large paper edition. 8vo.
The Golden Lectures: Forty-five Sermons delivThe Rise and Progress of the English Constitution. ered at St. Margaret's Church, Lothbury. By the By E. S. Creasy.
Rev. Henry Melvill. The Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage of Great The Life of Hannah More; with Selections from Britain and Ireland for 1856. By Robert P. Dod. her Correspondence. 12mo, pp. 710.
Lectures on Great Men. By the late Frederick The Poetical Works of William Drummond, of Myers. Hawthornden. 12mo, pp. 366.
The Life of Sir Wm. Pepperrell, Bart., the only The Prison of Weltevreden, and a Glance at the native of New-England who was created a Baronet East Indian Archipelago. By Walter M. Gibson. during our connection with the Mother Country. By Illustrated from Original Sketches. 8vo, pp. 495. Usher Parsons.
The Doctrines and Difficulties of the Christian The Influence of Occupation on Health and Life: Faith contemplated from the Standing-Ground afford with a Remedy for Attaining the Utmost Length of ed by the Catholic Doctrine of the Being of our Lord Life compatible with the Present Constitution of Man Jesus Christ: being the Hulsean Lectures for 1855. By Joel Pinney. By the Rev. Harvey Goodwin. 8vo, pp. 266. The Vision and Creed of Piers Ploughman, Ed.
Trees and their Nature; or, the Bud and its At ited from a Contemporary Manuscript; with an His. tributes: in a Series of Letters to his Son. By Alex. torical Introduction, Notes, and Glossary. By Thom. ander Harvey, M.D. 12mo, pp. 260.
as Wright, M.A. 2 vols. 12mo. Principles of Currency: Means of Insuring Uni. The Scriptural Doctrine of the Influence of the formity of Value and Adequacy of Supply. By Ed. Holy Ghost, as illustrated by the Analysis of Nature. win Hill. 8vo, pp. 216.
(Burnell Prize Essay for 1853.) By Thomas Wade Japan and Around the World: an Account of Powell. 8vo. Three Visits to the Japanese Empire. By L. W. Rose Clark. By Fanny Fern. Spalding. 8vo, 8 illustrations.
The Table Talk of John Selden; with a BiographA Treatise on the Dynamics of a Particle; with ical Preface and Notes. By S. W. Singer, M.Å
We intend to throw together a few par- tions, therefore, were those of the step-son ticulars relative to his life, which may be of a bricklayer, living in a lane near interesting to those whose leisure does not Charing-Cross. There seems no reason to permit such retrospective studies, and to doubt that his step father and mother did convey incidentally such a view of his him all the justice they could, though in a character as those who are familiar with poor way. They sent him to an ordinary his works may compare with that which school in the parish of St. Martin's-in-thethey have themselves formed.
Fields, within which they resided ; and, Born in 1573, Jonson was the junior of when he was older, some friend, who proShakspeare by nine years. By birth he bably knew his father, got him admitted may be said to have been a Londoner; for to Westminster School, of which the great Westminster, within whose precincts he Camden was then one of the masters. If first saw the light, was already linked to it was not Camden himself who got him the city by the fast-filling Strand. He had admitted to the school, he at least found Scotch blood in him, however, for his a friend in this great scholar, to whom, in grandfather was a Johnstone of Annan- subsequent years, when both were better dale, who had come into England in the known, he was never tired of showing his reign of Henry VIII. This Johnstone's attachment. son, Anglicized into a Jonson, had had mis
“ Camden! most reverend head, to whom I owe fortunes under Mary, and had become a
All that I am in arts, all that I know." minister of the English Reformed Church. He died a month before his son Benjamin These words, in one of his epigrams, are was born; and his widow, two years not a mere compliment. Schoolmasters afterwards, married a master-bricklayer, were schoolmasters in those days; Camnamed Fowler. Ben's earliest recollec- den was a king among schoolmasters, a
training under whom was, probably, so * The Works of Ben Jonson. With a Biographical
far as classical instruction went, a pretty Memoir. By WILLIAM GIFFORD. A New Edition. efficient education in itself; and vast as London : Moxon. 1853.
Jonson's learning in the classical depart VOL. XXXVII.-NO. IV.
ment is known afterwards to have been, it of writers capable of producing new plays seems likely that the foundation of it as fast as they were wanted. As the sole was entirely laid in Westminster School. end in view was to get ready such pieces Even if we admit the authority of Aubrey as would please when acted, (the subseand Fuller, for supposing that, after leav- quent publication of the play being but ing school, he went to Cambridge, we rarely thought of,) it was comparatively seem bound, by the tenor of his own indifferent to both authors and managers statements to Drummond of Hawthorn- whence the materials were obtained, and den, to suppose that his stay at the Uni- whether they were borrowed or original. versity was but short. He was taken To furbish up a new play out of old ones from his studies, as he told Drummond, to which had served their day, or to bring be put to a trade. The trade chosen was out at a short notice a new play on a naturally thåt of his step-father; and he subject already made popular at another must have worked at it for some time, for theatre, was often all that was required. the name of “ bricklayer" stuck to him. Hence it was not uncommon for proprieAccording to Fuller, "he helped in the tors to arrange that two or three, or even building of the new structure of Lincoln's five or six, of “their authors” should all Inn, when, having a trowel in one hand, set to work at once on a projected play, he had a book in his pocket.” At last, so as to get it done in time. Here, then, rather than wear the bricklayer's apron was a field for literary talent, fulfilling longer, he enlisted, and went to serve with very much the same purpose for the Lonthe Queen's army in Flanders. He served, don of that day that newspaper and periat least, one campaign, and in such a way odical writing fulfils for the London of as to have some personal feats of courage this. Nor were there wanting men to to boast of. It was probably about 1593, occupy it. Ever since the disarrangement when he was nineteen or twenty years of of ranks in English society caused by the age, that he returned to England. He Reformation, a literary class had been seems to have had but two alternatives forming itself under difficulties out of the after doing so-bricklaying again, or liter- stray men of education and ability who ature. He chose the latter; and, taking were then floated loose from the older and up his abode with his mother, now again somewhat crippled professions; and this a widow by the death of his step-father, class had a natural tendency to centralize he began his forty-four years' life as a itself in London. For a time the press literary man about town.
had furnished the members of the new To be a literary man about town then class with a precarious means of livelihood. meant but one thing—to have a connection Translation, as Gifford remarks, was one with the theatres either solely as a play- great resource; and, trusting to the taste writer, or, better still, as both play-writer for reading, then beginning to be considerand actor. To meet the demand for able, young men from the colleges, who amusement among a population hardly had come to London as adventurers, set amounting to 200,000 persons, there were themselves, with extraordinary assiduity, already several regular or established to the translation of romances and poems theatres, such as the Blackfriars, the Rose out of the Italian and Spanish. From in Bankside, and the theatre in Holywell translation to imitation, or adaptation, Lane, Shoreditch; besides many other was an easy step. Very soon the press minor theatres, or rather rooms for scenic began to pour forth tales and poems liberrepresentation, scattered through the ally varied from the Italian and Spanish town, in inns and the like, and supported originals. But the rise of the stage, and by the classes who now attend our modern the elevation of the business connected singing and dancing saloons. The fre- with it, into a flourishing profession, quency with which new plays were pro- opened up a new prospect to these strugduced at these theatres seems also to have gling sons of literature. The press, by far exceeded any thing now known. On means of which one could only hope to an average, the audiences at each of the reach scattered readers at their own firegreater theatres required a new play every sides, offered no such attractions and no eighteen days. To cater for this appetite such emoluments as the theatres, which on the part of the public, the managers gathered all sorts of persons together, and proprietors of theatres were obliged night after night, and submitted them, to keep continually about them a retinue amid the excited conditions of glare, orgy, and scenic effect, to the direct influence one of its duties, and organized companies of the author's words and fancies. Ac- of players under its own inspection; and cordingly, as by a kind of common im- thus was formed that little busy world of pulse, a number of university men threw actors, dramatic authors, theatre propriethemselves, about or somewhat before the tors, author-actors, and actor-proprietors, year 1580, into the service of the stage, which whirled in the middle of London bent on rescuing it from the coarse and society during the last ten or fifteen years untaught buffooneries of the hostlers, tap- of the reign of Elizabeth, drawing almost sters, discharged servants, and others, who all the literary talent, and much of the had till then had it all to themselves. riot and recklessness of the time, into its These rude earlier practitioners of the vortex. drama were, at all events, driven to the The poor bricklayer seems to have hung lower places of the dramatic world; while for some time on the skirts of this world, the higher places, in more immediate con wistfully looking into it, rather than adnection with the chief theatres, were occu- mitted to a share of its prizes. The prupied by such speculating managers and dent Shakspeare, confining himself to one men of business as Henslowe, and James theatre and one company, was already a Burbage, who had gradually taken to this conspicuous man, attacked by the envy of mode of investing their money, and by some on account of his rapid
and astonishsuch scholarly writers as Kyd, Lodge, ing success as a play-writer, but on the Greene, Lyly, Peele, Nash, Chettle, Mun- whole a favorite with his fellows, and day, and Marlowe, in association with them. growing rich on his triple profits as author, These founders of the regular English actor, and shareholder. Even others who drama were, almost without exception, had nothing but their authorship to trust young men who had had a university educa- to, and who, instead of writing uniformly tion, and who, while writing for the stage, for one theatre as Shakespeare did, wrote continued to write poems and other liter- for any theatre that would accept their ary pieces of a non-dramatic character. plays, were in the receipt of earnings Very soon, however, there were others, which Jonson might envy. After 1592, not exactly college-bred men, but men £5 for a play (equivalent to about £25 with the literary faculty and the spirit of now) seems to have been about the aversocial adventure strong in them, who, age sum paid by such managers as Henseither led by magnetic attraction, or lowe to authors of good reputation; but driven by the force of circumstances, the standard of price was gradually rising, attached themselves to this metropolitan and before the close of Elizabeth's reign, group of authors, actors, and managers. as much as £10 or £12 was given by Such a man was Shakspeare, the son of Henslowe for a single play. Small remu. the ex-alderman of Stratford-on-Avon, neration as, even after allowing for the who came up to town in 1585 or 1586, at difference of value, this would now be the age of twenty-two or thereby, to push considered, busy writers, otherwise conhis fortune. Such a man also, a little later, nected with the theatres, contrived to as we have seen, in point of time, was our make it answer. But this was a height of soldier-bricklayer, Ben Jonson, just re- fortune to which Jonson had to work his turned from Flanders. Later or contem- way. Through what obscure toils as a porary adherents to the same increasing hack-author and would-be actor, connected cluster—some from the unlearned, but with some of the minor London playmore from the learned class, and some houses, or even with strolling companies, also from among those seniors of Shak- he did' work his way to it, must remain speare and Jonson, who had hitherto kept matter for conjecture. Our first distinct aloof from the stage, and been known only recognition of his whereabouts, after his as general poets, writers, and translators- betaking himself to the stage, is in 1596–8. were Chapman, Drayton, Daniel, Webster, by which time he had so far succeeded as Middleton, Decker, Wilson, Marston, to be in connection with Henslowe, then Hathway, Tailor, Tourneur, and Hey- the potentate among theatrical managers, wood. New actors, also, with the Bur- and the employer of full one half of the bages and Kemps at their head, sprang dramatic authors of London. Henslowe's up to perform the plays so prolifically principal theatre was the Rose in Bankproduced; new theatres were built ; the side; but he may also have had an interest Court made the patronage of the stage in a small theatre called the Curtain,