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from his own particular region of research., his position is no longer tenable. He He has shown that there are in some ver- writes : tebrated creatures rudiments of
“The existence of a body of creatures, capable merary limbs beyond the two ordinary pairs, which have never been developed vation as this, is
, according to all that we can
of such a law, of such a trial, and of such an eleand 'matured in any existing, or extinct conceive, an object infinitely more worthy of the terrestrial creature, and he hence infers exertion of the Divine Power and Wisdom, in the the probable existence elsewhere of verte- creation of the Universe, than any number of brate forms of animal life, in which these planets occupied by creatures having no such lot, additional members are perfected and no such law, no such capacities, and no such rebrought into full operation and activity. sponsibilities. To say the least of it, this “train” of an. have urged to show that other animals, in com
Perhaps it may be said that all which we atomical “speculation” is as worthy of parison with man, are less worthy objects of creabeing followed to the end as those other tive design, may be used as an argument to prove trains which have led the anonymous es- that other planets are tenanted by men, or by moral sayist to his vitreous and aqueous balls or intellectual creatures like men; since,' if the and curdled light, to his abortive worlds creation of one world of such creatures exalts so and his universal chaos. For ourselves, highly our views of the dignity and importance of we frankly confess, that in the absence of the plan of creation, the belief in many such worlds
must elevate still more our sentiments of admiration any more authoritative guide, the reason and reverence of the greatness and goodness of the ing of the essayist would incline us so Creator ; and must be a belief, on that account, much the more to cast in our lot with the to be accepted and cherished by pious minds. comparative anatomist. We might calm- “To this we reply, that we can not think ourly bear the sense of having no other com- selves authorized to assert cosmological doctrines, panionship in the wide universe than our selected arbitrarily by ourselves, on the ground of own pleasant earth affords, but we can
their exalting our sentiments of admiration and not brave the chaos that is here set before reverence for the Deity, when the weight of all the us. Instinctively we shrink from the
evidence we can obtain respecting the constitution
of the universe is against them.” (P. 367.) lumps which have flown from the potter's wheel of the Great Worker; the shred- Enough has been said to show that coils which, in the working, sprang from when science is looked at in the commonhis mighty lathe; the sparks which dart- sense, practical way, instead of in the esed from his awful anvil when the solar sayist's “somewhat different view,” the system lay incandescent thereon; the weight of the evidence derived from what curls of vapor which rose from the great is known of the physical constitution of the cauldron of creation when its elements universe is not against these metaphysical were separated.” If all readers were con- considerations, and that therefore they stituted like ourselves, this Essay, para- must be allowed to make their full and undoxically named “Of the Plurality of interrupted impression, according to their Worlds,” would be found to have done own innate momenta. In truth, the existmore for the cause of “Plurality” than ence of a body of intellectual and moral the united labors of Copernicus and Gali- beings on the earth does seem so much leo, Huyghens and Lalande, Chalmers and more worthy of the exertion of Divine Fontenelle.
Creative Power than that of mere brute But whilst physical reasons," appealed creatures, that it is hardly possible to to by the essayist to support his notions conceive the endless array of stupendous of extra-terrestrial chaos, thus, instead of spheres not to be so worthily filled. But answering the appeal, really increase a not only so; for this line of argument is hundred-fold the strength of the proba- so comprehensive and influential, that it bility that the remote spheres of the uni- applies as aptly to the abstract question verse are dwelling-places for diversified of vitality, as it does to that of intelligent life, important considerations of a meta- and moral existence. The existence of a physical kind also present themselves as body of living beings on the earth seems very powerful arguments in the same di- to the philosophic observer so worthy an rection. And indeed the essayist himself exertion of creative wisdom and power, seems fully sensible of the force of these that it is hardly possible to conceive the considerations, for he admits, after a fash- like exertion not to have been made ion, that if his physical defence fails him, wherever there is a similar material theatre basking in sunlight-matter is so ob- possess the same gravitating attributes, viously, in man's experience of nature, and emit luminous vibratory streams, destined for, and employed in, the pro- which, after traversing the immensity duction and support of living organization. which separates them from the earth, are The surface of man's earth is so crowded there obedient to the same laws with the with a limitless diversity of organic con- light-beams of the sun and of artificial iltrivance—there is such profusion every lumination. The rays of the nebulæ and where of moving and feeling creatures stars are collected by the lenses of the species are multiplied upon species in such telescope, through their refracting powers, countless thousands-generations succeed into visual spectra and images, just as the to generations in such an endless repeti- rays of the sun, or of lamp-light are. But tion—there is such an avidity for vitality in this vast system of related bodies the upon every possible habitable portion of region under our direct observation is the mundane sphere--the Great Designer found to be crowded with organized forms. of Nature's scheme has so manifestly Matter and light in it seem to be fulfilling willed that that portion of the material the one sole commission of supporting viuniverse within the scope of human ob- tality. The inference is plain. Matter servation should be teeming with living and light in other less conspicuous regions, things, that it is improbable in the extreme being still under the same laws, must be the same designer should have left blank working to a similar purpose, and tending and desolate the other wide regions of to a similar end. substantial capacity, which are equally The essayist remarks, that if any one fitted to be the seat of similar develop- holds the opinion, on whatever evidence, ments, which are unquestionably kindred that there are other regions than this parts of one physically connected system, earth in which God has subjects and servand which in extent transcend the terres- ants, he does not breathe a syllable trial surface as millions upon millions in against such a belief; he only contends untold immensity transcend a unit. The that it is a rash and unadvised proceeding, essayist may feel that one theatre of unwarranted by religion, and at variance moral action is “a sufficient centre of with all that science teaches, to place innumerable hosts of stars and planets ;" those other extra-human spheres of Dibut in avowing this feeling he lays him- vine government in the planets and in the self open to the retort that the Creator of stars; and that “a belief in the Divine all things obviously has not felt so too, government of other races of spiritual seeing that he has placed in that one creatures besides the human race, and in theatre "corals and madrepores, fishes Divine ministrations committed to such and creeping things,” as well as moral beings, can not be connected with our agents. He who has fashioned the mole physical and astronomical views of the and the beetle, in order that even the nature of the stars and the planets, withmouldering soil of that moral theatre may out making a mixture altogether inconhave its sentient tenants; who has formed gruous and incoherent--a mixture of the whale and the clio, in order that the what is material and what is spiritual, half-frozen depths of the Arctic Sea may adverse alike to sound religion and to have their inhabitants; and who has made sound philosophy.” Fully agreeing in the feathered bird and winged insect, the this remark, we can not sufficiently wonder tortuous serpent and the four-handed that so intelligent a writer and thinker as monkey, in order that the otherwise im- the author of this Essay obviously is, penetrable recesses of the tropical forest should, with such a principle in his mind, may not be without their abundant popu- have undertaken to show that the teachlation; can never have left such spheres ing of religion suggests the wisdom” of as the magnificent orb of Jupiter, which not admitting the Plurality of Worlds is more than fourteen hundred times upon scientific grounds; for in the atlarger than the earth, or those solar orbs tempt to do this, he could only expect, that have surfaces thousands of times according to his own premise, to produce larger than the earth's, unoccupied. The an incongruous and incoherent mixture universe consists of myriads of material that many must deem alike adverse to objects, which are, notwithstanding the sound religion and sound philosophy. vastness of their numbers, all related parts Our respect for the literary skill and inof one comprehensive scheme, for they tellectual power of the essayist constrains us deeply to regret that he has committed perfected suns; it does not establish the himself, even anonymously, to a task in position that the planets can not be inhabwhich his skill and power have of neces-ited worlds, either in the sense of their sity signally failed. The Essay “Of the being seats of simple organic vitality, or Plurality of Worlds” does not show that of moral existence; and, in its own pages, the majority of the nebulæ are not star- it incidentally suggests metaphysical confirmaments; it does not prove that the siderations which are unanswerably opgeneral host of the fixed stars are not posed to its own argument,
From the Edectio Review.
L A D YR U S S E L L . *
HISTORIANS generally have recorded quote the words of a great essayist, bethe deeds of heroes, but of the devoted- comes subjective, one sees in all that · ness and gentleness of women they have recorded past still only the same nature, taken but slight account. They have con- the same humanity in its contradictory sidered it too much their province to nar- developments. Thus, from the hour when rate the ambitious projects of kings, the the first pyramid was commenced, until intrigues and crimes of men seeking their to-day, man is identical. That which has own aggrandizement by any means—the been done, will be repeated in the present horrors of war, the rise and fall of states, and the future. If the evil shall reäppear, the consolidation of nationalities, and the so also shall the good. conflict of contradictory principles, which Few women are comparable with the have their embodiment in monarchical wife of the unfortunate William Russell ; and popular institutions; but they record and it may be hoped, from the advance the names and life-deeds of but few wo- of good principles, and from the general men, and these, for the most part, are of progress of mankind, that evil times, such that sterner mould and of that ferocious as those in which she lived, will never recharacter which can be associated only turn. In her mournful story are recorded painfully with our thoughts of the gentler those noble characteristics, which are
The characters of Cleopatra, Julia, generally depicted only on the pages of Messalina, Catharine de Medici
, the Eng: romance. In her they were actual, the lish and Scotch Marys, show darkly amid strength and beauty of her life—not only the memorials of the generations passed an enduring self-denial, an entire devotion away. It is painful to think they were to the memory of her murdered lord, and women. Herodius and the Magdalene, to the well-being of their children, but Drusilla and Lydia appear darkly and that persistent goodness of heart, that enbrightly in the brief but sublime narra- tire religiousness of conduct, equal in her tives of the early Church, as if those fault- happiness and in her sorrow, which less memorials intentionally exhibited the ultimate possibility of vice and virtue,
- through the ages, cruelty and kindness in feminine charac
Living in historic pages, ter. Time gives intensity to the linea
Brighter grows, and gleams immortal' ments alike of the hero and the villain; and if it be true that there is properly no life shines out amid the troublous dark
Beautifully the story of Lady Russell's history, only biography, if all history, to
ness of the reigns of Charles II. and his
successor—that evil period of national * L'Amour dans le Mariage. (Love in Marriage. transition from the cruel despotism of the By M. Guizot. Second Edition. Paris & Co.) Par M. Guizota Deuxième Edition. Paris : Stuarts towards constitutional governLibrairie de L. Hachette et Cie. Pp. 92. 1855. ment. Born in 1636, and related to the il
lustrious Ruvigny family, who were driven sent to languishing beauties and eager from France by religious persecution, she rivals—the gossip, follies, and frivolities early learned, not only those grand truths in the voluptuous court of the “muttonthat man is responsible for his faith to his eating king,” whose words were never Maker alone, and that it were better to foolish, and
whose deeds were never wise. die than to live enslaved, but also to feel How these letters evince, also, her pasa perfect sympathy with the misfortunes sionate love, carefulness, and appreheneven of strangers, and thus, as if in an- sions for her absent lord; and, most of ticipation of her future, to know the sub-all, the suspicion that such complete joy limity of patient endurance. Married, as theirs could not but some day have in her eighteenth year, to Lord Vaughan, its cloud, such peace its storm! the elder son of the Earl of Carberry, she became a widow at the end of two years, " What can I pray for," she writes in one of and shortly after the decease of her hus- these charming epistles, “ but that God, if it seem band, her father died, leaving his vast good to him, may continne to me all these joys? property to be shared by herself and sister, And if he decide it otherwise
, that he may give the Lady Elizabeth Noel. In 1670, Lady wise arrangements and to his sovereign provi
me strength to submit without murmuring to his Vaughan became the wife of Lord William dence, keeping a grateful heart for those years of Russell, and it is from this epoch that she perfect happiness which I have already received is known to the world, sharing the for- from him. He knows, better than we, at what tunes of the ill-starred and time-honored moment we have obtained and enjoyed enough patriot, the victim of a king without vir- here below. That which I earnestly implore of tue and without heart. Rare in this world his compassion is, that, no matter which of us of ours, amid the antagonism of rival in- without hope of finding his beloved one again.
first depart, the other may not despair, as if terests, and the selfishness of the multi- Let us joyfully hope that we may live together tude, is love like that of Rachel Russell, until a good old age; if not, let us not fear but without mistrust or fear, a pure passion, that God will sustain us in the trial with which without intemperance and without dis- he may afflict us. Let us daily pray to God cord, and which, as M. Guizot writes, in that it may be so, and we shall fear nothing. harmony with all aspirations human and Death is, it is true, the greatest evil, and which divine, to them who enjoy it, is Paradise our immoderate fear of death, both for our beloved
troubles our nature the most ; let us overcome regained. Tranquil, modest, and su- and for ourselves ; we shall live then with tranquil premely virtuous, loving ardently and hearts. innocently her husband, whose heart beat high with patriotic ardor and in his hope Nearly eleven years had passed away that, one day, he should see his fatherland since this letter was written, and the prosperous because free; and that it dreaded storm broke at last; the serene might be his glorious life-work to estab- sky became densely clouded; but, even lish reasonable liberty on a lasting basis ; amid the murky air, the star of hope rewith a truly Christian soul, warped by no mained to allure the patient mourner to bigotry, and exhibiting always an exalted brighter worlds. The tyranny of Charles charity to those who did not think as she II. had become insupportable to all intelthought, Lady Russell appears before us ligent lovers of their country. The monwith peculiar grandeur and character. arch, himself a mere pensioner of the How tender, and yet how touching are ambitious French king, was popish at her letters, those especially of her earlier heart, and, even under the cloak of a wedded life, sent to her husband during sublime hyprocrisy, was unable entirely his occasional absences from home, with to conceal his predilection from the vigitheir scanty intelligence of such news of lant men who sighed for the virtue and the day as could reach her—that there the heroic spirit which passed away when had been, it was rumored, a great sea- Oliver died. The standing army was a fight off Solbay, in which Ruyter was van burden and a terror to men who painfully quished, but with grievous loss—that the remembered the_fields of Naseby and Duke of York's marriage was broken off-Worcester; the Parliament was corrupt that the courtship between Miss Ogle and and servile; and the government weak, Tom Howard's son continued—and that despotic, and mercenary. Lords Hollis Tom Wharton was looking out for another and Russell, with the hope of remedying mistress; such chit-chat as the “Morning these evils, which perilled the very existPost,” in our own day, delights to pre-ence of the State, had entered into a clandestine correspondence with the That were to degrade themselves from French ambassador; but Barillon's letters patriots to assassins. In an evil hour, abundantly prove that their conduct was Russell, Essex, Algernon Sidney, and actuated only by patriotism. The time Hampden, admitted Lord Howard to was come, when serious questions were their counselsma man of a fickle nature to be asked by them and by all serious and malignant heart, a hasty conspirator men : How was the royal tyranny most and a ready traitor. Howard, fearing effectually to be resisted? How was the for his own safety if the conspiracy failed, nation to attain to liberty? Would it be or desirous to build his fortune upon the well to invite foreign cooperation? That ruin of the confederates, secretly went to the majority of the Whig party, and their the king at the apartments of the Duchadherents, would fight side by side with ess of Portsmouth, and informed him of the troops of the Grand Monarque, even all which the misplaced confidence of the could these effect a landing on the Eng- patriots had permitted him to learn. Inlish shores, was to the last degree impro- telligence of the discovery was immedibable. Better to live under the despot- ately conveyed to the conspirators. Lord ism of a heartless and profligate English Shaftesbury fled into Holland ; Essex was king, than to obtain freedom by the inter- placed in the Tower, where he speedily vention of a foreign and a popish power. destroyed himself; Lord Russell was arLord Russell, sincere, earnest, inexperi- rested, and taken before the council. enced, and guided always by principles of The king presided, keenly watching the high honor, and by nobility of mind, could noble prisoner, and already resolved that not counsel freedom for the fatherland by he should not escape, if it were possible such means. But was the old spirit entirely to destroy him. The examination was quelled, which had kindled so great a con- long and perplexing, and at its close Rusflagration against the first Charles ? If a sell was committed to the Tower. On conspiracy could be formed among some entering that gloomy fortress—the dunof the wealthier and more popular nobles, geon-home through weary years, and at would it not succeed? To establish the last the grave, of many a gallant heartCommonwealth again was out of the he said to his valet : “They will have my question, but it were not difficult, per- life; the devil is unloosed.” Fifteen days haps, to form a strong and lasting consti- elapsed before the unfortunate nobleman tutional government, by which a king was brought to trial, his wife, the while, should rule in harmony with the wishes doing the utmost to serve him, using of the people. Was there not every thing every effort to rescue him from that last to justify an armed resistance? The Par- evil she feared so much. On July 13, liament had been corrupted, and the en- 1683, Lord Russell was brought to trial. tire state was at the feet of a debauched "Pemberton, the Chief Justice of the ruler and his profligate harlots. Russell Common Pleas, who presided, was a hurevolved these weighty matters frequently mane, but a weak and vacillating, man. -alas ! without consulting his noble wife, The counsel for the crown against the whose counsels, perhaps, had overborne prisoner were Sawyer and Jefferies, the his sterner purpose. But his resolution latter of whom has earned an immortality was formed, to overthrow the hated ty- of infamy—“a man,” as Mr. Macaulay ranny by the armed hand. Conspirators, has described him, “constitutionally prone like gamblers, calculate on a theory of pro- to insolence and to the angry passionsbabilities entirely their own, but with too the most consummate bully ever known little regard to the chances of failure, and in the profession.” The sheriffs, either with too
much placed upon those of success. commanded by the court to do so, or eaThat success was far from hopeless, may be ger to obtain substantial proofs of the assumed from the fact that noblemen such king's favor, had packed the jury. No as Essex and Russell, who had so much modern jury would have returned a verto lose if the attempt miscarried, had not dict of guilty on the evidence of such engaged in it but with a prospect of ac- witnesses as Howard and Rumsey; but, complishing their lofty purpose. No one in those evil days, judge and counsel alike at all acquainted with the character of prosecuted the unhappy victims of royal these two illustrious men, could suppose hatred or mistrust. The hall of trial was that they were connected with the minor so crowded that the lawyers complained plot for the assassination of the king. they had no place in which to sit down.