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tal and skill when energetically directed. Workmen of Europe. This author deWhat capital, without well-directed skill, clares that the masons are, or have been can effect they know pretty well from ex- —for they are deteriorating, he saysperience at home. The architectural and models of prudence and sobriety. ''hey structural achievements of Paris are on a travel up from La Creuse or La Haute much larger scale than those of our Houses Vienne-as the Irish haymaker visits Engof Parliament, for instance, yet have taken land in summer-during la belle saison, not a hundredth-perhaps (for we do not and return to their homes when frost foryet see the end of Westminster palace bids work. There are at present about a looming in the distance) not a thousandth, hundred and fifty thousand stone-cutters part of the time.
and stone-setters in Paris, working with We must repeat, however, that build- unflagging zeal, to earn from two francs ing of the first class is naturally an easier and a half to five francs a-day; to live operation in France than in England. after so much only of the communist prinThe neighborhood of Paris, the banks of ciple as promotes economy; and to turn the Loire, and other large districts, abound their faces finally homeward with light with a soft, tractable stone of dazzling hearts and heavy purses, after they have whiteness, which cuts with little more converted Paris into a stone and sculpdifficulty than wood; hardening with age tured paradise. The masons never marry and exposure. Squared into cubes, and a Parisienne, and seldom contract unlawmoved with ease, on account of its com- ful unions. They live in large parties of paratively light specific gravity, this ma- twenty or thirty, called chambrées in one terial enables the French mason to pile room, for about thirty-eight francs each up his walls in half the time, and with a month for board and lodging; and soon three times the solidity, that an English save enough money to marry a woman of bricklayer can his; the neatness and beau- their own country; and to buy a house, ty of the work_being necessarily very land, and cows. They then stay at home, much greater. Even rough walls, built and send their sons as emigrant masons with small unhewn stone, (limousinage,) to Paris in their stead. The stone-cutters are more rapidly raised than brick walls, are in two factions, or societies; one called and are often faced and dressed with the the Children of Solomon; the other, the softer hewn stone. The new streets Children of Maitre Jacques. These work abound with the richest sculptured orna- together well enough, but do not live in ment; and this is chiefly executed after any thing like harmony. Whether the the shell has been run up: not delayed four hundred thousand persons now enpiecemeal in the sculptor's shed before gaged in the remaining branches of buildbeing set in.
ing and decorating, will devote their atBut, evil was foreseen in these rapid tention to barricades by-and-by, becomes building performances themselves. Phil. very doubtful when we know that the osophers of the St. Vitus's Backlane school ordinary absorption of labor in all the shrugged their shoulders, and predicted various building trades, including masonthat the concentration of a prodigious ry, usually keeps forty thousand operanumber of workmen whose employment tives out of mischief in Paris alone. could last for only a certain time, would We have said and seen that the best be a huge foundation for disturbance, kind of building is rapidly accomplished when the work was done and the work- in France; and only the best kind of men discharged. But, the prophets knew building is, as a rule, tolerated. There, a nothing about the character and circum- house is not a lath and plaster, or a brickstances of the French mason and stone- thick shell. The self-contained pride of cutter; necessarily the largest body of being a respectable house-keeper, (that is, operatives massed together in the capital. very often, of inhabiting an expensive They had not read about him in an article kennel “without lodgers," where every on the French Workman, which appeared sound in the kennels right and left is disin this miscellany,* nor M. le Play's ac- tinctly audible,) does not exist. The count of him in his prodigious (but not French, like the Scotch, live one above quite trustworthy) Monography of the another, under the same roof, in the sepa
rate floors of large houses; thus econo* Volume viii. page 302.
mizing space and money. In the principal
streets, the ground floor consists of a shop; stable close by. Does Monsieur Viteplume, then comes a mezzanine floor, or entresol; chef de bureau at the office of the Minister then a suite of rooms, on the same level, of the Interior, who lives in the floor which includes every convenience for a above, or Madame Bonnebonnet, the court family; and so up and up, to the highest milliner, who lives over him, or M. Burin, floor. This is usually divided into two the engraver, who resides nearer heaven sets of apartments, for residents of humble. by the altitude of one story, or Jules Cor
At the end of a pretty tesselated don the journeyman bootmaker, or Madepassage beside the shop, there is, at the moiselle Fleurschâteau, who each inhabit foot of the stairs, a snug little glass case the attic apartments-ever interfere with or lodge. Looking in, you will usually the rich baronet, or with one another? see a woman in a clean cap knitting a Never. When the cobbler meets the barostocking; a gilt pendule is certain to be net or the government official, or Madame ticking on the chimney-piece; and a clean or Mademoiselle, on the stairs, he claims bed ensconced in an alcove. This woman's them as neighbors only by a polite bow, husband-always dressed, in the morning, and “bon jour.” in a
cap and a coarse green apron-is one Even in the more private streets, few of the trustworthy and serviceable class people occupy a whole house. There is of domestic hall-keepers, or porters, for generally a court-yard surrounded by which Paris is remarkable. He polishes apartments, with one common entrance. the stairs, polishes the banisters, polishes Sometimes houses are clustered together every thing he can lay his hands upon, and round a larger court-yard, and called a has generally polished his own manners cité. In the poorer quarters, some of too. He is shrewd, steady, observant, and these cités, which have fallen in the genecan keep his own counsel withal. Every ral sweep, swarmed to a degree prejudicial floor pays him a small fixed monthly sti- to health; but their populations are now pend; and he is the guardian genius of distributed. the whole house. You ask his wife on This plan of residence of course necessiwhich floor your friend lives, and she, the tates large houses. There are no Prosportress on duty, takes all sorts of pains pect Places, Adeliza Terraces, or Paradise to make you understand her directions, if Rows in Paris; no small, mean, slightlyshe sees there be any dullness in your built streets; but every house is of suffiforeign apprehension. You ascend a flight cient dimensions to admit of architectural of oak stairs, (carefully, for the porter display. Even in the humblest parts of husband is polishing his way down from the town the houses are lofty and subthe top, vigorously,) by the help of a ban- stantial. ister supported by bronzed and gilt rails. When the stipulated five years shall Your friend's door opened, admits you to have elapsed, and the contemplated ima little hall, in which, when it is shut after provements shall be completed, Paris will you, you feel as much isolated from the be a marvel of improvement. And Lonworld as if you were standing on the mat don ? London will go on talking for and of the private residence of the honorable against improvement, for another halfDeputy of St. Vitus's Backlane, near Cam-century or so, and will remain, as to its berwell Green. Little drawing-rooms, general ugliness, pretty much what it has dining-room, study, nursery, bed-rooms, been for the last ten or a dozen years. kitchen, (and a back-stair leading to it, for The Hôtel de Ville in Paris and the Guildservants and tradesmen,) all furnished with hall in London are mightily expressive, an amount of sensible taste highly sug- in their vast differences, of the intelligence gestive to all the Deputies in all Camber- and spirit of the public bodies they reprewell. And all-horrid idea!-over a shop. sent. But then the corporation of Paris Yet your friend may be an English baro- really expresses Paris itself
, while the cornet or a foreign count, with thousands poration of London expresses nothing but a year, and with some capital horses in a obsolete pretenses and abuses.
LITTLE do people who are intimate with John Sharpe, whose courteousness and the large and noisy Glasgow of our own cookery attracted thither many lovers of times, with its hundred miles of streets creature-comforts. and nearly four hundred thousand living It is related of Professor Simson, that beings, think that barely a century ago he made an invariable rule, in his promethe same was a small, quiet town with a nades beyond the walls of Alma Materfew leading thoroughfares, and counting at that time as it came from the brain of its scarcely five-and-twenty thousand souls. original architect, instinct with the style Yet was Glasgow, even at that remote of Louis XIII. and Louis XIV.-of noting period, when a Highland lad could be each step he took from home; and alcommitted to prison for wearing “trouse,” though accosted by an acquaintance, was distinguished by its knots of social and never put out of his reckoning, from the congenial spirits, who, linked together habit he had acquired of repeating, during by a cabalistic name or a common cor- the pauses of conversation, the precise diality, met for politics, pastime, or plea- number of paces he had journeyed: sure, under the roof of some well-known hostelry—the only equivalent then known
"One Saturday, while proceeding towards Anfor the modern club, athenæum, or news- derston, counting his steps as he was wont, the room. It was a happy idea of Dr. Strang's suppose, was unacquainted with his singular pecu
professor was accosted by a person who, we may to snatch from oblivion the salient charac- liarity. At this moment the worthy geometrician teristics of a few of the more remarkable knew that he was just five hundred and seventyof these fraternities, connected as they are three paces from the college towards the spug parwith the history of a city which has al- lor which was anon to prove the rallying-point of ways been famous for the number and va- the hen-broth amateurs ; and when arrested in his riety of its social brotherhoods. There is progress kept repeating the mystic number, at no doubt that they constitute a very then known. 'I beg your pardon,' said the per
stated intervals, as the only species of pneumonics happy vehicle by which to depict the
sonage, accosting the professor ; ‘one word with ever-changing manners and habits of Glas- you, if you please. Most happy—573!' was gow society, and we shall avail ourselves the response. Nay,' rejoined the gentleman,
• of them also to convey some idea of what 'merely one question.' "Well,' added the prothe condition of that society has been at fessor-573! • You are really too polite, intervarious epochs.
rupted the stranger; but from your known acAmong the many fraternities which, quaintance with the late Dr. B>, and for the between the years 1750 and 1760, nightly ty of inquiring whether I am right in saying that or weekly congregated in the taverns then that individual left five hundred pounds to each situated in High-street, Galloway, and of his nieces?' Precisely !' replied the profesSaltmarket, the most distinguished was sor — 573! 'And there were only four nieces, held, not in the city, but in the village of were there not ? rejoined the querist. * Exact
The Anderston, where a club was formed by !y! said the mathematician — 573 ! Dr. Robert Simson, of mathematical me- stranger, at the last repetition of the mystic mory, a few years after the Rebellion of sound, stared at the professor, as if he were mad,
and muttering sarcastically .573 !' made a hasty Forty-five, and bearing the name of the obeisance and passed on. The professor, seeing village in which it met, and which pos- the stranger's mistake, hastily advanced another sessed at that time an excellent hostelry, step, and cried after him, 'No, sir, four, to be kept by “ane Godfearing host” yclept sure-574 ! The gentleman was still further
convinced of the mathematician's madness, and * Glasgow and its Clubs; or, Glimpses of the Con- hurried forward, while the professor walked on dition, Manners, Characters, and Oddities of the City, leisurely towards the west, and at length, happy during the Past and Present Century. By John in not being balked in his calculation, sat down Strang, LL.D.
delighted amid the circle of the Anderston Club."
Most of the highly-gifted individuals and quis-quis character. The danger appeared who formed at that period the “Literary imminent
, and had it not been for a bold indiviSociety" also belonged to the Anderston dual who, at great risk to himself, rushed forward Club; no cunning stenographer existed at of the carriage being dashed to pieces, and its oc
and stopped the horses, there was every likelihood that time to leave behind him even a
cupant killed on the spot. By the time that the single night with Simson and the club— horsemen got up, the carriage had moved onward, and the club itself expired with its founder. when Mr. Orr inquired of the courageous indivi
Glasgow is not less remarkable for going dual whether he had got any thing for the great to extremes in its social aspects—at one risk he had run ? Oh, yes !' said the man, time Gaelic, then as suddenly French ; at I've got a shilling ;' upon which Mr. Orr broke one time loyal, then as violently demo- tleman only giving a shilling for saving bis life,
out into a towering passion at the idea of a gencratic; at one time profane, and then as when Mr. Baird coolly remarked : - Come away, tyrannically religious—than it is for hav- sir, it is quite enough ; every man best knows the ing peculiar and distinctive mercantile value of his own life! On another occasion, on eras, These were, first, its salmon and going out in winter to Williamwood, he told Mr. herring age; then its tobacco epoch, next Maxwell
, on arrival, that he had ridden a consiits cotton, then its iron, and lastly, its derable way with a•Mr. Haddow, but as it was steamboat-building age. One particular snowing, he thought he would soon be a whin business or handicraft has invariably held repeated the saying at the first meeting of the
Mr. Maxwell, brimful of the equivoque, permanent sway for a season, and then as club; but finding no one enjoying the joke, calmly yielded the supremacy to another. he cried out : Why do you not all laugh? Is The tobacco trade, which originated about it not a capital story ?—at least it was so when 1707, was conducted on such successful prin- Baird told it to me.' Upon which Mr. Baird ciples as to have made Glasgow for a time calmly said : True, James, but you have forgot
ten the snow!'” the emporium for tobacco in the empire. Success, however, almost invariably entails pride, and the tobacco lords of Glasgow
The outbreak of the American war put became princes on the Plainstanes, assum- a sudden stop to the tobacco trade, and ing an air and deportment of persons so im- the scarlet cloaks quickly disappeared measurably superior to all around them as from the pavement. The pride of the toultimately to have become ridiculously bacco prince has, like that of the tobacco unbearable. They even assumed to them- palace, passed away, leaving, Dr. Strang selves a particular garb, being attired, like remarks, “we suspect, to us, in these latthe merchant princes of Venice and ter days, but an indistinct idea of the Genoa, in scarlet cloaks, curled wigs, and height to which, in point of extravagance, cocked-hats, while in their hands they car- it was actually carried." ried gold-headed canes.
The tobacco During the thirty years which immeprinces of Glasgow formed themselves diately followed the establishment of the into a club with a very unaristocratic Anderston and Hodge Podge Clubs, great name, “The Hodge Podge,” which par- changes took place in all things connected took of the nature of a literary society, with Glasgow. Commerce and manufacmixed up with whist, hot suppers, and a tures gave it a stimulating and onward night's jollity and fun.
progress; while science and the arts added
their mighty aid in effecting improvement. “Among the early members of the Hodge Podge, It is highly creditable to the University there were not a few whose sayings might have that it was ready at that time to protect contributed to eke out the pages of any modern science when laboring under difficulties,
Laird of Logan;' and among these we may as is particularly instanced in the case of mention Mr. Baird, of Craigton, who, besides
James Watt: being a man of old family, was from his wit and pleasantry courted by the best society in the city and county. This gentleman lived in Trongate, “ James Watt, on attempting to set up as an innear the bottom of Brunswick street, and carried strument-maker in Glasgow, was prevented doing so on business with the West-Indies, where he had by the then privileged Incorporation of Hammersome property. Among the many floating anec- men, as not being free of the craft. Attempts dotes which oral tradition has handed down, the were next made for obtaining their leave for a following may be mentioned : One day, while he very small work wherein to make his experiments, and Mr. Orr, of Barrowfield, were riding in the but this was peremptorily refused. The Univercountry, they observed a carriage pass them at a sity, however, in his difficulty, came to his rescue, furious rate the horses having run off—in which and granted him a room within the precincts of was ensconced Mr. G. M- -, a very unpopular the college, which was free of the incubus of all
guilds--and there he completed the model of his | the cost of the material whereof it was manufacsteam-engine, and which model is still in the pos- tured, and the quantity which he generally consession of the University, and looked upon as one trived to swallow, he had few followers among the of its greatest treasures. It was in 1764 that brotherhood. The beverage was no less, for a beWatt was employed to repair a model of New- ginning, than a bottle of good port-wine, mulled, comen's steam-engine, and it was when so engaged flavored with large slices of lemon, and poured that the idea of a separate condenser occurred to into a quart mug. This rather odd club-drink was him; and in 1766 it appears, from the college ac- nicknamed 'mahogany,' and, ere long, the soucounts, that he was paid £5 11s. for repairing the briquet was conferred on himself. With his legs said steam-engine. Mr. Muirhead mentions, in below the tavern mahogany, and with his own his Life of Watt, that the interesting model, as tankard of mahogany before him, this worthy woraltered by the band of Watt, and preserved in all shipper of wine and waggery gossipped on till near safety and honor within the precincts of its ancient midnight, and not unfrequently did not quit his birth-place, has been appropriately placed beside chair till he had impounded the mystical number the noble statue of the engineer in the Hunterian of three bottles in his stomach. At this period of Museum—a sacred relic worthy of such a shrine- Glasgow's history, tippling at all times of the day and there visited by many a worslıipping pilgrim."" and drinking in the afternoons to excess were prac
tised both by 'gentle and semple.' Among the So rapid was its progress in civilization shopkeepers and manufacturers, a meridian-glass that Glasgow could now boast, not only gilling prevailed through the whole range of the
was an almost universal habit, while forenoon of one or more shoe shops, haberdashery different craftsmen. To transact business of any shops, and hatters, but a sportsman could kind without the bargain being sealed with the now get a pair of buckskin breeches and stamp of the stoup, would have been looked upon gloves without sending to London for such as shabby as it would have been unsafe ; and so luxuries; while the lover of light litera- far was the practice carried, that even the most ture could obtain the perusal of a novel sacred matters were settled in a manner befitting or a romance without the cost of purchas- i thirsty souls'– that is to say, the clergy and
their flocks were in the habit of discussing the ing either. Such a point in the city's pro- weighty matters of the Church over a tankard of gress was followed by the institution of a twopenny or a glass of Glenlivet !* About this club of gallant, gay Lotharios, known as period, too, when a dinner-party was given-which “My Lord Ross's Club,” from the land- was, however, a rare occurrence compared with lord's name being Ross—the baronial ad- the practice of the present day—the guests, after junct being conferred, not by the crown, the somewhat heavy repast, invariably set in for but the club. Another contemporaneous
serious drinking. The landlord immediately befraternity, known as the “ Morning and gan to ply his bottles and bis bowl; and, in order Evening Club,” was in reality a kind of had drunk more than he could well carry, the din
to prevent any one skulking away before he reading-room, which anticipated the opening-room door was locked, and the key snugly coning of a public news-room, which took signed to the host's pocket. A host, in fact, was place at the Cross about the year 1782. looked upon as miserable and mean who did not But, although the news of the day, stir-testify his kindness by sending his guests reelring as they were, formed one of its at- ing home, without any recollection of what had tractions, a probably still greater was found in those times in the baurie, or mid- * A story told of the Rev. Dr. John Hamilton and day rum-and-water, in the nightly bowls one of his parishioners
, which occurred about this of Glasgow punch, and the hot herb ale thing important to talk over in the forenoon, they re
time, will best illustrate this. Having both somein the morning as an antidote to the pre- tired as customary to a public-house, and called for vious evening's heavy potations.
a gill of spirits and a piece of oat-cake. Both were
brought in and laid on the table; but before attempt“As a sample of the worthies who composed the ing to partake of either, Dr. Hamilton asked a blessbrotherhood meeting under the title of the Morning, which, closing his eyes, he lengthened out with ing and Evening Club,' and who for many long such a copious infusion of Presbyterian doctrine, that years darkened with their forms one of the east long before its conclusion, his friend became tired, ern closses of the High-street, we may mention and, sip by sip, drank off the spirits placed before Mr. Archibald Govane, writer, whose original him. On arriving at «Amen,” the minister stretched character and convivial habits were ever sure to at- out his hand to take hold of the gill-stoup, but, lo ! tract around him a knot of congenial spirits, and the bell," cried he, evidently annoyed either at the
on raising the lid, he found the vessel empty. “Ring whose love for his club was such that he rare supposed neglect or indignity offered to them; adding, ly was known to be absent from a sitting. It was
"this is really too bad!" "Hooly, hooly!" said the here, especially, that this celebrated clubbist, who parishioner, it is all right enough. I am to blame may be said to have been an excellent represent for that. If you had been less lengthy in your prayative of the drinking character of the age, mos er it would not have happened. But let me give unreservedly indulged in his own peculiar and fa- you a hint for the future, that the Scriptures tell us vorite species of tipple, but in which, considering to watch as well as pray!”