« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
ent articles, the result of one man's experiments as early as 1772. In the manufacture of paper, almost every species of tough, fibrous vegetable, and even animal substances, has at one time or another been employed: the roots of trees, their bark, the vine of hops, the tendrils of the vine, the stalks of the nettle, the common thistle, the stem of the hollyhock, the sugar-cane, cabbage-stalks, wood-shavings, sawdust, hay, straw, willow, and the like, have all been used, says Herring in his work on modern and ancient paper-making, in the manufacture of paper.
THERE is a printing-office in Paris capable of printing the Lord's Prayer in three hundred different languages.
THERE are more than fifty Art Unions in Germany, some of which are connected among themselves, so as to form distinct provinces or districts (Kreise). The Northern district comprises the Unions of Bremen, Hamburgh, Lübeck, Rostock, Stralsund, and Griefswald; the Eastern district contains the Unions of Dantzig, Königsberg, Stettin, and Breslau; the Western district embraces the Unions of Hanover, Brunswick, Halberstadt, Magdeburg, Halle, Götha, and Hesse Cassel; in the Rhenish district we find the Unions of Darmstadt, Mannheim, Stuttgart, Carlsruhe, Freiburg, Strasburg, and Mayence; and, lastly, in the Thuringian district, those of Erfurt, Naumburg, Jena, Nordhausen, Suhl, and Muhlhausen. Independent Unions are those of Dusseldorf, Cologne, Münster, Potsdam, Munich, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Dresden, Leipzig, Vienna, Prague, Salzburg, Pesth, Raab, Frankfort on the Maine, and Wiesbaden. There is no Art Union in Berlin, but every year a large academical Exhibition. In the course of last year, 1549 pictures, realizing a total amount of 195,404 thalers, have been sold by the combined means of the German Art Unions, including the sales of the Berlin Academical Exhibition.
PROFESSOR Aug. Stober, of Mülhausen (Alsatia), author of the literary monography, "Der Dichter Lenz and Friederike von Sessenheim," has just pub lished a biographical sketch, "Der Actuar Salzmann Göthe's Freund und Fisch, genosse in Strasburg." It is said to be full of interesting details referring to Göthe's abode at Strasburg, and to dwell minutely upon many incidents merely hinted at by Göthe in "Wahrheit und Dichtung," so much so that it may be considered, with regard to that epoch of Göthe's life, a valuable supplement to his autobiography. Besides some unpublished letters of Göthe, it contains letters of Lenz L. Wagner, Michaelis Hufeland, and others, and different communications about Werther and Lotte, from the diary of the late Rev. Jeremias Meyer.
THE first translation of Schiller's entire works into Russian has just been brought out at Moscow. Our
Dresden correspondent tells us that in the Berlin collection of this author's autograph letters and papers, 140 have been proved beyond doubt to be false; they are principally poems.
SIR Thomas Browne is said to have written "A
Dialogue between two Twins yet unborn, respecting the World into which they were going;" but no trace of it could be discovered by Mr. Wilkin when he published his edition of the works of Browne.
EVERY body knows what "Foolscap-paper," is but would perhaps be puzzled to tell how it came to bear that singular cognomen. Well, as fairy tales say, once upon a time, some two hundred years ago, when Charles I. found his revenues short, he granted certain privileges amounting to monopolies. Among these was the manufacture of paper, the exclusive right of which was sold to certain parties who grew rich and enriched the government at the expense of those who were obliged to use paper. At this time all English papers bore in water marks the Royal Arms. But the misfortunes which attend all monarchs, befell Charles early, and when his blood had crimsoned the scaffold, the Parliament under Cromwell made jests and jeers at his law in every conceivable manner. Among other indignities to the memory of Charles, it was ordered that the Royal Arms be removed from the paper, and the fool's cap and bells be substituted. These also were removed when the Rump Parliament was prorogued, but paper of the size of that Parliament's Journals still bears the name of "Foolscap."
SOME unpublished letters of the witty Earl of Chesterfield have just turned up. In one he gives a lengthened criticism on Richardson's novels, and observes that when Richardson gets into high life he loses himself, and is untrue to high life. This is said, we understand, especially of "Sir Charles Grandison." The letters are now in Lord Stanhope's possession.
COUNT Ficquelmont is engaged on a work anticipated by diplomatists with great interest. It is a diplomatic history of Europe since the Congress of Vienna.
entitled to take rank amongst literary persons, by LORD Wharncliffe, whose death is just recorded, is virtue of a pamphlet on "The Abolition of the ViceRoyalty of Ireland," and another on "The Instituborn in 1801, and took an honorable degree at Oxtion of Tribunals of Commerce." His lordship was ford in 1821. He was the son of Mr Stuart Wortley, conspicuous as a politician during the closing years of the reign of George the Third, and created Lord Wharncliffe in 1826. The late Lord was a greatgrandson of Lady Mary Wortley Montague, whose only daughter, it will be remembered, married the Earl of Bute.
"IF," says a modern French writer, "there ever was a palace that appealed to the imagination, it is Fontainebleau. Here we invoke recollections of all ages, the mysterious visits of ancient kings, the most pompous scenes in French history, the great artists employed here-all in their day busy as bees in a hive. Brilliant galleries, priceless pictures, fine statues, a perfect mosaic of architecture, showing the varieties of ages, tastes, and talents that have been displayed in the construction of this palace, a vast forest near with its verdant shade, spreading oaks, and wonderful traditions-all, in a word, tells of grandeur, poetry, and art; every thing inspires the beholder with a desire of knowing from its very origin to the present day one of the finest monuments in France."
Fontainebleau does not afford those symmetrical proportions favorable to description. This royal residence, enlarged at different periods by succeeding monarchs, justifies the bon mot of a witty Englishman, who called it "a rendezvous of châteaux."
The different elements of which it is composed form an exception to all ar
VOL. XXXVII.-NO. IL
chitectural rules in any other known structure. They serve as an index to the state of the arts in France during three centuries-a history in themselves. Sebastian Sertio, Jamin, le Primatice, Du Cerceau, Mansard, all successively assisted in its erection.
Historians are not well agreed as to the derivation of the name of Fontainebleau. A great number considered it to be a corruption of Fontaine-belle-eau, on account of the fresh and abundant springs that are found here; but this etymology, though poetical, is not true. It appears that Bleau was the name of a person, proprietor of the ground, who was the first to construct a habitation near the spring.
However, it is very difficult to fix the precise period of the foundation of this celebrated royal residence. It has been successively attributed, without sufficient reason, to various princes, such as Robert, Louis VII., and Louis IX. It is certain, that towards the middle of the twelfth century a forest and a royal residence existed at Fontainebleau. A donation of the time of Louis VII. to some neighboring monks bears this inscription: "Actum
publice apud Fontene Bleaudi in palatio | taste of Louis XIV., excited the liveliest nostro." This residence, like Versailles, admiration at a period when the arts were became from a mere hunting-box a sump- only beginning to reäppear. All contemtuous residence, by the successive addi- poraries speak with admiration of Fontions of the greatest French monarchs. tainebleau. Many brilliant fêtes were Louis VII. built a chapel here, dedicated held there under Francis on the occasion to St. Saturnin. Philip Augustus added of the Emperor Charles V. passing through considerably to the building. There re- France. main various acts of this prince dated from this residence, among others one by which he gives to the Hôtel-Dieu, at Nemours, all the bread remaining from his table during his stay at Fontainebleau.
St. Louis added much to the constructions of his predecessors; among other apartments, a pavilion that still bears his name, although re-built by Francis I. St. Louis, in several of his letters, calls this place "Our Desert," which seems to imply that Fontainebleau in his time was not of considerable extent. The room is still shown where this just and pious sovereign, being dangerously ill, gave what he supposed to be his dying advice to his son. Philippe le Bel was born and died at Fontainebleau.
Among the constructions of Francis I., which indicate not a little the too gallant character of that monarch, was a bath surrounded by mirrors, situated in a grotto in the garden of pine-trees. There is a curious anecdote related of this bath.
When James V. of Scotland came into France to demand the hand of Madeleine, daughter of Francis I., his impatience to behold the princess caused him to commit a great indiscretion, if a conversation which took place between him and Henri II. is to be believed.
"You may remember," said the Scotch monarch to Henri II., "that at the beginning of the summer Madeleine wished to bathe, and chose as the place of her bath that magnificent grotto constructed by your father, Francis I., and joining the apartments of the Duchesse d'Etampes. I was acquainted with the secret of the arch, where, by means of a reflecting mirror set in the rock, the person bathing could be distinctly visible. The king, your father, had let me into this secret. I gained by bribes the officer who had charge of the grotto, and he placed me in the niche just before the princess entered the bath. Pardon me, my dear prince, this audacity, and let the purity of my intentions plead my excuse. Indeed, I was in the sequel sufficiently punished for my temerity. You imagine my audacity was successful? Well, you are both right and wrong, for, up to a certain point, all went well; but the niche became any thing but an agreeable position when I heard the princess whom I loved so distractedly, and whom I was on the
Charles V. formed the magnificent library-the first of the kind in France. To render it worthy of his royal name he employed all the litterati in France and in foreign countries to collect the best books for him, and wishing to make it universally useful, he enriched it with the best translations. Towards 1364 Charles V. formed another library at Paris.
Charles VII. much embellished this residence, and, amongst other things, added various paintings.
The library, having been pillaged by the English under his reign, was re-constructed by Louis XI., and received great additions by the discovery of printing, lately introduced into France. Charles VIII. enriched it with the Greek and Latin collections of the kings of Naples, the only substantial fruit of the conquest of that kingdom; and Louis XII., after having removed it to Blois-then the residence of the court-point of marrying, declare to her companadded to it all the books from the library ion, Mademoiselle Vendôme, that she felt of Pavia, brought back by him from his any thing but indifferent to Don Juan, the expedition to the Milanese. handsome natural son of the Emperor Charles V., and that if she were married to me (the King of Scotland), she should look on herself as a miserable victim of state policy!"
The reign of Francis I. is particularly connected with Fontainebleau. He made various changes in the château; many buildings were re-constructed, and new ones erected, while vast gardens, designed by Primaticcio, contributed to the beauty of this residence. These gardens, admirable in that age, but destroyed to suit the
Notwithstanding this frank avowal of the Princess Madeleine, James could not make up his mind to resign her, and although he had heard this confession from
the lips of the princess herself, he continued to solicit her hand from her father, and press his suit with herself. The marriage took place in January, 1537.
But, says Brantôme, when Madeleine arrived in Scotland, she found the country very different to what it had been described to her, and a sad contrast to la belle France. She uttered but few complaints, and only repeated continually to herself: "Alas! I would be a queen!" veiling her melancholy and her ambition under a garment of patience. Madeleine was miserable; she could not bear the severe climate of Scotland nor the savage manners of the inhabitants. She faded like a fair flower transplanted into an uncongenial soil, and died of grief about six months after her marriage.
The grotto of the garden of pines is now entirely destroyed, and the tell-tale mirror has disappeared, but there are some frescoes still visible that mark the situation of the celebrated bath of the Duchesse d'Etampes.
The room is yet shown at Fontainebleau where Francis I. received the beautiful Diana of Poictiers, when that noble dame came sobbing and in tears to supplicate pardon for her father, condemned to death for treason. Diana was covered with a long black veil, which shrouded her charming features as under a sombre cloud. The monarch at first sternly refused the appeals she addressed to his mercy. The heart of Diana was bursting with emotion, and for a moment she lost all consciousness. The gallant Francis was not slow in offering his assistance to the distressed beauty. He placed her on a couch, the black veil which had before covered her was displaced, and the countenance of Diana was revealed to him in all its dazzling beauty. The king was astonished at the ravishing sight, and contemplated for some time her lovely face with boundless admiration. His sense of justice, which the entreaties of the daughter had failed to touch, was disarmed by the sight of such charms. Her prayer was granted, and the life of her father was spared.
Francis was not without reason styled "the restorer of literature and art." Be
sides the numerous palaces he built, in whose construction and embellishment he
day. The library of Fontainebleau, reduced to almost a name, was reorganized by Francis, who employed for that purpose Guillaume Budé, one of the most erudite men then living.
employed the first painters and architects of Italy, he made a collection of all the rare and ancient manuscripts, in which he was aided by the learned litterati of his
There is extant an anecdote of Budé, which shows his extraordinary application to study, and the little attention he paid to the more material and sublunary cares of life. One day he was engaged in study in his house at Paris, when a servant, rushing into the room, informed him that the house was on fire. "Go and tell my wife," replied he, without raising his eyes; "you know I never attend to any of the household affairs."
Loaded with favors by Francis I., who named him to some valuable situations, he never could bear to tear himself from his beloved books to attend to the duties his appointments imposed on him. "The liberality of the king and the confidence of the people," said he, complainingly, "will have the effect at last of making me utterly ignorant."
Henri II., Charles IX., and Henri III., all continued the embellishment of Fontainebleau, making it their residence from time to time. Henri IV. particularly delighted in Fontainebleau. He spent in buildings and additions to the palace and the park two million four hundred thousand eight hundred livres-an immense sum for that period. Henri liked this palace particularly; he never, however, was perfectly happy either here or elsewhere, unless La belle Gabrielle was beside him. "What would you have?" he used to say to his friends when speaking on this subject; "after all the reverses I have encountered, and all the battles I have fought, I want to enjoy myself, and to pass some jovial days at least. I am never happy but with my son and with his dear mother." At that time he had no other child but Cæsar, created Duc de Vendôme, whose mother, the beautiful Gabrielle d'Estrées, was his mistress. As a specimen of his attachment to this lady, a letter is subjoined that he wrote to her from Fontainebleau in the autumn of 1599, entreating her to join him forthwith:
"From our delicious Wilderness of Fontaine-belle-Eau.
"MY DEAREST LOVE: The courier has arrived
this evening. I sent him quickly to you, because: he me that you had ordered return in order to have some news of me. I am well, thank God; the only malady I endure is the violent longing I have again to behold you."
The next day Gabrielle was at Fontainebleau.
In 1599, Henri IV. received Charles Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, here. It was most probable that during this visit those intrigues were begun that ended by conducting Biron to the scaffold-Biron who, after having bravely fought for Henri, being honored by his friendship, and having received from him the staff of maréchal as a reward, fell in the midst of prosperity, when his conspiracies with Spain-then the bitterest enemy of France-were discovered, as well as various other intrigues against his sovereign, he having been seduced by the caresses and the magnificent promises made to him by his country's foes. The king was at Fontainebleau when the guilt of Biron was first discovered. Nothing could exceed the grief he felt at the treachery of the maréchal, to whom he was personally much attached. He sent for Sully, and throwing his arms round. him with great emotion, said to him: "Sully, I am betrayed by a friend. Biron has conspired against me." Sully advised the king to have Biron arrested in his own house. Henri would not consent to this; he wished first to have an interview with his former friend, and induce him to acknowledge his crime, in order afterwards at once to forgive him. The maréchal was summoned to court without delay. He at first hesitated, but, reässured by his accomplices, who persuaded him that it was impossible the king could be acquainted with the conspiracy, proceeded to Fontainebleau, and arrived there the 13th of June, 1602. His entry created quite a sensation, for every one suspected his treason, and all were on the qui vive to know what steps would be taken against him.
The king determined to make a last appeal to his treacherous general. One evening, after playing at cards, he summoned Biron into his cabinet, and thus addressed him:
Biron resisted with haughty obstinacy all the efforts of his magnanimous sovereign to draw from him an acknowledg ment of his treason, or some expressions of regret and repentance. "Sully," said Henri to his minister, "Biron is indeed a most unhappy man. I really have a great inclination to pardon him, to forget the past, and behave to him as if I had never known it. I pity him profoundly. I can not endure to punish so brave a man-one who has served me for so many years, and for whom I have felt so much friendship. All my fear is, that if I pardon him he will never pardon me, and may revenge himself on my children or my kingdom."
"Maréchal, I wish to learn from your own mouth circumstances which, to my sorrow, I am too well acquainted with. I promise you my forgiveness for whatever you have done against me; only confess frankly what your conduct has been. All shall be covered with the royal mantle of mercy. I will protect you, and every thing shall be buried in eternal silence!"
"This is strange language to an honest man," replied the obstinate maréchal. “I never had any desire but to be your faithful servant."
"Would to God that were true!" replied the king. Then, turning on him a look of compassion, he left the room, saying: "Adieu, Maréchal Biron."
A few moments afterwards Biron was arrested in the very palace where he had been summoned to justify himself. Once in the hands of justice, and condemned to death, he now vainly solicited a pardon which Henri would once willingly have granted to him, if he had only confessed his delinquency. The only favor he could obtain was, that he should undergo the extreme penalty of the law in private within the walls of his prison.
Louis XIII., that feeble, timid, suspicious son of the gallant Henry IV. and of Marie de Medicis, was born at Fontainebleau. During his whole life this prince was governed by Cardinal Richelieu. History seems only to have preserved his name in order to mark the era of an imperious minister, or as a period of repose for the mind, passing from the inordinate licentiousness of his father's conduct to the pompous though scandalous amours of his son, Louis XIV.
The sight of youth and beauty were not, however, without very particular attractions for Louis XIII., yet his attachments were entirely Platonic-a union of kindred souls that excluded all idea of sensuality-truly, a most singular exception in the annals of royal intrigues! Some account of these liaisons must, I imagine, be agreeable to the reader, and I shall, therefore, enter into the details of various scenes in the life of Mademoiselle de Hautefort and of Mademoiselle de la Fayette, the two favorites who have afforded the almost singular instance offered by history