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be a disposition on the part of men to be was present at the ceremony of ducking a witch, a very tolerant of women who were well- particular account of which may not perhaps be · favored or young, and at least an equal disagreeable to you.

“Ăn old woman of about 60 years of age had disposition on their part to be tolerant of

long lain under an imputation of witchcraft, who woman who were old and ugly. Let the being anxious for her own sake and her children tenderness of Colonel Hobson testify. to clear herself, consented to be ducked ; and the

In the year sixteen 'forty-nine the peo- parish officer promised her a quince if she should ple of Newcastle-upon-Tyne were much sink. The place appointed was by the river Ous, troubled with witches, and two of the by a mill. There were, I believe, 500 spectators.

I town-sergeants were despatched to Scot- About 11 o'clock in the forenoon the woman land in order to enter into agreement with came, and was tied up in a wet sheet, all but her

face and hands; her toes were tied close together, a Scottish witch-finder. On the arrival at

as were also her thumbs, and her hands tied to Newcastle of this public functionary, the the small of her legs. They fastened a rope about magistrates of the town sent the bellman her middle, and then pulled off her cap to search through the streets, inviting any person for pins (for their notion is, if they have but one to bring up suspected witches for examin-pin in them, they won't sink). ation. Thirty women were accordingly

“When all the preliminaries were settled, she produced at the town-hall, and most of was thrown in. But, unhappily for the poor creathem, after trial by the thrusting of pins while under water. Upon this there was a con

ture, she floated, though her head was all the into the flesh, were pronounced guilty. fused cry: A witch! a witch! Drown her! Hang The witch-finder informed Colonel Hobson her! She was in the water about a minute and a that he knew whether or not women were half, and was then taken out half-drowned. When witches by their looks, but when the said she had recovered breath, she was tried twice person was searching a personable and more but with the same success; for she floated well-favored woman the Colonel replied

each time, which was a plain demonstration of and said,

guilt to the ignorant multitude! For, notwithSurely this woman is none, and

standing the poor creature was laid down upon need not be tried.” But the Scot said, the grass speechless and almost dead, they were “Yea, she was, for the town said she was, so far from showing any pity or compassion, that and therefore he would try her.” Pre- they strove who should be the most forward in sently afterwards he ran a pin into her, and loading her with reproaches—such is the dire efset her aside as a child of Satan. Colonel fect of popular prejudices! For my part, I stood Hobson proved on the spot that the man against the torrent; and when I had cut the was deceived grossly, whereupon the witch- the mill, and endeavored to convince the people of

strings which tied her; had carried her back to finder cleared the woman, and said she the uncertainty of the experiment, and offered to was not a child of Satan. Nineteen women lay five to one that any woman of her age, so tied were ordered to be burnt at Newcastle up, in a loose sheet, would float; but all to no upon the conviction of this man, who then purpose, for I was very near being mob'd. Some went into Northumberland where he tried time after the woman came out, and one of the witches at three pounds a-head. It is poor company happened to mention another experiment consolation to be told that this ruffian the Church Bible ; for a witch, it seems, could not


to try a witch-which was to weigh her against himself died on the gallows, when it has outweigh it. I immediately seconded the motion to be added that he confessed himself to (as thinking it might be of service to the poor wohave caused the death of two hundred man), and made use of an argument which (though and twenty women in England and Scot- weak as K. James'* for their not sinking) had land, and, taking them all around, to have some weight with the people; for I told them earned about a pound upon each job.

that if she was a witch, she certainly dealt with Of the trial of witches by water every word of God, it must weigh more than all the

the devil, and as the Bible was undoubtedly the one has heard. A scene like the following works of the devil. This seemed reasonable to used in fact to be one of the incidents of several, and those that did not think so, could not ordinary life in English villages, and was answer it. At last the question was carried, and not altogether rare when this letter was she was weighed against the Bible, which weighed written, a hundred and eighteen years about 12 pounds. She outweighed it. This convinced since, to the London Magazine:

some and staggered others; but the parson, who

believed through thick and thin, went away fully Oakley, three miles from Bedford. assured that she was a witch, and endeavored to “Sir,—The people here are so prejudiced in the belief of witches that you would think your- * King James's argument why witches would not self in Lapland, was you to hear their ridiculous sink was this: they had renounced their baptism by stories. There is not a village in the neighbor water, and therefore the water would not receive hood but has two or three. About a week ago I them.


inculcate that belief in all others. I am, &c., beat her on the face, breast, and stomach &c."

with the wooden bar of her door. When

left to herself she crawled for protection A hundred years ago, three men were to the constable and was refused it; but tried at Hertford for the murder of Ruth in the house of a merciful woman, who Osburn, who was suspected as a witch. was a widow, she found refuge, and the The overseers of the parish wishing to widow, Alice Russell, bound her neighsave the woman (who was seventy years bor's wounds, and put her into her own of age), from threatened danger, removed bed. By this Christian deed, she incurred her and her husband to the workhouse. the wrath of the people brutalized by suA body of about five_thousand people, perstition, and was subjected by them to however, assembled at Tring, and behaved indignities, and kept in a state of inces with so much violence that the authori- sant terror, whereof twelve days afterties were at length obliged to give up the wards she died. But on the day after the victim. The poor woman was so much ill- first outrage, Anne Izzard was again dragtreated by the ignorant mob in their ex-ged out for ill-usage, after which she took periments to prove whether she was a refuge under the roof of the clergyman, witch, that she died shortly after. who was blamed sorely for the shelter he

It is not fifty years since Mr. Nicholson, afforded. the incumbent of Great Paxton, in Hunt- The belief in witches, even at this day, ingtonshire, preached against the belief in survives in many corners of the land, witchcraft to his ignorant parishioners, among an untaught people; while superand told them some of his experience. A stition of the grossest kind, though not poor woman, the mother of eight child- the most atrocious, is to be met with every. ren, persecuted as a witch, had gone to him where. In the London drawing-room of weeping, protesting innocence, and asking the wealthy conoisseur in rappings; in leave to prove it by being weighed the remote hovel of the poor man, who to against the pulpit Bible. Mr. Nicholson avoid misfortune, is induced to swallow then expostulated with his people in the necromantic mixtures, and among whose church, but to no purpose, for soon after- household treasures are to be found conwards their violence increased. At St. stantly such documents as this: “The Noet's market a woman coming home in gar (jar) of mixture is to be mixt with half the wagon, was about to put her parcel of a pint of gen (gin), and then a table-spoon grocery on the top of some corn-sacks, to be took mornings at Eleven O'clock, and was advised by Anne Izzard, a neigh- four and eigt, and four of the pills to be bor, not to do so; she did it, nevertheless, took every morning fasting, and the paper and on the way home, by some accident, of powder to be divided in ten parts, and the wagon was upset. This set the whole one part to be took every night Going village in an uproar, and on the following to bed in a little honey. The paper of Sunday night, its inhabitants went in a arbs (herbs) is to be burnt a small bit at a mass to the unhappy woman's cottage, time, on a few cooles with a little hay and dragged her naked from her bed, dashed rosemery, and whiles it is burning, read her head against the stones of the cause the two first verses of the 68 Salm, and way, mangled her arms with pins, and say the Lord's prayer after."


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The press has been unusually active during the Berlin is but 25 works behind the great publishing past month, favoring the public with more and bet mart of Germany. After these two great centres, ter issues than usual. We have time to notice only come Stuttgard, with 197 publications; Hamburgh, a few, in a cursory manner. Mr. Prescott's long-ex- 96; Munich, 93; Ratisbon, Frankfort on the Main, pected Philip II. has made its appearance, realizing and Halle, each, 62; Breslau, 56; and Castty Dresto the full all the expectations entertained both of den, Brunswick, Erlangen, and Weimar, with many subject and author. Mr. Abbott has supplemented others, yet smaller. In the thirteen cities which his Life of Napoleon by a handsome volume in uni- have been named, have appeared in all 2018 works, form entitled, “Napoleon at St. Helena," detailing nearly two thirds of the whole number. It is not with utmost particularity all the facts of the Emper- less interesting to know the part taken in this pubor's exile as related by his friends, Las Casas, Mon lishing of books by the different States of Germany. tholon, O'Meara, &c.

Here Prussia is far in advance of her neighbors; she

has produced 1242 works, when Saxony has only MESSRS. Carter have published a few valuable printed 724; Austria, 715; Bavaria, 397; Wurtemworks, among which the “Chart of History,” by Rev. berg, 270; Hanover, 109. The lowest ranks in John Young, may be mentioned as possessing pre- this scale of production are occupied by the city of eminent ability and value. A better specimen of in Lubeck, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, and the ductive reasoning it has seldom fallen to our lot to Principality of Waldeck; each have issued but three read.

publications; Lippe Detwold only two; Antarlt BernMR. Dodd augments his useful list by several new bourg and Hesse Hambourg, one single one each. works and new editions. A new edition of Dr. Besides these, many German works have been pubSpring's admirable work, “The Contrast between lished in other countries; 155 in Switzerland; 31 in Good and Bad Men Mentioned in the Bible,” in two Russia; 16 in Hungary; 12 in France; 10 in Belvols., furnishes religious readers a volume of great gium; 6 in Denmark; 3 in Holland ; 1 in England; excellence, both of sentiment and style. Wise, can- in all 235. This statement gives us the total of all did reasoning and an admirable spirit are qualities the works published in the German language, during which distinguish the writings of this venerated di- the first half of the present year, 4114. vine. “The Wonderful Phials” is a lively tale for The misunderstanding between the British governyoung readers, from the French, in which the vivaci- ment and the Royal Society is at an end. We have ty of conversation and the excellence of moral are much satisfaction in stating that the government has equally commendable. "One Word More” is a can- ordered the sum of £1000 to be placed at the disdid and affectionate appeal to unbelievers, in behalf posal of the Royal Society this year for scientific purof the verity of the Scriptures, and the obligations of poses, and has informed the Council of the Society religion, by John Neal of Portland. “The World's that a similar sum will be annually included in the Jubilee' is an inquiry into the probable state and miscellaneous estimates for the advancement of destination of our world, after the winding up of the science. Gospel dispensation. It insists upon the generally received doctrines in this respect; reasoning them with

DR. Barth is receiving in his own country the remuch ingenuity and fairness, and making a good im- ward of his laborious travels and interesting discovpression upon both the reader's conscience and under-eries. The king of Wurtemberg has conferred on him standing. The author is Miss Anna Shipman. the order of the Wurtemberg Crown. MR. Redfield republishes a volume which formed

We read the following in the Daily News: "It the basis of a very readable article in our last num- is proposed by the Schiller Union, at Leipsic, to celeber, " The Court of Oude," a very lively and enter- brate the fiftieth anniversary of Schiller's birthday taining picture of extraordinary experience, and of by sending diplomas of honor to those who by the a singular specimen of royalty. The work is regard pencil, dramatic art, criticism, translation, or othered as authentic, and if so, discloses some very valu- wise, have distinguished themselves in extending able facts.

and advancing the fame of the great poet. The

names of Carlyle, in England; Adler-Mesnard and The announcement of the London publishers are Hase, in France; and Maffei, in Milan, are among the few and unimportant. Dr. Barth's Travels and Dis- names mentioned as entitled to this honor. A coveries in Africa; a selection from Robert Southey's Genoa paper amounces a discovery at Rancla, in writings. Five years in Damascus, by Rev. J. L. Egypt, of a great number of coins of the period of the Porter, &c.

Ptolemies, together with some other Egyptian antiWe learn from the “ Atheneum Français," that quities, said to be of great interest. A guard has during the first six months of the present year, there been placed over the ground to prevent the disper

sion of these treasures. were printed in Germany, in all, 3879 different works. Of this number, there have appeared from the presses In the Library of the British Museum may be of Leipsic and Berlin, 1169; 598 from the first of seen a book printed in Low Dutch, containing upthese cities, and 571 from the latter, showing that I wards of sixty specimens of paper, made of differ tion of Tribunals of Commerce." His lordship was Besides some unpublished letters of Göthe, it contains letters of Lenz L. Wagner, Michaelis Hufeland, conspicuous as a politician during the closing years

ent articles, the result of one man's experiments as | Dresden correspondent tells us that in the Berlin early as 1772. In the manufacture of paper, almost collection of this author's autograph letters and paevery species of tough, fibrous vegetable, and even pers, 140 have been proved beyond doubt to be animal substances, has at one time or another been false; they are principally poems. employed: the roots of trees, their bark, the vine of

SIR Thomas Browne is said to have written "A hops, the tendrils of the vine, the stalks of the net- Dialogue between two Twins yet unborn, respecting tle, the common thistle, the stem of the hollyhock, the World into which they were going;" but no the sugar-cane, cabbage-stalks, wood-shavings, saw

trace of it could be discovered by Mr. Wilkin when dust, hay, straw, willow, and the like, have all been he published his edition of the works of Browne. used, says Herring in his work on modern and ancient paper-making, in the manufacture of paper.

EVERY body knows what "Foolscap-paper," is

but would perhaps be puzzled to tell how it came to THERE is a printing-office in Paris capable of bear that singular cognomen. Well, as fairy tales printing the Lord's Prayer in three hundred differ- say, once upon a time, some two hundred years ago, ent languages.

when Charles I. found his revenues short, he grantTHERE are more than fifty Art Unions in Germany, ed certain privileges amounting to monopolies. some of which are connected among themselves, so

Among these was the manufacture of paper, the exas to form distinct provinces or districts (Kreise). clusive right of which was sold to certain parties The Northern district comprises the Unions of Bre- who grew rich and enriched the government at the men, Hamburgh, Lübeck, Rostock, Stralsund, and expense of those who were obliged to use paper. Griefswald; the Eastern district contains the Unions At this time all English papers bore in water marks of Dantzig, Königsberg, Stettin, and Breslau ; the the Royal Arms. But the misfortunes which attend Western district embraces the Unions of Hanover, blood had crimsoned the scaffold,' the Parliament

all monarchs, befell Charles early, and when his Brunswick, Halberstadt, Magdeburg, Halle, Götha, and Hesse Cassel; in the Rhenish district we find under Cromwell made jests and jeers at his law in the Unions of Darmstadt, Mannheim, Stuttgart, every conceivable manner. Among other indigniCarlsruhe, Freiburg, Strasburg, and Mayence; and, ties to the memory of Charles, it was ordered that lastly, in the Thuringian district, those of Erfurt, the Royal Arms be removed from the paper, and Naumburg, Jena, Nordhausen, Suhl, and Muhlhau- the fool's cap and bells be substituted. These also sen. Independent Unions are those of Dusseldorf, were removed when the Rump Parliament was proCologne, Münster, Potsdam, Munich, Nuremberg, rogued, but paper of the size of that Parliament's Augsburg, Dresden, Leipzig, Vienna, Prague, Salz- Journals still bears the name of "Foolscap." burg, Pesth, Raab, Frankfort on the Maine, and SOME unpublished letters of the witty Earl of Wiesbaden. There is no Art Union in Berlin, but Chesterfield have just turned up. In one he gives a every year a large academical Exhibition. In the lengthened criticism on Richardson's novels, and obcourse of last year, 1549 pictures, realizing a total serves that when Richardson gets into high life he amount of 195,404 thalers, have been sold by the loses himself, and is untrue to high life. This is combined means of the German Art Unions, includ- said, we understand, especially of “Sir Charles ing the sales of the Berlin Academical Exhibition. Grandison.” The letters are now in Lord Stanhope's

PROFESSOR Aug. Stober, of Mülhausen (Alsatia), possession. author of the literary monography, “ Der Dichter COUNT Ficquelmont is engaged on a work anticiLenz and Friederike von Sessenheim," has just pub pated by diplomatists with great interest. It is a lished a biographical sketch, "Der Actuar Salzmann diplomatic history of Europe since the Congress of Göthe's Freund und Fisch, genosse in Strasburg.” | Vienna. It is said to be full of interesting details referring to Göthe's abode at Strasburg, and to dwell minutely entitled to take rank amongst literary persons, by

LORD Wharncliffe, whose death is just recorded, is upon many incidents merely hinted at by Göthe in virtue of a pamphlet on “The Abolition of the Vice“Wahrheit und Dichtung,” so much so that it may be considered, with regard to that epoch of Göthe's Royalty of Ireland,” and another on "The Institulife, a valuable supplement to his autobiography. born in 1801, and took an honorable degree at Ox.

ford in 1821. He was the son of Mr Stuart Wortley, and others, and different communications about Werther and Lotte, from the diary of the late Rev. of the reign of George the Third,

and created Lord

Wharncliffe in 1826. The late Lord was a greatJeremias Meyer.

grandson of Lady Mary Wortley Montague, whose The first translation of Schiller's entire works into only daughter, it will be remembered, married the Russian has just been brought out at Moscow. Our Earl of Bute.

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“IF,” says a modern French writer, chitectural rules in any other known “there ever was a palace that appealed to structure. They serve as an index to the imagination, it is Fontainebleau. Here the state of the arts in France during we invoke recollections of all ages, the three centuries—a history in themselves. mysterious visits of ancient kings, the Sebastian Sertio, Jamin, le Primatice, Du most pompous scenes in French history, Cerceau, Mansard, all successively assistthe great artists employed here—all in ed in its erection. their

day busy as bees in a hive. Brilliant Historians are not well agreed as to the galleries, priceless pictures, fine statues, a derivation of the name of Fontainebleat. perfect mosaic of architecture, showing A great number considered it to be a the varieties of ages, tastes, and talents corruption of Fontaine-belle-eau, on acthat have been displayed in the construc- count of the fresh and abundant springs tion of this palace, a vast forest near with that are found here; but this etymology, its verdant shade, spreading oaks, and though poetical, is not true. It appears wonderful traditions—all, in a word, tells that Bleau was the name of a person, the of grandeur, poetry, and art; every thing proprietor of the ground, who was the inspires the beholder with a desire of first to construct a habitation near the knowing from its very origin to the pre- spring. sent day one of the finest monuments in However, it is very difficult to fix the France.”

precise period of the foundation of this celFontainebleau does not afford those ebrated royal residence. It has been sucsymmetrical proportions favorable to de. cessively attributed, without sufficient scription. This royal residence, enlarged reason, to various princes, such as Robert, at different periods by succeeding mon- Louis VII., and Louis IX. It is certain, archs, justifies the bon mot of a witty Eng- that towards the middle of the twelfth lishman, who called it "a rendezvous of century a forest and a royal residence er. châteaux."

isted at Fontainebleau. A donation of The different elements of which it is the time of Louis VII. to some neighborcomposed form an exception to all ar- ing monks bears this inscription : "Actum VOL. XXXVII.-NO. II.


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