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his country from tribute to foreigners; ther, Jean Baptiste, and his nephew, Pierre, English and German pianos gave place brought them to practical perfection. everywhere to French pianos, and the in- The double action made the harp a strument which had been only exception- complete instrument, on which inharmonially used came into general request. cally modulated music could be played.

The luthiers, or makers of musical in- Sébastien Erard had been induced to turn struments, who bought and sold foreign his attention to the improvement of the pianos, found the new factory injurious to harp by Krumpholtz, a celebrated harpist their commerce. They made a seizure in of Paris. After he had been working for it, under the pretext that the brothers a year, Beaumarchais, author of the BarErard were not members of the Corpora- ber of Seville, who was at once an author, tion of Fanmakers to which the luthiers a politician, a musician, and a mechanician, belonged. Sébastien Erard had powerful on examining his plans told him frankly friends, however, and he obtained a bre- that, as they were impracticable, he would vet from Louis the Sixteenth which de- do well to abandon them. Erard did not livered him completely from the persecut- heed his advice, and was on the point of ing corporation. This document has the obtaining success when Krumpholtz conrare merit of being a pleasant specimen of nected his interest with a maker of harps the paternal government of the Bourbons; upon the old models. Erard felt that sucwe translate it entire:

cess was impossible in Paris if he encoun

tered the opposition of the harpists with This day, the fifth of February, one thousand Krumpholtz at their head, and left for seven hundred and eighty-five, the king being at London. There he continued his experiVersailles informed that Mr. Sébastien Erard has succeeded by a new method of his invention to ments, finished his improvements, and esimprove the instrument called a forté-piano; that tablished a house. The double action cost he has even obtained the preference over those him twelve years of anxious toil; and, made in England, of which he makes a commerce although he took out his first patent in in the city of Paris

, and his majesty wishing to eighteen hundred and one, he did not fix the talents of Mr. Erard in the said city, and to give him testimonies of the protection with dred and eleven. His immediate pecu

complete his invention until eighteen hun. which he honors those who, like him, have by as

He sold siduous labor contributed to the useful and agree niary success was extraordinary. able arts, has permitted him to make, to cause to twenty-five thousand pounds worth of be made, and to sell in the city and faubourgs of the new harps in London alone in the Paris, and wherever it may seem to him good, first year. forté-pianos; workmen, the wood, the iron, and The double escapement of the piano all the other and to employ there, whether by was not made public until eighteen hunhimself or by his materials necessary to the per: dred and twenty-three. The wonders fection or the ornament of the said instrument without his being liable on this account to be achieved on the piano by such performers troubled or disturbed by the guards, syndics, and as Liszt and Thalberg, are due to the scope adjutants of the corporations, and committees of given to their perseverance and genius by arts and trades for any cause or under any pre- mechanism which makes the instrument text whatever ; under the conditions, nevertheless, capable of expressing the sweetest, the by the said Mr. Erard of conforming himself to most powerful, and the most varied sounds, discipline of journeymen and workmen, and of not and the most delicate repetitions. admitting into his workshops any but those who

Organs have occupied the talents of the shall have satisfied the aforesaid regulations. Erards, as well as harps and pianos. SéAnd for assurance of his will, his majesty has bastien Erard applied to the organ his commanded me to expedite to the aforesaid Mr. system of expression by the fingers. An Erard the present brevet, which he has chosen to organ which he had constructed in the sign with his own hand, and to be countersigned chapel of the Tuileries, was destroyed by by me Secretary of State, and of his commands the insurgents of July, eighteen hundred and Finances. (Signed) Louis.

and thirty. Luckily, the whole of the LE BARON DE BRETEUIL.

mechanism of the expression had been

preserved in the factory. Pierre Erard The chief improvements in musical in- was authorised by the present emperor to struments due to the Erards are, the construct another organ in the Imperial double action of the harp and the double chapel; an order which he promptly ex. escapement of the piano. Sébastien Erard ecuted. The new instrument is admired imagined the improvements, and his bro- as a chef-d'æuvre of mechanical art.

The financial career of the Erards was Jean Baptiste Erard died in eighteen chequered. The political events in France hundred and twenty-six. He had been towards the end of the empire had an evil extremely useful to his brother in superininfluence upon commerce, and the Paris tending the execution of his designs and branch of the house was forced to suspend inventions. In eighteen hundred and payments in eighteen hundred and thir- thirty-one, Sébastien died. During the teen, overwhelmed by, a debt of more period in which the man of genius of than one million three hundred thousand the family was at the head of it, unconfrancs, or fifty-two thousand pounds. The controlled and unassisted, the details of establishment was not, however, totally execution were neglected, the financial ascrippled; for, aided by the prosperity pect of the business was lost sight of, and of the London house, the firm paid off the instruments of the Erards lost somethis debt in ten years.

what of their repute. Pierre Erard, born The history of the fortunes of the in seventeen hundred and ninety-four, Erards is picturesquely connected with was left sole executor of his uncle; and, the beautiful Château de la Muette, at when the inventory of the state of the Passy, near Paris, a château which may affairs was submitted to a London atbe seen from the end of the lake recently torney, Pierre was advised to renounce made in the Bois de Boulogne. When the succession. He had, however, more Sébastien Erard was a young man, newly confidence in the capabilities of the busiarrived in Paris, he waited one Sunday at the ness; and continued it with such success gate of the château to see the Queen Marie that in a few years he extinguished the Antoinette, who resided in it, come out in enormous debt with which it was encumher carriage. Sébastien, who was in the bered. He attended to the execution of midst of the crowd when she passed, the pianos, and raised the house. to its cried, “Vive la Reine !" with a powerful highest pitch of prosperity and renown. voice and an Alsacian accent. The


The Château de la Muette plays once remarked the fine young man, whom she more a part in the history of the Erards. mistook for one of her countrymen. She In eighteen hundred and fifty-two there spoke to him, and asked him of what was à railway executed which environs country he was? He replied, “I am Paris. Pierre Erard saw it in his garden, French at heart by my birth, as your ma- and heard the engines shrieking underjesty is by your marriage.”

neath his windows. It was too much for The queen ordered the Swiss guards at him. He became a mental wreck, and the gate to allow him to walk over the died in August, eighteen hundred and garden and see the grounds. Sébastien fifty-five. went in, and spent the day in admiring The Erards have wisely stood by their the magnificent alleys and fairy-like walks own order. When Jean Baptiste might of the park. A few years later, Sébastien have obtained, by means of her fortune, Erard constructed a piano for Marie An- a husband for his daughter from among toinette, which combined several remark- the nobility of France, he preferred Sponable inventions to adapt the instrument to tini, the composer, who could sympathise the limited resources of her voice. About with the just pride and feel the inventive half a century after the Sunday on which and industrial merits of the Erards. the Queen of France permitted the young Their family is now extinct; and a cenclavichord-maker to walk over the gar- tury elapsing from seventeen hundred and dens, the Château de la Muette was for fifty-two to eighteen hundred and fiftysale, and in eighteen hundred and twenty-five rounds the story from the cradles of three Sébastien Erard was the purchaser, the orphans of the poor cabinet-maker of and installed himself in it with his family. Strasbourg to the hearse of the wealthy He took a great pleasure in repeating the tradesman which divided the attention of story of his first interview with Marie the Parisians with the equipage of Queen Antoinette.


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From Bentley's Miscellany.








fined moor on which no shepherd tended At a point in the forest of the Ardennes, his flock, and where no trace of human where the high roads from Marche to Bas- life was visible. togne and from St. Hubert to La Roche That a site so removed from the busiintersect each other, there stood some ness of the world should have been chosen years ago a solitary house, the owner of for the exercise of an innkeeper's calling, which was an elderly man, a widower, with may appear strange enough to those who an only daughter, whose occupation was only associate with it ideas of bustle and that of an aubergiste. The place where activity, of frequent arrivals and a constant he lived was called Champlon, and with succession of guests; but to such as con. the exception of one or two woodcutters' sider that the true purpose of an inn is to huts, which lay in the depths of the forest, minister to wants which cannot be supplied not a single habitation existed for miles elsewhere, the choice of the locality will around.

be looked upon as very far from excepNo signboard swung above the door to tionable. So, at least, thought the acciindicate to the approaching traveller the dental wayfarers who, journeying between “good entertainment that was to be had the towns of the thinly-populated Ardennes, within, but all along the front of the build- found the distances too great to be traing ran an inscription in tall, slender, black versed by them in a single day; and this, letters upon a white ground, which, an- perhaps, might have had something to do swering the same purpose, said: "Ici on with the reasons of Jean Duroc when he donne à boire et à manger; loge à pied et established himself at Champlon. Pure à cheval,” with the intimation that the philanthropy, unassociated with the slighthouse was kept by “Jean Duroc." In est tinge of personal interest, is, however, default, however, of a sign, the auberge of so very scarce a commodity, that it is exChamplon was painted outside--as is very pecting a little too much to meet with it much the custom in many parts of Belgium in an aubergiste, and Jean Duroc might

-in the most glaring colors, red, yellow, possibly have been influenced by other and blue striving for the mastery. Yet motives. Lonely as the place appeared it this gaudy style of decoration was not at- was not, after all

, an absolute solitude: the tractive : on the contrary, it wore, in some diligence from Luxembourg to Liége and measure, a forbidding aspect, the result in its correspondant the opposite way, passed all likelihood of a too violent contrast with once in every twenty-four hours, and now the scenery near.

and then the carriages of travellers of some That scenery was both wild and beauti- pretension would take that route and halt ful. Its beauty arose chiefly from the mag- for an hour's refreshment; those, also, who nificent foliage of oak and beech by which journeyed on horseback, found it conventhe house was, on three sides, surrounded; ient at times to put up their beasts in the its wildness from the broad, far-stretching stables at Champlon and rest there themheath that opened out towards the south selves for the night. in the direction of Bastogne and the Lux- It was not, perhaps, easy to make a forembourg country: Loneliness was the tune out of scant opportunities like these, great characteristic of the spot, and it but the country innkeeper has generally would be difficult to say which solitude another string to his bow, in the shape of seemed the greater—the dark and appar- the farm-land which he cultivates; and a ently impenetrable forest, or the uncon- I moderate clearing at the edge of the forest seemed entirely to suffice for all the house- banks of that famous river all the way from hold necessities of Jean Duroc, with the Liége to Sedan, and wishing to complete exception of the contents of his cellar, for his tour of that part of the country by a which he was able to pay in hard cash, visit to the Ardennes, had recrossed the money for that and other purposes being Belgian frontier at Bouillon, and proceedalways at his command. This might either ing by St. Hubert, purposed to make his be the remnant of what he brought into way through the forest to La Roche, and the country when he acquired the house then follow the course of that picturesque and land where he now lived, or the ac- stream the Ourthe, and so terminate his cumulation of his gains during several pedestrian journey at the place from years ;

but from whatever source derived, whence he set out. A pebble, however, he was never unprovided with means. stopped his progress. At a short distance There were few, indeed, to notice this fact, from Champlon, where a brawling torrent for Jean Duroc had no neighbors, but crossed his path, he trod awry upon some when he did occasionally make a purchase stepping-stones, twisted his ankle, and at Marche, where he was well enough pulled up lame. He tried to get on, but known, the dealers there noticed with the pain was so great he was forced to resatisfaction that the innkeeper of Champ- linquish the attempt, and sat down by the lon never asked for credit, but gave them road-side till it had in some degree abated. argent comptant for all he bought. On Meantime the shades of evening deepened, the same terms, no doubt, were obtained and it appeared very probable that he the bright silks and trinkets which adorned would have to pass the night in the forest. his daughter Antoinette, whose personal Henri de Gourville--so the young Frenchappearance, especially when she wore her man was named-was fond enough of adholiday costume, was the theme of admira-venture, but to coucher à la belle étoile" tion of all who saw her. This praise was with a sprained ankle, did not exactly enfully justified, for her beauty was of a very ter into his ideas of pleasant peregrination. rare kind, and she knew well how to en- He shouted, therefore, as loud as he could, hance its effect, and many a traveller, as in the hope, though it was but faint, that he parted from the inn, carried with him some cottager might hear him, and come a remembrance of Jean Duroc's daughter, to his assistance. He was more successful which did not very rapidly subside. But than he had much right to expect, for at Antoinette had other than mere casual the third cry he gave, an answering voice admirers. Michel Latrobe and Pierre replied, and presently, through the gloom, Fargeau, the conducteurs of the two dili- he saw a man approaching. It was a gences alluded to, were lovers, who hesi- wood-cutter, who, accompanied by his tated not to declare themselves, though dog, was returning homeward along the neither could truly boast that he had gained road by which Henri de Gourville intendany advantage over his rival, for her smiles ed to have proceeded. To his inquiry as were equally bestowed on each. To greet to whether any gîte was near where he with soft words and smiling glances all could obtain a bed, he was agreeably surshe met, appeared, indeed, to be the mis- prised to learn that only half a mile=“un sion of Antoinette Duroc, and a philoso- petit quart de lieue”—separated him from phical observer might have regretted that the best auberge in the forest. The man the sphere of her influence was, of neces- had good reason for calling it the best, sity, so contracted; but, perhaps, it was since it was the only one, but at that mowide enough. The aubergiste himself was ment Henri de Gourville was not overnice also a man of popular manners, so that the about the shelter it afforded, his principal chance visitant to his house invariably re-object being to secure a roof for his head joiced in the good fortune that had con- and rest for his damaged limb. Half a ducted him to such an oasis in the desert. mile, however, is infinite space for one who

The autumn of 18— was waning away, is unable to walk a yard, and if the woodwhen a young Frenchman, whom the re-cutter, whom he promised a five-franc putation of the beautiful scenery of the piece for his pains, had not consented to Meuse had lured from Paris, found himself carry him on his back to Champlon, daylate one evening on one of the roads that light might have dawned before he reachled to Champlon. Travelling on foot, with ed that hospitable threshold. As it was, his knapsack at his back and his sketch- he arrived there in about twenty minutes, book in his hand, he had ascended by the not, it must be admitted, in the most triVOL. XXXVII.-NO. I.


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umphant style, for pick-a-back consorts ill must not remain in such a place as this, with dignity, but in safety, which was the and you know he cannot walk. Our mémore material thing.

nage, sir," he continued, addressing Henri, “Here is a gentleman, Monsieur Du-“ is a very small one-my daughter and roc," said the wood-cutter, entering the myself, that is all-except a stable-man kitchen of the auberge with the live bur- who also works on the few acres that I den which had replaced his own load of call my own. But, thanks to the bon fagots—“here is a gentleman who has Dieu, we need no more, for you underhurt himself on the road from St. Hubert, stand, monsieur, that the life we lead here and wants a bed, and most likely a supper, is very simple.” for at this time of night, you see, one is “It seems very comfortable, however,” mostly hungry.”

replied Henri, whose eyes instinctively “He can have both and welcome,” said followed the movements of Antoinettethe master of the house, coming forward “very comfortable-charming I should ,

I from the wood-fire which was blazing say—that is, I mean, extremely pleasant, briskly on the hearth. Gently, Fran- to have only—not to be troubled with çois ! Here, sir, lower yourself into this stupid servants, who are always in the chair for the moment; you shall be moved way, and never do what one wishes.” into the salon immediately. Antoinette !" There was a little confusion in these re

"I am here, father,” replied a voice so marks, but Monseur Duroc answered as if sweet, that, forgetting the pain which he he felt their full value. felt, Henri de Gourville hastily looked "Exactly, sir,” he said. “That is quite towards the door by which the speaker my opinion. For in my état of an auberentered. The bright light of the beechen giste I could not feel at ease if I did not fire fell full upon the slender figure of a see myself that my guests were properly tall girl, revealing, if not her features in attended. Be careful, François, not to

, their full expression, enough to show that jerk the chair suddenly-there--steady, beauty was certainly her portion. “I am across the passage, keep the light near us, here, father,” she repeated, “what do you Antoinette!" desire ?

With these directions the removal of “My child,” said the aubergiste, “Fran- Monsieur de Gourville into the salon was çois, the wood-cutter of La Fosse, has effected without trouble. The wood-cutbrought in a gentleman who has met with ter was then dismissed, and Henri was an accident. Let the best bed up-stairs left alone with his attentive host and his be got ready, while I see to his hurt, and beautiful daughter. what else he may require."

Their first care was to relieve the pain “My good friend,” said Henri de Gour- of his swollen foot, Antoinette's own ville, now that I am in this chair, I don't hands fomenting the suffering part, while feel in any hurry to leave it; we will talk Jean Duroc, who stood by with the necesabout bed by-and-by. It is no great acci- sary appliances, repeatedly thanked le bon dent, only a sprained ankle, which pre- Dieu that nothing worse had happened. vented me from walking any further. If “If monsieur had unfortunately broken mademoiselle will be good enough to give his leg he should have been in despair, for me a little vinegar and warm water to there was not a surgeon within five leagues. bathe it, I dare say I shall manage very Tomorrow, he made no doubt, monsieur well.”

would be able to resume his journey, and “Oh, willingly, sir,” returned Antoin-then all would be well. But monsieur, as ette, in the same soft accents as before. François had said, must be hungry as well “I am sure whatever my father and I can as tired. It was fortunately the best seado we will with the very greatest plea- son of the year for the table: he had a sure."

hare and several grives in the larder, beShe lit a candle as she spoke, and pre- sides some of the excellent mutton for pared to get what was wanted. Henri de which the Ardennes was famous,--so that Gourville gave the money he had prom- monsieur would find plenty to eat; and ised to the wood-cutter, who, after many then, for wine, he had a quality that could reverences, was about to take his depart- not be surpassed in Paris itself.” ure, when the aubergiste stopped him. “That may very well be,” said Henri,

“Wait a moment,” he said, “and as- laughing," for I, who have lived in Paris sist me to lift monsieur into the salon; he a good deal, know perfectly that the most

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