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hundred years hence as with the events the depression of feeling occasioned by which were passing under his eyes." He these events, he yet never lost his footing, continued to harangue M. Bredin on this but, when the wave had broken over him, high argument for upwards of an hour, he was left standing firm upon the rock. when he was completely exhausted by the This consolation did not forsake him in the effort. On reaching Marseilles his illness final hour. His calmness and placidity compelled him to halt. A slight amend- astonished his friends who were accus ment was at first apparent. "His age, tomed to the warmth and vehemence of not very advanced, was also," continues his character. The last words he spoke M. Arago, "a ground for hope. They did add one more proof to the hundreds which not remember that Ampère might have exist of the prodigious extent of his readsaid, with the Dutch painter Van Over- ing and memory. A functionary of the beck, 'Reckon double, gentlemen, reckon College commenced reciting, in a low double, for I have lived day and night."" voice, some passages from the Imitation He himself was conscious that his glass of Thomas à Kempis, and Ampère stopped had nearly run out. When the priest ad- him to observe that "he knew the book dressed to him pious exhortations, he an- by heart!" "On the 10th of June, 1836," swered, "Thank you; before I started says M. Arago, "at five in the morning, from Paris I had fulfilled all my Christian our illustrious colleague, yielding to the duties." He had been brought up reli- repeated blows of sixty years of phygiously by his mother; he had been a dili- sical and moral suffering, finished dygent reader of the Bible and the Fathers; ing-according to the beautiful expres and although during the political convulsion of Buffon-rather than finished to sions which disturbed his country his faith live." Tandem felix. He was happy at was troubled for a brief interval through last.

From Dickens' Household Words.


I SHALL do some service to the reader, | rica had been allowed to have their own if I communicate to him a few facts and hints which have been let fall in print by M. Jules Gérard, killer of lions and lieutenant in the third regiment of Spahis.

M. Gérard's shooting campaigns have been undertaken from a sense of duty; as his book is written in the hope of raising up worthy disciples and successors to himself in the same branch of the chase. Be it remembered that the French are to be thanked by the rest of Europe for many things they have done in Algeria; for many things which have been harshly criticised, and for much even which they could not help doing. The Arab has been too long regarded as a purely poetic object. It will clear our vision to rest assured that, if the inhabitants of the north coast of Af

way, without control or interference, the Mediterranean waters might still be swarming with the pirates of Morocco, Tunis, and Algiers, and many a Christian family might have to mourn a member still pining in Mohamedan slavery.

But the Arabs are brave. They look down on Europeans from the height of their grandeur with insufferable disdain. The mission of the French, therefore, has been to subdue them by a moral victory. If you do good amongst them by giving to the poor, they will say you don't know what to do with your money; and will not think a bit the better of you for it. If you do good by rendering strict justice, they will say you do this to conciliate their good opinion; to convert them to your

belief, your customs, your religion; and they will be distrustful of you. If you prove yourself bolder and stronger than they, they will hold you in respect and veneration. You will overawe them, always and everywhere. They will not dare to look you in the face. You risk your life, therefore, not solely for your own pleasure, but for civilised Europe, for your native land.

What the Arabs fear most, after God, is the lion. To destroy him they usually make use of stratagem. They decoy him into a hole, and butcher him there. They also murder him beneath the screen of solid-built subterranean retreats called melbedas, or from the tops of trees to which they have climbed. Rarely do they attack him openly; and, when they do it, it is a battle in which the victory is dearly bought, even when the victory is on their side. But never has an Arab, alone or in company, dared to march against a lion, or to await him unprotected by shelter during the night. The insolent pride of this people has been lowered by the sporting feats of a single Frenchman.

The Arab is brave; and how is it possible for him to be otherwise? he is born, lives, and dies, in the midst of dangers which the civilised European knows not, and cannot know. In his childhood, instead of morality, they talk to him about massacres, war, and combats. The wisest, most virtuous, the man of the greatest consideration, is the man who commits murder the best, and the oftenest. He is taught family vengeance, mutual hatred of tribe against tribe, execration of Christians; and, to complete his education, when he has attained his fifteenth year, some evening after the old men have been telling, around the fire beneath their tent, their hatreds and vengeances,-when the neighbors have retired, just as the lad is going to seek a place to lie down in, his father pushes him with his foot, calling him lazy and coward. The boy, who does not understand what such treatment means, begs his parent to explain. The elder laughs, and points to an old pistol hanging on the tent-pole by the side of a poignard. The lad leaps toward his father, and respectfully kisses him on the shoulder. The parent, happy and proud to have so promising a son, makes him sit down beside him, and addresses him thus:

The lad relates the story of his flirtations with a girl whom he has sometimes visited, at the risk of having his brains dashed out by a pistol-shot,

"Very well," says the father, "but that is not enough. You are tall now, and it makes me blush to hear the neighbors call you little. It is time to show them that you are a man.”

"I ask nothing better," replies the boy; "but to go alone-the night looks very dark, and I am afraid."

"For the first time you shall not go alone. Take these arms. Take off your burnous; it is too white. And tighten your shirt beneath your girdle."

Whilst the pupil is making his toilette, the old man slips under a friend's tent, and says, "My son is ready." The mammas shed a few tears, fearing an unfortunate and unsuccessful result; but they are reassured by the knowledge that their darlings will be conducted by a man of prudence and courage.

Every thing is thus arranged for the best; and, at ten o'clock, in a pelting rain and a night as dark as pitch, three men, dressed in earth-colored shirts raised above the knees by a leather girdle, mysteriously start from the douar, or clustered group of tents. Beneath a burnous patched in a thousand places, and which has served three generations without being washed, each of these adventurers conceals a pistol and a dagger. Their heads are covered with brown caps, and their feet are naked. They march in silence across the country, and do not stop till they are within sight of their enemy's fires. The hostile douar consists of ten or twelve tents pitched in a circle, and touching each other. In the middle are the flocks and herds. Outside, and before each tent, are a multitude of dogs, who admirably fulfil the duty of sentinels. In the douar is a man whose father or grandfather, killed the parent, or the grandparent of one of our adventurers. The life of this man is what they want. One by one the fires are put out, and every body sleeps, or seems to sleep, except the dogs. The elder, aware that at a certain hour of the night some of the dogs, worn out by fatigue, go to sleep at last, waits for the moment of action to arrive.

Meanwhile, a lion who has gone without his dinner, and who, as may be sup66 Have you ever gone out at night with- posed from the lateness of the hour, has a out my seeing you ?" rather sharp-set appetite, arrives in the

same direction. He perceives three men crouching on the ground. "Good," he says; "here are three comrades waiting for me extremely apropos." And he lays himself down. You must know that the lion is naturally very indolent. Now, as men who prowl about by night are more frequently cattle-stealers than murderers, the mother-lioness generally gives the following advice to her cub, when, on attaining his majority, he feels a desire to see the world "My child, whenever you meet with men by night, you will follow them; you will do them no harm, so long as they keep quiet. Men's flesh is not so good as bullock's flesh; for the most part, they are as dry as herrings. You will therefore travel in company with them. When they arrive near a douar, you will lie down and they will work for your benefit. Allow them to drive away the beasts they have stolen, to a certain distance; and then, when you come to a brook or a spring beside the path, present yourself and claim your portion."


so grave-dark is the night. Every one
has gone to rest again, and, with the ex-
ception of a few old dogs, the guardian
pack have followed their master's example.
Then our three men carefully inspect the
priming of their pistols, and creeping on
their hands and knees, they advance silent
and invisible. The tent is pointed out by
the elder, who only says these words to
the young people, "Children, be men."
They touch the hedge of living bushes
which protects the douar; the outlet for
the flock is stopped up with thorns.
old man whispers in his companions' ears,
"Do not stir from this spot till you hear
the dogs barking on the other side; but
then dispatch your work quickly." He
turns on his belly right-about face, and,
creeping round the douar, he has arrived
at the side opposite to the tent of the com-
mon enemy. He raises himself little by
little. If the dogs do not yet see him, he
advances a few steps-he coughs. That
will do. In an instant, at the warning
given by one, all the curs of the douar are
around him. To keep them at a distance
he has only to walk towards them on all
fours-the dogs are afraid, and will not
come near him.

The lion who has followed his mamma's instructions, has found the advantage of doing so. Instead of having to carry or drag his dinner for a tiresome quarter of an hour, and then going afterwards to find But the gate of the douar has already a brook to slake his thirst, he is spared all been cautiously removed by his lads in that trouble by his human friends. Well; training. The tent is there, within their our lion is stretched on the ground, and is grasp. They thrust their heads in and liswaiting; but the dogs, who have seen his ten. Nothing. Everybody is slumbereyes, or have scented him, make a dia- ing. The women are at the further end bolical hubbub. The alarm is given in the children are near the women. The the douar, and every one is up and stir-master whom they want, is lying asleep ring. The women relight the fires, and throw blazing brands about. If that manœuvre is to go on long, the day will break before the lion's comrades can do a stroke of business. But hunger is pressing, and he grows impatient. Ah, ha!" he says, "I may as well take a sheep myself; it is not heavy to carry." And he rises. The douar is situated on a slope, and he rapidly wends his way to a point above it. The dogs, who follow him with eye and nose, move towards the same quarter. He darts forward, and, in less time than it takes me to tell it, he has cleared the hedge, six feet in height, which surrounds the douar. He has caught a sheep in the enclosure, leapt back again, and disappeared. The dogs are inside the tents, dumb with stupor. The men are like the dogs. The tempest over, the rape of the sheep is formally verified. No European eye would be able to distinguish either sheep or tents,

across the entrance, with a pistol under his head and his yataghan by his side. The lad with whom we are acquainted has completely disappeared beneath the tent. The darkness prevents him from seeing his enemy, but he hears his breathing. He drags himself up to him; he scents his breath. The head must certainly be there! A pistol-shot is heard, and all is told. An hour afterwards, our three assassins are snoring in their tents, like saints in bliss. Next day the child is proclaimed a man, and is allowed a deliberative voice in the councils. His comrades speak to him with deference, and some pretty girl will recompense him for his good action.

The man who has received such an education as this is necessarily bold, and bold by night. Whence, then, comes the respect which the Arab entertains for the lion? It arises from the numerous instances which the animal has given of his

strength and courage. There have been many struggles, many combats-always has the lion proved the strongest. When he has fallen before the force of numbers, the victory has cost too dear.

The lion's existence is divided into two distinct parts, which make him, to a certain extent, two distinct animals, and have given rise to numberless errors respecting him. Those two parts are, the night and the day. By day his habit is to retire into the forest, away from noise, to digest and sleep at his ease. Because man has chanced to meet face to face, with impunity, by day, a lion whom the flies or the sun has compelled to shift his quarters, or who was driven by thirst to the nearest brook, it has been said that the lion will not at tack man; it has been forgotten that the animal was half asleep, and also had his stomach full. In a country like Algeria, literally covered with flocks and herds, the lion is never hungry during the day. The natives, fully aware of that, take care to keep at home at the hour when the lion leaves his den; and, if they are obliged to travel by night they never do so alone or on foot.

me, so much for the government, and so much for the lion; and the lion has al ways the lion's share. Lions are not adult till they are eight years old. At that age they have acquired their complete strength; and the male, a third larger than the fe male, has his full mane. Do not judge of wild lions by the degenerate individuals whom you behold in menageries. The latter have been taken from the teat, and brought up like tame rabbits, not with their mother's milk, open-air life, and liberty; but with insufficient and unhealthy diet. Hence their mean and slender proportions, their wretched physiognomy, and their scanty mane, which makes them resemble poodle-dogs, and would cause them to be disowned by their fellowbrutes in a state of nature, who live well by plundering the Arabs, and on whom they lay a tax ten time heavier than that which is paid to the state. A lion's life lasts from thirty to forty years. He annually kills or consumes six thousand francs' (two hundred and forty pounds') worth of horses, mules, oxen, camels, and sheep. Taking the average length of his existence, which is thirty-five years, every It is difficult to estimate the destruction lion costs the Arabs two hundred and ten of life and property caused in Africa by thousand francs. The thirty lions at this lions. One lion whose acquaintance was moment to be found in the province of specially sought after by M. Gérard had Constantine, and who will be replaced by been domiciled in the range of hills called others arriving from the regency of Tunis Jebel-Krounega for more than thirty or Morocco, cost a hundred and eighty years. During that time his maintenance thousand francs annually. In the districts must have cost the neighborhood no small where M. Gérard habitually shoots, the trifle. From the age of eight months to Arab who pays five francs in taxes to the a year, lion-whelps begin to attack the state, pays fifty to the lion. The natives flocks of sheep and goats which during have destroyed half the woods of Alge the day come into the neighborhood of ria, to keep these dangerous animals at a their home. Sometimes they attack cat-greater distance. The French authorities; tle; but they are still so clumsy, that in the hope of putting a stop to the fires there are often ten beasts wounded for one killed, and their father is obliged to interfere. It is not before they are two years old that young lions are able to strangle a horse, a bullock, or a camel, by a single bite in the throat, and to clear the hedges, more than six feet high, by which the douars are supposed to be protected. The period from one or two years of age is absolutely ruinous to the country; in fact, the amiable family kill not merely to feed themselves, but to learn how to kill. It is easy to imagine the expense of such an apprenticeship to those who have to supply the materials worked upon. The Arabs on pitching their tents in a fresh spot, calculate as follows: so much for

which threaten to destroy the forests completely, inflict heavy fines on the Arabs who act as incendiaries. What happens? The Arabs club to pay the fines, and the fires go on as destrcctively as ever.

The lion's black mail on property is exacting enough; now for that on human life. In summer time, when the days are long, the black-maned lion (there are three varieties of lions in Algeria) leaves his den at sunset and takes his post by the side of a mountain-path, to await for late-travelling horsemen and foot-passengers. An Arab of M. Gérard's acquaintance, in such a rencontre, dismounted, took off the bridle and saddle, and ran away, carrying on his head the equipment of his horse,

which was immediately strangled before | to the hole in which he had retreated. At his eyes. But things do not always turn last, daylight came, and the lion departed. out so well; and, whether on foot or The instant that the unfortunate man got mounted, travellers seldom get clear off, out of the silo, he found himself in the if they are once in the presence of the presence of several of the Bey's cavalry, black-maned lion. There are a great who were on his track. One of them took many modern instances of Arabs being him up on horseback behind him, and he devoured by lions; the following is quoted, was brought back to Constantine, where because it is well-known to all the native they put him into prison again. The Bey, inhabitants of Constantine: scarcely believing the facts related by his vassals, desired to see the man, and had him appear before him, still dragging after him his brother's leg. Ahmed-Bey, notwithstanding his reputation for cruelty, ordered the fetter to be broken, and granted the poor wretch his life.

Several years before the French occupation of that city, amongst the numerous malefactors with whom the prisons overflowed, were two persons condemned to death, two brothers who were to be executed the next day. They were highway robbers, hamstringers, and cut-throats, of whose courage and strength the most surprising tales were related. The Bey, fearing they would make their escape, ordered them to be shackled together; that is, each of them had one foot riveted in the same ring of solid iron. No one knows how the matter was managed; but every one knows that, when the executioner presented himself, the cell was empty. The two brothers, who had succeeded in escaping, after vain exertions to cut or open their common fetter, proceeded across country, in order to avoid any unpleasant meeting. When daylight came they hid themselves in the rocks; at night, they continued their journey. In the middle of the night, they met a lion. The two brothers began by throwing stones at him and shouting with all their strength to drive him away; but the animal lay down before them, and would not stir. Finding that threats and insults did no good, they tried the effect of prayers; but the lion bounded upon them, and dashed them to the ground, and amused himself by eating the elder of the two at the side of his brother, who pretended to be dead. When the lion came to the leg which was confined by the iron fetter, finding it resisted his teeth, he cut off the limb above the knee. Then, whether he had eaten enough, or whether he was thirsty, he proceeded to a spring a little The poor surviving wretch looked around for a place of refuge; for he was afraid the lion would come back again after drinking. And therefore, dragging after him his brother's leg, he contrived to hide himself in a silo, which he had the good luck to find close by. Shortly afterwards, he heard the lion roaring with rage and pacing to and fro close

way off

It is now time to buckle on our gamebag, and go out with M. Gérard to shoot a lion to put into it.

"My aid had been requested,"-writes the Lion-killer,-" by the inhabitants of the Mahouna (circle of Ghelma), to rid them of a family of lions who had taken up their quarters among them, and who abused the rights of hospitality. On arriving there, I received all the requisite information, and I learned that every night they wert to drink in the OuedCherf. I immediately repaired to the borders of that stream, and found there, not only those gentry's footmarks on the sand, but also the points of their usual approach and departure. The family was numerous; it consisted of the father, mother, and three grown-up children. According to the natives, their den was situated in an impenetrable stronghold halfway up the mountain. Old Taïeb, the chieftain of the place, came to me, took me by the arm, and said, as he pointed to the numerous tracks imprinted on the water's edge:

"They are too many for us; let us come away.'

"At this epoch, I had already passed more than a hundred nights alone and unsheltered, with the starry firmament for my roof, sometimes seated at the bottom of a ravine, frequented by lions, sometimes beating the narrow paths which were scarcely distinguishable through the woods. I had met with gangs of marauders and with lions, and, by the help of God and St. Hubert, I had always got out of my difficulties unharmed. Only, experience had taught me that two bullets rarely sufficed to kill an adult lion; and every time I opened a fresh campaign, I could not help remembering such

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