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only surviving son of its late king flying from an adopted murderer, and seeking that safety in foreign countries which he cannot command in his own kingdom.
Whither-oh, whither shall I fly? If I return to the royal palace of my ancestors, my father's throne is seized by the murderer of my brother. What can I there expect, but that Jugurtha should hasten to imbrue in my blood those hands which are now reeking with my brother's? If I were to fly for refuge, or for assistance, to any other court, from what prince can I hope for protection, if the Roman commonwealth gives me up? From my own family or friends I have no expectations. My royal father is no more. He is beyond the reach of violence, and out of hearing of the complaints of his unhappy son. Were my brother alive, our mutual sympathy would be some alleviation; but he is hurried out of life in his early youth by the very hand which should have been the last to injure any of the royal family of Numidia. The bloody Jugurtha has butchered all whom he suspected to be in my interest. Some have been destroyed by the lingering torment of the cross; others have been given a prey to wild beasts, and their anguish made the sport of men more cruel than wild beasts. If there be any yet alive, they are shut up in dungeons, there to drag out a life more intolerable than death.
Submission. Look down, illustrious senators of Rome, from that Entreating. height of power to which you are raised, on the unexampled distresses of a prince, who is, by the Submission, cruelty of a wicked intruder, become an outcast from Cautioning. all mankind. Let not the crafty insinuations of him
who returns murder for adoption, prejudice your judgment. Do not listen to the wretch who has butchered the son and relations of a king, who gave
him power to sit on the same throne with his own
I have been informed that he labours by his Accusation. emissaries to prevent your determining any thing against him in his absence, pretending that I magnify my distress, and that I might, for him, have staid in peace in my own kingdom. But, if ever the time come Complaining. when the due vengeance from above shall overtake him, he will then dissemble in the very same manner as I do. Then he who now, hardened in wickedness, triumphs over those whom his violence has laid low, will, in his turn, feel distress, and suffer for his impious ingratitude to my father, and his blood-thirsty cruelty to my brother.
Oh, murdered, butchered brother! Oh, dearest to Lamenting. my heart-now gone for ever from my sight.-But why should I lament his death? He is indeed deprived of the blessed light of heaven, of life, and kingdom at once by the very person who ought to have been the first to hazard his own life in defence of any one of Micipsa's family: but, as things are, my brother is not so much deprived of these comforts as delivered from terror, from flight, from exile, and the endless train of miseries which render life to me a burden. He lies full low, gored with wounds Horror. and festering in his own blood. But he lies in peace. He feels none of the miseries which rend Anguish. my soul with agony and distraction; whilst I am set up a spectacle to all mankind of the uncertainty of human affairs. So far from having it in my power to revenge his death, I am not master of the means of securing my own life. So far from being in a condition to defend my kingdom from the violence of the usurper, I am obliged to apply for foreign protection for my own person.
Fathers! Senators of Rome! the arbiters of the Vehement solicitation. world! To you I fly for refuge from the murderous
Urgent en- fury of Jugurtha. By your affection for your children, by your love for your country, by your own virtues, by the majesty of the Roman commonwealth, by all that is sacred, and all that is dear to you, deliver a wretched prince from undeserved, unprovoked injury, and save the kingdom of Numidia, which is your own property, from being the prey of violence, usurpation, and cruelty.
The speech of Galgacus, the general of the Caledonii,1 in which he exhorts the army he had assembled, in order to expel the Romans, to fight valiantly against their foes under Julius Agricola.-Tacitus.
COUNTRYMEN AND FELLOW-SOLDIERS, when I consider the cause for which we have drawn our swords, and the necessity of striking an effectual blow before we sheath them again, I feel joyful hopes arising in my mind, that this day an opening shall be made for the restoration of British liberty, and for shaking off Vexation. the infamous yoke of Roman slavery. Caledonia is Courage. yet free. The all-grasping power of Rome has not yet been able to seize our liberty. But it is only to be preserved by valour. By flight it cannot, for the sea confines us, and that the more effectually, as being possessed by the fleets of the enemy. As it is by arms that the brave acquire immortal fame, so it is by arms that the sordid must defend their lives and properties, or lose them. You are the very men, my friends, who have hitherto set bounds to the unmeasurable ambition of the Romans. In consequence of your
1 The Caledonii were, according to Ptolemy, the inhabitants of the interior parts of what before the union was called Scotland, now North Britain.
inhabiting the more inaccessible parts of the island, you have hitherto been free from the common disgrace and the common sufferings. You lie almost out of the reach of fame itself; but you must not Warning. expect to enjoy this untroubled security any longer, unless you bestir yourselves so effectually as to put it out of the power of the enemy to search out your retreats, and disturb your repose. If you do not, curiosity alone will set them a prying, and they will conclude that there is something worth the labour of conquering in the interior parts of the island, merely because they have never seen them. What is little known is often coveted, because so little known. And you are not to expect that you should escape the ravage of the general plunderers of mankind, by any sentiment of moderation in them. When the countries which are more accessible come to be subdued, they will then force their way into those which are harder to come at. And if they should conquer the Accusation. dry land over the whole world, they will then think of carrying their arms beyond the ocean, to see whether there be not certain unknown regions which they may attack, and reduce under subjection to the Roman empire. For we see, that if a country is thought to be powerful in arms the Romans attack it, because the conquest will be glorious; if inconsiderable in the military art, because the victory will be easy; if rich, they are drawn thither by the hope of plunder; if poor, by the desire of fame. The east and the west, the south and the north, the face of the whole earth, is the scene of their military achievements; the world is too little for their ambition and their avarice. They are the only nation ever known to be equally desirous of conquering a poor kingdom as a rich one. Their supreme joy seems to be ravaging, fighting, Horror. and shedding of blood; and when they have unpeo
pled a region, so that there are none left alive able to bear arms, they say they have given peace to that country.
Nature itself has peculiarly endeared to all men, their wives and their children. But it is known to you, my countrymen, that the conquered youth are daily drafted off to supply the deficiencies in the Roman army. The wives, the sisters, and the daughters of the conquered are either exposed to the violence, or at least corrupted by the arts, of these Accusation. cruel spoilers. The fruits of our industry are plundered to make up the tributes imposed on us by oppressive avarice. Britons sow their fields, and the Complaining greedy Romans reap them. Our very bodies are worn out in carrying on their military works, and our toils are rewarded by them with abuse and stripes. Those who are born to slavery are bought and main
Indignation. tained by their master. But this unhappy country pays for being enslaved, and feeds those who enslave it. And our portion of disgrace is the bitterest, as the inhabitants of this island are the last who have Accusation. fallen under the galling yoke. Our native bent against tyranny is the offence which most sensibly irritates those lordly usurpers. Our distance from the seat of government, and our natural defence by the surrounding ocean, render us obnoxious to their suspicions; for they know that Britons are born with an instinctive love of liberty; and they conclude, that we must be naturally led to think of taking the advantage of our detached situation to disengage ourselves, one time or other, from their oppression.
Thus, my countrymen and fellow-soldiers, suspected and hated, as we ever must be by the Romans, there is no prospect of our enjoying even a tolerable state of bondage under them. Let us, then, in the name of all that is sacred, and in defence of all that