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Zouave say to his fellow soldiers, as they were passing my window. All we have heard so far has been the tuning of the fiddles, and very discordant, ma foi! some of it has been. Now the chef d'orchestra has taken his place we shall have the grande musique.' The comparison was as true as it was homely."

The Standard says:-"The auspicious event did not, indeed, come off, as was intended, on St. Peter's Day; but what matter when it is a greater than Peter who is now proclaimed? Neither was the voting unanimous or by acclamation, as Pius IX. had desired. In spite of all the efforts of the Jesuits to ensure unanimity, there is even a larger minority than was anticipated—a minority which, including, as it does, nearly the whole of the German Prelates, besides a powerful section of the Gallican and American Churches, portends something very like a schism in the bosom of the faith. The eighty-eight Bishops who deny that the head of their Church is infallible are a serious drawback from the Papal triumph."

The John Bull makes the following observations:-"In the Allgemeine Zeitung a letter appeared, dated from Rome, in December in last year, stating that 767 Bishops had assembled in Council, and that the main reason why they were convened was in order to vote a new Article to the Faith, in the shape of a dogma declaring the personal Infallibility of the Pope. The week that has passed has witnessed the accomplishment of the darling project of Pius IX. and the Jesuit Fathers who surround him, and on Sunday next, or Tuesday at the furthest, the dogma just defined will be officially promulgated, and added to the Articles of a Christian man's Faith. It is beside our purpose to speak of the relation of the new Articles to the scheme of theology; we are content to register the fact of its having, after a gallant struggle on the part of the most learned Prelates of the Roman Obedience, passed into the domain of Faith. We shall only point to one circumstance which considerably abates the significancy of the vote which has just been made at the Vatican. The Bishops who were present at the opening of the Council were, as we have already stated, 767, of whom, let it be remembered, 250 were merely titular Prelates chosen by, and dependant for their bread, on the Court of Rome. Of these 450, according to the information conveyed by the wires of the telegraph, have voted in favour of the new dogma; eightyeight have had the courage to meet the proposal with a direct negative, and sixty-two oppose the dogma in more modified terms. These numbers account for some 600 Fathers out of the 767 assembled. What of the 167 who declined to vote in favour of the dogma, though they seemed to have lacked the resolution to oppose the favourite dogma of the Pope? The majority which approved of the dogma is so narrow, and under the circumstances of the cajolery and the threats which have been lavishly used, is entitled to so little weight, that it will hardly meet with acceptance from the lay members of the Roman Catholic Church. A dogma voted under the circumstances to which we have referred is entitled to no weight, and will receive but little from any quarter.

A Pall Mall Gazette letter from Rome says:-"There seems to be no doubt that the Bishops of the minority are acting under the advice of France and Austria. For several days past they have held conferences with the Amassadors of those Powers, and the leaders have been entertained at a grand banquet by the Marquis de Banneville. The Pope is said to have received a lettter from the Empress of Austria, representing that the faithful in the Austrian empire share the opinious of their Bishops, and urging him for the sake of the peace and unity of the Church to withdraw the canon of Infallibility."

Notes, Literary, Archæological, &c.

An excellent Italian version of Charles Dickens's "The Cricket on the Hearth" has been written by Signora Grazia Mancini Pierantoni. The Dean of Westminster has undertaken to write the Introduction to the forthcoming work on the Palestine Exploration Fund.

The Rev. J. H. Blunt, whose works on the Prayer Book are well known, is editing "The Mirrour of our Ladye" for the Early English Text Society.

Messrs. Rivington have just published an account of the Ober Ammergau Passion Play, by the Rev. M. M'Coll, who wrote the account

of it in the Times.

Mr. Halliwell is making progress with his "about ten folio volumes," which will illustrate the life of Shakspeare and the history of the Early English stage. The compiler will be glad to receive any information that is new, in reference to the above subjects.

The veteran artist, George Cruikshank, is to furnish the design for the Bruce monument about to be erected on the field of Bannockburn. It will be symbolical of the union of the English and Scottish Crowns.

Mr. Bailey Walker, of Manchester, is engaged on an attempt to bring about a certain amount of fusion between various scientific, religious, educational and other societies, so far as their working expenses are concerned.

A Benedictine named Baschet, already known for his researches in the Archives of Venice, has published a work on the the history of the

Secret Tribunal of that city, in which he has drawn largely upon the despatches of the ambassadors of the Venetian Republic. The accounts of the reporters employed by these able gentlemen are very interesting. Madame the Marquise Orsina, who filled that important post when Rainieri Zen was ambassador at Rome in the time of Pope Gregory the Fifteenth, is an important figure.

The drawings and models which have been selected from the 87,000 works executed by the students of 367 Schools of Art and night classes in the United Kingdom, for the medals and prizes offered by the Science and Art Department for this year's "National Competition," are now being exhibited in the Raphael Cartoon Gallery, South Kensington Museum.

Some fine frescoes have been found on the walls of what is thought to have been the bath-room or balneum of the Palace of Augustus, on the Palatine Hill at Rome-a site which has been purchased by the Emperor of the French. These frescoes have been copied by a French artist, M. Layraud, and the reproductions exhibited in the Palais des Beaux Arts, Paris; the frescoes themselves, to the extent of five fragments, have also been taken to Paris, and will be set up in a room of the Chateau de St. Germain, which is also to contain other objects derived from the same source.

last meeting (July 6) set on foot a project for the preservation from The Royal Historical and Archæological Association of Ireland at its fast-approaching destruction of the far-famed remains of the Churches and round tower of Glendalough, co. Wicklow. One of the first points visited by English tourists, these ruins, so characteristic of primitive Irish Church architecture, are well known, and we feel sure that many will be glad to aid in the proposed work of conservation, which, from the Report submitted to us, seems conceived in a judicious spirit. The Rev. J. Groves, Stoneyford, co. Killarney, is the hon. sec. of the Associa


Among the new names by which the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund has been strengthened are those of Lord Lawrence, the Bishops of London and Chester, the Suffragan Bishop of Nottingham, Archdeacon Bickersteth, Mr. Emanuel Deutsch, Professor Donaldson, and Dr. Keith Johnston. A book on the recent work of the Fund is being prepared for publication. Among the contributors, as at present arranged, are Captain Wilson and Captain Warren, who will take the main subject, that of Jerusalem; Lieutenant Anderson, Mr. Deutsch, Professor Donaldson, Rev. F. W. Holland (on Sinai), and Mr. W. S. W. Vaux, F.R.S. Dean Stanley will contribute the Preface. It will be published by Mr. Bentley. It is hoped that the publisher, Mr. Bentley, may be able to bring out the work early in the autumn.

SPAIN'S PLACE IN EUROPE.-We quote the following from the Saturday Review:-The Spaniards have reasons to be profoundly mortified by the treatment which they have lately received in almost every quarter. The worst affronts are those which, being wholly or partially unconscious, imply either contempt or an insulting ignorance. The French Government and nation, in their unreasonable fury against Prussia, have almost forgotten to regard Spain, which is the cause of the quarrel, as even a party concerned in the dispute. It may be hoped that Lord Granville has not committed England to any similar error; but the Spaniards have just cause of irritation in the language used by some principal English journals. The discharge, by the Spanish Prime Minister, of a commission entrusted to him by his colleagues with the tacit approval of the majority of the Cortes, has, on the pretext that his negotiations were conducted with a secresy which was indispensable to success, been repeatedly stigmatised as an intrigue. If the chief of the Spanish Government had been a subject or a vassal of France, his contumacy in frustrating the policy of his sovereign could not have been more summarily condemned. If the Cortes and the Spanish people approve of the conduct of the Minister, it is monstrous that the self-appointed representatives of English opinion should censure his prudent reticence. It was impossible to anticipate the outburst of genuine and of feigned indignation which followed the disclosure of Prim's selection. If almost any other of the many mediatised German Princes who now owe allegiance to the Crown of Prussia had been chosen, his family name could scarcely have been used as a pretext for opposing his candidature. The identity of name, which is almost the only connection between the Prince of Sigmaringen and the Royal Family of Prussia, has probably misled nine hundred and ninety-nine out of every thousand Frenchmen who have protested against the aggrandizement of a rival Power. There is no internal improbability in a story which has probably been invented for the occasion, to the effect that Prince Leopold was first proposed by the Emperor Napoleon when he was some time since on a visit at the Tuilleries. He is by one descent a Murat, and by another a Beauharnais, and he is not related to King William. A defiance to France on the part of the Spanish Government would have been an act of culpable rashness, but it could not properly be called an intrigue. The Ministers have not been allowed to show whether they would have listened to a courteous remonstrance, and it is not to be supposed that they can submit to arrogant dictation. It is unfortunate that English writers should taunt them with their want of deference to an overbearing neighbour.

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Lately published, Svo., pp. 530, price 16s.


This day, 8vo., cloth, 18. 6d., post free.



From the French of Dr. Killias.
Second Edition, with Topographical, Climatic, and
Piscatorial Notes, Mountain
Skeleton Tours, &c.
Ascents, Excursions,
Rev. N. B. WHITBY (English Chaplain at Tarasp).
Compiled and Edited by the

Also, Reprinted from the "Medical Times and
Gazette" of April, 23rd, 1870. Dr. J. EURNEY YEO's
Article on "Tarasp in the Lower Engadine."
London: THOMAS BOSWORTH, 198, High Hol orn.
This day, small Svo., 3s,, nett, or by post, 3s. 3d.,


F.S.A., Vicar of Saints', Lambeth. Contents: Preface-List of Books quoted or referred to. CHAPTER I.-Introductory: Statement of the Author's object. II. The Preface to the Ordinal of 1549. III. Form for the Ordination of Deacons, 1549. for the Ordination of Priests, 1549. V. Form for the IV. Form Consecration of Bishops, 1549. Ordinal. VI. The Edwardine VII. The Ordinal of King Edward VI.— Objections. VIII. Ordinal of King Edward VI. in substantial harmony with the most ancient forms. IX. Some other ancient forms for Ordination. X. Medieval forms for Consecration and Ordination in the West. XI. The same subject continued. XII Eastern forms

n use

of Ordination. XIII. Forms of Ordination amongst the separated communities of the East Christians of St. Thomas. XIV. The Nestorians. XV. Archbishop Matthew Parker. XVI. The Consecration of William Barlow. VII. The Consecrations of Hodgkins, Scory and Coverdale. XVIII. The Consecration of Archbishop Parker. XIX. The Nag's Head Fable. XX. The Case of Bishop Bonner versus Bishop Horne. XXI. The Sacrament of Baptism. XXII. The Office of Consecrator and Assistant-Consecrator. XXIII. The Doctrine of Intention Roman Catholic Testimonies to the Validity of Anglican XXIV. and XXV. Orders. XXVI. The Cases of Certain Anglican Clergy who have joined the Church of Rome. Changes made in the English Ordinal in 1662. XXVIII. XXVII. Concluding Remarks and Summary of the Author's argument.


Tables of Consecration: I. Archbishop Parker.
II. Archbishop Laud. III. Archbishop Juxon.
APPENDICES.-I. Authoritative statements regarding
Ordination officially published in 1537 and 1543.
II. An Act concerning the Consecration of a Bishop
made in 25th year of Henry VIII. Cap. xx. sec. 5.
III. Statutes relating to the Consecration of Bishops
under Edward VI.

IV. Act 3 Edward VI. to draw up a New Ordinal.
V. Act to annex the Ordinal to the Prayer Book.
VI. Act 1 of Mary to repeal the preceding Acts.
VII. Act 1 of Elizabeth to re-establish the Book of
Common Prayer.

VIII. Act declaring the legality of the Ordinations.
XI. The Thirty-Nine Articles on Ordination.

X. Documents relating to the Consecration of Barlow
and Hodgkins.

XI. Documents relating to Scory and Coverdale.
XII. Documents relating to the Consecration of

XIII. Parker's Book, De Antiquitate Britannica

XIV. Henry Machyn's Diary, with testimonies regard
ing the same.

XV. Breve of Pope Julius III. to Cardinal Pole.
XVI. Dr. Lingard on Parker s Consecration.
XVII. Documents relating to the Consecration of

XVIII. The Nonjuring Consecrations. Bishop Hickes,

XIX. Documents concerning the Case of Bishop Gordon of Galloway.

XX. Dr. Newman's Letters on Anglican Orders and replies to the same.

XXI. Certain Comments on Roman Catholic state-
ments. The Charges of Forgery.

XXII. Letters of Orders of various Communions.
General Index.

London: J. T. HAYES, Lyall-place, Eaton-square




ALFRED TERRACE, UPPER HOLLOWAY, N.. FOR DESTITUTE WOMEN AND CHILDREN. PRESIDENT: Rev. W. W. MALET, S.S.J. Rev. A. WILLIS FLEMING, S.S.J. WARDEN: Affords, besides a refuge for those women who desire to forsake their sinful life, a Lying-in Ward and Nurseries for Children.

Applicants are admitted without any distinction as to creed, country. or parish.

FUNDS are urgently needed to carry out the work. Cheques to be crossed "London and South-Western Bank, Holloway Branch." P.O.O. payable at Manorplace Post-office, in Upper Holloway, N.

Hon. Treasurer, J. Cox, Esq, 11, Seven Sisters'-road, N. Hon. Secretary, H. R. GOUGH, S.S.J., Esq., Tollington, Park, N.

sidered with reference to their Moral and Prophetical Meaning. By HENRY W. I. THIERSCH, D.D., late Professor of Divinity in the University of Marburgh.

"This is a very useful and good guide towards the
understanding of the twenty-two Parables which were
spoken by our Blessed Lord. To those Priests who
want to get at the main drift and burden of one of these
discourses-either for a Sermon or a Bible Class-in a
few minutes this little book will prove itself to be an
invaluable boon. The salient points of each Parable
are seized upon at once, and the commentary seldom
extends over more than five or six pages. The reader

is not burdened with useless matter, and what there is,
is very much to the point. There is nothing either
verbose or high-flown in the treatise; its very earnest
simplicity must commend it to any houghtful mind."
Church Review

London: THOMAS BOSWORTH, 198, High Holborn,
Removed from Regent-street


By Promoters of the Catholic Revival in the
Church of England.

No. 1. Protestantism and the Prayer Book. 18.
No. 2. Church and State. 1s. 6d.

No. 3. Confession and Absolution. 1s.
London: THOMAS BOSWORTH, 198, High Holborn,
W.C.; removed from 215, Regent-street.

This day, 16mo., cloth, gilt edges, 2s.; or free by post
2s. 2d.,


Prose and Verse. By E. L. F. H.

I'm sometimes square, and sometimes round;
I'm oft in mischief to be found
My whole's a poser. May it be
Less puzzling to you than me.


London: THOMAS BOSWORTH, 198, High Holborn


Now ready, Second Edition, 3s. 6d., post free,
BROWN, of Brentwood.
Harmonies for each tone and each ending, amounting
Contains eight different
in all to nearly five hundred.
London: THOMAS BOSWORTH, 198, High Holborn.
Dedicated to His Grace the Lord Archbishop of Canter
bury, the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of London, and
the Rev. B. Morgan Cowie, B.D., Vicar and Rector.

In hoc signo vinces.


JEWRY: being some Account of the Church

of S. Lawrence Jewry from the Earliest Time; including a List of Chantries copied from the originals; together with a Table of the Charities of the United Parishes of S. Lawrence Jewry and S. Mary Magdalen, Milk-street, compiled by THOMAS BREWER, Esq. (inserted by permission); and a Full Account of the Services held in the Church from the time of the celebrated Mission Services, in September, 1867, until the end of the year 1869; and many Articles and Letters from the Newspapers upon the works of the Church.

By ROBERT ALDERSON TURNER, Precentor. Cloth lettered, about 400 pp., 5s. (including postage), to subscribers only.

Post-office orders should be made payable to Robert Alderson Turner, at the Lombard-street Office, E.C. All communications must be addressed to R. A. Turner, 9, Essex-villas, East Down-park, Lee, S.E.




The only Remedy for Damp in New or Old Walls. Decorated by First-class Art-Workmen, or Stencilled and Printed in every style, to suit the Palace, the Mansion, and the Cottage.





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London Offices-18, Parliament-street, S.W. Rt. Hon. W. F. COWPER TEMPLE, M.P., Chairman of Executive.

Col. AKROYD M.P., Treasurer. Rev. A. BARRY, D.D., F. S. POWELL, Esq., W. H. SMITH, Esq., M.P., C. BUXTON, Esq., M.P., Honorary Secretaries.

Rev. W. STANYER, M.A., General Secretary. The Executive Committee earnestly solicit co-operation and support in their great work in order to secure the primary religious education of every child, and to counteract the efforts of the "Birmingham League" and others now agitating for the Secularization of all our National Institutions, and the exclusion from our Public Elementary Schools of the Bible and all definite religious teaching.

The printing and circulation throughout the land of upwards of Two Millions of Reports, Pamphlets, and Papers have entailed heavy concurrent liabilities; while the GREATER expenses attending the many large suc cessful meetings which have b en held, have materially drained the resources of the Union.

The organization and working of Borough and County Branches, coupled with the costs of the London and Manchester Offices, necessitate a large and unavoidable outlay.

Bill "as introduced" by Mr. Foster, Vice-President of The Union is actively supporting the Government

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SUBSCRIPTIONS and DONATIONS (the latter to be paid at once, or to spread over three years) will be gratefully received on behalf of the Committee by the joint Treasurers, Rev. J. Dart, Mission House, Victoriaroad, Stoke Newington, N.; E Ferraby. E q., Bank of England, E.C.; or they may be paid to Messrs. Barnet, Hoare and Co., 60, Lombard-street, to the account of "St. Faith's Mission, Stoke Newington."



Warden.-Rev. W. T. SANKEY. Vicar.

A PREPARATORY SCHOOL to the above was School, Stony Stratford. opened in JANUARY Last. Applications at present to be made to the Warden or Secretary of St. Paul's


418, OXFORD STREET, LONDON, Beg to recommend their ELASTIC STOCKINGS, KNEE CAPS, &c., they are made of the best material, and warranted to wash.

Inventors of the IMPERCEPTIOLE TRUSS. Belts for the Support of the Back &c., &c.


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OF STRENGTH.-The old and delicate always feel the sudden transition from cold to heat, and fearfully they tell upon them unless preventive measures be adopted to counteract them. Nothing effects this object so certainly and so readily as Holloway's Pills, which begin by strengthening the stomach, regulating the liver, and purifying the blood, and end by werking a complete, lasting, and rapid cure. Pills exercise a most salutary influence over every These admirable organ of the human body. They dispel nervousness, weariness, and enervation; in a word Holloway's Pills wonderfully restore every function to its natural state of health and vigour. They never fail, directly or indirectly they adjust and invigorate the whole animal


London: Printed by JOHN HIGGS BATTY, at 6, Red
Lion Court, Fleet Street, E.C.; and Published for
the Proprietors by THOMAS BOSWORTH, 198,
High Holborn, W.C.-July 20th, 1870.


Church Herald.

No. 41. Vol. I.




WEDNESDAY, July 27, 1870.

THE Bishop of London lately in Convocation gave it as his opinion that foreign Protestant Bodies must be considered as true Churches. This is perfectly consistent with his Lordship's assertion in his last Charge to the Clergy of the Diocese of Lincoln, that Episcopacy is of the bene esse, but not of the esse of the Church; which can only mean that a Church is a voluntary community of persons, who are at liberty to frame its order and constitution as they please; and, further, that there is no community which can claim divine appointment: in plain words, that there is no One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church such as the Creed teaches us to believe in. His Lordship, unfortunately, neglected to show how he could go on repeating the Creed and deny its meaning: we are, therefore, obliged to leave him in the dilemma in which he has placed himself. There are, however, many Catholics who would condemn the Bishop's position, yet who continue to talk in a way which suggests, if it do not actually admit, something equally erroneous, when they speak of the Church as being divided into branches. We continually hear of the "Three branches of the Catholic Church-the Eastern, the Roman, and the Anglican." Thus Mr. Grueber in his excellent letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, "Omission not Prohibition," p. 53:-"The Church of England claims to be a branch of the great Catholic Tree. Now, surely the kind and colour of the fruit of one branch of the tree must be as that of other branches of the same tree. A tree is known by its fruits. But, say some, it is unlawful that the Church of England in its visible fruits, its outward form and appearance, its usages, should have a likeness to the other branches of the same tree. If this be so, we can no more be surprised if people come to doubt whether the Church of England be really a branch of the great Catholic Tree."

The idea in the mind seems to be that the Catholic Church up to the tenth century was, like the trunk of a great tree, one; that then it grew out into two branches, the Eastern and Western; that further, in the sixteenth century, the Western Branch again divided, and the Anglican grew out distinct from the other two. That now we ought to endeavour to reunite their separated branches into one trunk again. They do not, however, inform us how the branches of a tree can ever be reunited into one trunk again; certainly nature affords us no such example. It is natural for a tree to branch out into s veral independent limbs, but it is not natural for these to unite again into one trunk. The simile, therefore, completely breaks down, and this failure ought surely to suggest the faultiness of the simile itself. And so it is; the likeness is a false one, and the whole argument based upon it is vicious. How are we, then, to maintain our claim to be members of the One Catholic Church, while we are not in Visible Communion with a large portion of the Church? No doubt the question is a difficult one to answer, because we are confessedly in an abnormal state; a state moreover, be it remembered, which we hold in common with the whole body. Let us endeavour to look at the matter from another point of view, and see if some light cannot be thrown upon it.

Price 1d.

The Church is one, and her unity is essentially a spiritual unity; it is one which depends wholly on the Presence of the Holy Spirit in the Body-" One Body, One Spirit." So the Priesthood is one; the Sacraments are one; the Faith is one. A Priest is a Priest of the whole Church, whether he be ordained at Constantinople, Rome, or Canterbury he is not a Priest of the "Branch" only, to use the popular phraseology, but of the whole Church. So of the Sacraments-a baptised man is a member of the whole body. In the tenth century-to speak loosely, for accuracy of dates is not essential to our position-the four Patriarchs of the East quarrelled with the Patriarch of the West. The quarrel was taken up by those under their jurisdiction, and they refused to communicate with each other. This quarrel did not destroy the operation of the One Spirit; Priests were still Priests, Sacraments were still Sacraments as before. When two brothers quarrel about their father's inheritance, they still continue to be brothers, though they may cease to have brotherly intercourse with each other. The tie of blood cannot be broken; a human quarrel may offend against the laws of nature, but it cannot destroy them, and the law of the unity of the Church is ordained by the same Being who ordained the laws of nature. The like may be said of the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Patriarch of Rome; they had a quarrel in the sixteenth century, and have remained estranged ever since. between the Eastern Patriarch and Canterbury is slightly different. There has been no actual quarrel between them, only a misunderstanding. The Archbishop of Canterbury was necessarily mixed up with the quarrel between Rome and the East, and naturally was involved with the former. But since the differences which arose in the sixteenth century, the position of Canterbury with regard to Constantinople and the East is materially altered. We are not now mixed up with the old dispute; but there has been an estrangement, consequent upon the misunderstanding. When this misunderstanding is removed the estrangement will be removed also. Our efforts are, therefore, not to reunite separated members, but to remove a misunderstanding, and then all estrangement ceases, and the normal condition of unity returns.

The case

The case of Canterbury and Rome differs from the former in some points: there was a quarrel between the Court of Rome, not the Church, and the Court of England, in the question of the King's divorce; this quarrel ceased when the daughter of the divorced Queen succeeded to the throne: it was renewed when the daughter of the woman whom the king married after the divorce, succeeded the other. There was then no really religious quarrel-for all communicated at their Parish Churches for eleven years-and the Patriarch of Rome was quite willing to accept the religious position of England; he was also ready to acknowledge the legitimacy of the Queen provided she would acknowledge his supremacy. On her refusing to do this she was excommunicated; and the estrangement between the Court of Rome and the Court of England grew up into a permanent quarrel, and from thenceforth took a religious aspect. Here, then, there are quarrels to be made up, misunderstandings to be removed, before there can be, not a reuniting of separate branches, but a reconciliation of estranged individuals,

We do not wish to enter upon the question how the new | Councils. "We reverently receive and accept, as to that which dogma of Infallibility may effect the case, for we must wait to see some of its results: all that we wish to impress upon the minds of Churchmen is the important truth that the Church is One, not divided into branches; that the apparent separation is the consequence of individual misunderstandings, which we are bound to endeavour to remove. Towards effecting this it is essential that we should fully understand our respective positions.


Two years have not yet elapsed since it was announced that the Rev. William Kenneth Macrorie would resign his pleasant English benefice, to take upon himself the difficult and invidious task of shepherding the scattered flock in Natal, whom their quondam Pastor, now an excommunicated heretic, had begun to vex and persecute under colour of law. High expectations were then formed of the zeal, energy, and tact which the new Bishop would bring to the execution of his trying office. And we rejoice to bear testimony that so far as his public deeds are known to us, these anticipations have been fully verified. The "Acts of the Diocesan Synod, holden in St. Saviour's Church, Maritzburg," in July, 1869, bear witness to the skill and success which have marked his first effort to reunite the faithful members of Christ, and to organise the scattered Laity and Clergy into a compact body, strong for mutual support and defence. From this commendation it must not be hastily concluded that Bishop Macrorie has gathered together Priests, Deacons, Laymen, Communicants, and non-Communicants, and putting himself at their head has constituted such medley a Synod. Far from it. A mixed assembly of this kind accords well with the notions of modern Radicals, and needs only "the female element" to make it complete. But it is a mere abuse of a word universally recognised in Christendom to call it a Synod. As to entrusting such a body with the decision of moot points of doctrine, or debated questions of faith and morals, such procedure is as absurd as it would be for the College of Physicians to appoint delegates from their patients to sit in their council and reinforce their staff of examiners. To us it is surprising that Englishmen, whose plain common sense is seldom at fault, cannot perceive that upon the mere ground of expediency such coalitions are unendurable. Men are no more born theologians than they are born astronomers; and in such mixed assemblies half of the members will be simply incompetent to form any judgment of their own; and their decision upon questions of Divinity can claim no more respect from the outside world than if they chose to discuss the Spectrum Analysis or the Lunar theory. The Synod of the struggling Church in Natal is liable to no such reprehension. As defined by Canon XIII., it is composed simply "of the Bishop of the Diocese and of the Clergy thereof." It is to meet annually on the Festival of St. Peter, or whenever summoned by the Bishop; only it is lawful for him "to omit the Deacons from his summons, that they may remain in the different parts of the Diocese to bury the dead and minister to the sick and distressed." This provision is evidently necessitated by the enormous extent of the Diocese, the scanty staff of Clergy, and the slowness and difficulty of transit from place to place. The session lasted from the 21st to the 29th of July, and there was a daily celebration of the Holy Eucharist and frequent Services, throughout the octave. Twenty-seven Canons and various resolutions were passed, referring to many points of doctrine and discipline. The first seven Canons are simply acts of adhesion to Catholic faith and tradition; as respectively embodied in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Bible, the Book of Common Prayer, and the decisions of General

must be believed concerning the Ever Blessed Trinity and the Incarnation of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, the determination of the six Ecumenical Councils." And then follow the names and dates (Canon VI). After this it is a prodigious descent to the Thirty-nine Articles, yet as long as this unfortunate confession, replete with allusions to controversies once bitter and engrossing, but now obsolete and forgotten, is retained by the Mother Church in England and imposed as a test upon her Ministers, it is to be presumed that her spiritual daughters in the Colonies will feel themselves bound to uphold it also. The Synod of Maritzburg is wise enough not to commit itself to verbal expressions, but is content to acknowledge that the doctrine set forth is agreeable to the Word of God.

The most remarkable among these Canons are those which establish the discipline of the infant Church, which is to be secured by means of a Consistory Court in which the Bishop is to hear publicly all spiritual and ecclesiastical causes which may be brought before him. This he is not to declare as an autocrat but in conjunction with one or more of his Chapter, and to secure fairness and impartiality it is further added that in all cases the assistant Priests shall give their opinion openly in court before pronouncing of judgment by the Bishop." The XVI. Canon defines the nature of the causes which are to be heard, and is worth quoting entire. "The causes which shall be heard before the Consistory, in addition to those specially set forth in these Canons to be determined therein are as follows:-(1) of heresy, (2) of false doctrine, (3) of schism, (4) of depraving of the Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and other rites of the Church, or misuse of the same, (5) of immorality, (6) of canonical disobedience; and it is to be understood that by heresy is signified contravening any article of the Nicene Creed; and by false doctrine is to be understood contravening the doctrine set forth in the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion; and by schism joining with persons in any act in which they assume spiritual offices to which the Church has not appointed them."

In the next it is ordained that "none shall be charged with false doctrine unless he be in Holy Orders, and so by his office a teacher in the Church of God." The various sentences also which the Bishop shall pronounce according to the different offences proved are enumerated as follows:-(1) admonition, (2) suspension, (3) deposition from office, (4) excommunication. The two latter are to be published during Divine Service in the Cathedral, and careful provision is made for retractation on the part of the offender. Still it would seem that our brethren in South Africa are unfortunately ignorant of the reforming labours of Lord Shaftesbury, and notably of his three aggrieved parishioners, who may stir up strife to any exten, for the Synod lays down a stringent rule as to who may prefer charges in the Consistory or Spiritual Court:-"No person not being a Priest beneficed or licensed in the Diocese, or a Doctor in Divinity, or a Churchwarden, shall be capable of bringing any cause into the Consistory Court, unless he shall first furnish a certificate, to be approved by the Bishop, that he is himself a man worthy of repute and obeys the Lord's will and the rule of the Church by communicating so often and at such times as the Canons require. No charge shall be heard except it be brought by two persons at the least, qualified as above." (Canon XVIII.)

Appeals are allowed in charges of heresy or false doctrine to the Diocesan and Provincial Synods; and the privilege of exemption from liability to suits in Temporal Courts is justly and boldly claimed for the promoters, defendant, and witnesses in the Courts Spiritual. Let Lord Shaftesbury take a hint from this :-"We ordain that no one, either promoter of a suit or defendant, or connected in any other way with any cause before any Spiritual Court, shall prosecute in the Civil Courts of Law any one for whatever he may

have said or done in any Spiritual Court, except by permission of such Spiritual Court, under penalty of deposition if he be in Holy Orders, or of the lesser excommunication if he be a layman, inasmuch as it is for the edification of the Church that such causes are heard, and care has been taken to guard against malice and envy, in that none but the holy are allowed to accuse." (Canon XXI.). If none but the holy were allowed to become accusers in our Ecclesiastical Courts we should have nothing to fear from the prosecutions and persecutions of the so-called Church Association.

Of the Resolutions which the Synod append to their Canons, the most remarkable are those which deal incidentally with the anomalous position of the Bishop of the Orange Free State. Dr. Twells had addressed a letter to Dean Green, from which we infer that he was then in Natal with the object of avoiding certain legal proceedings threatened against him. But in their judgment such a method of declining the jurisdiction of its government is contrary to the holy obedience. With singular perspicacity they urge that "remembering that the redemption of the world was accomplished by our Blessed Lord suffering Himself to be condemned on the testimony of the false witnesses, should Bishop Twells, by surrendering himself to the Courts of Law, suffer, being innocent, we believe it will not only redound to the increase of glory to him hereafter, but will be overruled by the Providence of God, to the sanctification of the flock committed to his charge. Whilst, on the other hand, should he feel himself in any way guilty of the least of the charges (which God forbid), it would be clearly his duty as a Christian to submit to whatever penalty might be laid upon him by the civil authorities "remembering that they are God's ministers over him in this matter." We have no information which would lead us to believe that this truly judicious counsel has been followed by the person concerned; but for all that, it is none the less creditable to the faith and boldness of those who proffered it.

Hitherto we have been silent as to the place occupied by the laity in the Council of the nascent Church. It must not be supposed that they are excluded from any share in its deliberation; this would be a very untrue representation. By each parish one or more Delegates are duly appointed, and these are conjoined with the Synod for the purpose of arranging all the secular concerns of the Church. Such business as the formation of parishes, the duties of Churchwardens, the arrangements for the performance of Divine Service, for receiving and disbursing money, is transacted by the united body of Clergy and Laity. Their acts are registered as those of the " Synod in conference with the Lay Delegates." This plan seems happily devised, and well fitted to afford the laity their due share of influence in the guidance of Ecclesiastical affairs, without thrusting them into a position which the Church has never assigned to them, and which they cannot occupy without the risk of grievous harm to themselves, and to the cause which all are anxious to serve. So far as the Lay Delegates of Maritzburg are concerned, it is only just to add that they have entered upon their novel duty in a manner most creditable to their sense and good feeling. Their proceedings augur favourably for the continuance of harmonious and useful legislation in the Synod and Conference, whose first acts well deserve the attention we have bespoken for them, and may furnish some useful lessons to Churchmen in longer and more civilised communities.



It is not of the Anglo-Continental Society, its sayings and doings that we are about to write. We will leave that to others better acquainted with the subject. We wish now to

draw our reader's attention-especially at this season of the year, when so many of our countrymen are starting on their summer travels over the continent of Europe-to the various Anglican Chaplaincies and Churches now to be found not only in large towns, but in the most out-of-the-way nooks and corners of the world. We know that there are many persons who object to these Chaplaincies altogether, and when they are set up in lands under Roman or Greek jurisdiction, with some show of reason. Even then we must remember that as long as inter-communion between ourselves and the Greeks and Romans is still a matter of the future-as long as the reunion of Christendom is an event, earnestly prayed for, but not yet accomplished-the numerous members of the Anglican body, who are for various causes obliged to reside in foreign lands, would have no opportunity of receiving the Blessed Sacrament, and many of them, alas! would never enter any place of worship unless there were Anglican Chapels within their reach. There are some, of course, who in Roman and Greek Churches can assist at Mass with profit and edification. But they are a minority: prejudice hinders many from attending a Catholic Service abroad, ignorance of the language prevents others; therefore if these Chaplaincies are looked upon by some as an evil, there are. we think, few who will not acknowledge, that they are a necessary evil. As long, therefore, as the necessity for them exists, it should be the endeavour of all Churchmen to use every effort in their power to render them worthy of our Church and fitting representatives abroad of her doctrine, discipline, and ritual. Few of us who have travelled much in foreign lands can say that they are so now; there are exceptions, indeed, but they are very few and far between.

These Chaplaincies are of three kinds-those connected with English Embassies, Consular Chaplaincies, and those established by the S.P.G. and the Colonial and Continental Society. Our acquaintance with the Anglican Church abroad extends over the greater part of Europe. We can, therefore, give our readers the benefit of our experience of these various kinds of Chaplaincies, not only in large cities but in many small out-of-the-way places as well.


To begin with the Embassies. One of our most painful experiences was at one of these, on a Sunday we spent at Vienna some years ago, where, in a ball-room with Cupids and Venuses painted on the ceiling and panels, brilliant mirrors and costly chandeliers, from a red cushioned erection at one end of the apartment, we heard Matins, Litany, anteCommunion Service and Sermon gabbled through at an indescribably rapid rate, and without a sign of reverence devotion. Of music or singing there was not a note. Two years ago at Madrid we attended a very similar Service in a very similar apartment. Here, however, the utterance of the Chaplain was distinct, and he read and preached as if he remembered that he was taking part in a religious Service. At St. Petersburg we believe the Chaplain is appointed by the English merchants and not by the Ambassador. However that may be, it is much to be regretted that in the Russian Capital our Church should be so badly represented. The Service is held in a huge room with lofty columns, galleries, high pews, lofty pulpit, and an altar covered over with dark blue cloth-altogether very similar to one of the old-fashioned London Churches, of most thoroughly unecclesiastical appearance. The Mitre hymn book is used, and the Holy Communion celebrated monthly. The Service was of the dreariest description, and the Sermons we heard most un-Catholic. The manner of the congregation was listless and irreverent. At Moscow we believe the Chaplain is similarly appointed; here the building is of rather more ecclesiastical appearance, simply because there is a large painting over the altar. When some five years ago we spent a Sunday at Moscow, it happened to be the first in the month, when the Holy Communion was administered. We would rather not write of this

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