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appointed with each, and settled at none. They knew what CURATES.

they were doing, they knew there was hard work, and often

hard fare and uncomfortable lodgings, but they endured it all A friend of ours has been looking out for a Curate since cheerfully. There must be some reasons for this change, Christmas, and has only secured one after six months' search something entirely wrong in the training or habits of life, or and advertising ; not that he had no applications, but that all in the motives for undertaking the office of the ministry, the negociations failed. We had the curiosity to ask him to which it is as well to enquire into. allow us to look at some of the

applications, and to investigate One reason no doubt is, that there is a far larger demand the reason of the many failures and disappointments. The for Curates than there used to be; not only increase of popuCuracy itself is on the whole a desirable one; it is for one of two tion, but increase of Churches and parishes requires more parishes in a market town of about eight thousand inhabi- men to work them; and the endowments of the Ecclesiastical tants, of which about three thousand are attached to the Commissioners, and of private donors, aided by the two parish in question : salary £120. The work is, of course, Societies, have multiplied the need ; but this is, in a great pretty hard ; daily Matins and Evensong, Early Celebration measure, counterbalanced by a very considerable increase in on Sundays and Holy Days, besides the ordinary Sunday the average stipend; any Curate who really sets himself to Services; the Vicar in every way an agreeable person, who his work can get £120 a year now, when £80 or £100 would takes the hardest part of the work himself. The following is have been deemed sufficient thirty years' ago. Another is the result of our enquiries : some thought the hours too early, that men, who enter the Ministry with the intention of 8 a.m. on Sundays, 8.15 on week days; others did not con- devoting themselves to their office, are soon laid hold of, and sider the lodgings good enough—others wanted a “bracing appointed to real Missionary work in London, in some of our climate; " in the majority of cases the Curacy was declined large towns, by Incumbents who are carrying on great and under terms such as these :-"Not that I object myself, but successful Missions. But by far the most general reason is, my wife requires a better house,” or “a more bracing climate,' that men have neither the will nor the training for the work. or something or other which it was not the power of the College life is not what it used to be : thirty years ago there Vicar to provide.

was discipline in the Colleges, now there is none : there was These replies set us thinking. Here is a good Curacy, good a certain amount of reading and study through which even salary, average work ; not so much as to engross the whole the idlest men were compelled to go; now that is reduced to a time, nor so discouraging as one in a manufacturing or mining minimum. Boating, cricket, athletic sports, are really the district, with Chartists or Infidels to deal with. How is it principal employment of the average Collegian, and however that nearly six months elapsed before the man fitted for such excellent these may be in their proper place, and they are of a Curacy could be found ? We are driven, perforce, to the great use and value, it is wholly a mistake to make so much conclusion that it is through a dislike of hard work, and from of them as is done now. They unsettle the mind, they a determination to live an easy life ; for, as far as we can destroy the habits of regular study, and what is far more, of ascertain, there is no difficulty in finding Curates on less mental discipline. When a man leaves College, he finds himsalary for country parishes, where Sunday duty is almost all self unfitted, as well as unwilling, to settle down into regular that is expected, but where there is good society, croquet, work; he cannot give up his amusements, they have becomo evening parties, and a good house to live in.

a second nature to him; to go into regular parish work, ago we had our nerves shocked and our feelings roused by especially in towns, is irksome, he has no heart for it. accounts of the misery of Curate life; of men overworked and word he has lost that self-discipline, or rather, has failed to underpaid ; of men who gladly received cast off raiment to acquire it, without which no really parish work can be done. cover their nakedness, gifts in money and kind to keep the Another cause is the now very common practice of Curates wolf from the door. We naturally ask, “Why need this be, to marry early: they generally have some private means, or when such good Curacies as £120 a year are going a-begging? they often marry wives who are similarly endowed: they both What need of a Curates' Augumentation Fund, when Curates naturally desire the comforts of the marriage life, the wife turn up their noses at this Curacy? Thirty years ago titles more often than the husband ; and so under all these various were seldom obtainable at more than £80 per annum; £100 circumstances the Curate has become a very fastidious and was considered a good Curacy: the work, too, was harder, particular individual, and certainly in few cases shows himpopulations were larger, parishes were not then sub- self deserving of all the pity and compassion lately heaped divided as they are now; besides, in manufacturing and upon him. mining districts there was a violent Chartist and Infidel spirit among the neglected people, which not only disheartened and repulsed the earnest Priest, but also was continually marring

THE CITY CHURCHES. his work among the better-disposed. But in those days there was not the same difficulty in obtaining a Curate, even on VERY recently it was our duty to record one more deliberate a much smaller salary ; there were no fastidiousnesses about sacrifice to what some people euphemistically call " the lodgings, bracing climates, nor was the wife and her fancies a Spirit of the Age," or, in plain English, the spirit of covetousdifficulty. In those days young men took a Curacy and ness and sordid self-interest-namely, the demolition of remained in it, they did not go from Curacy to Curacy, dis- 1 another Church in the City of London. No doubt All Hal

A few years

In a





lows, Staining, is a small parish ; still more certain is it that Staining, would suffice to maintain two or three Clergy, and the congregation worshipping there was very scanty; for no one would object to a portion of it being assigned to some there was nothing either in the building, or the Service, or poor district on the outskirts of the city. Instead of demothe personal character of its late Rector, which would be at all lishing the Churches and selling the sites, why not group likely to attract either parishioners or strangers within its together several parishes around one centre, providing a house walls. For the same reason there would be no difficulty in and a sufficient staff of resident Clergy by whom the several gaining the consent of the parishioners to the removal of a Churches would be served, giving short and frequent Services building wherein they never worshipped, and which they had at such hours on Sundays and week days as might be found come to regard merely as Mr. So and So's Church, and as most convenient in each? From the surplus income new such, a place to be altogether avoided if there were anything Churches might be endowed, just as the present desecrative in the ministry, opinions, or personal habits of Mr. So and scheme proposes to do. We say proposes, for although one So, which they did not happen to like. Moreover, the site Church at least (St. Benet, Gracechurch-street) has long ago being in Mark-lane, would command a large sum in the market, been pulled down, and an immense building raised upon its and the endowment of the Benefice is ample all of which site, nobody can tell what has become of its revenue marked it out as a spot most suitable for the work of the where the Church is situated which was to be substituted for spoiler, which, if the truth must be told, has been terribly it; in fact, we believe it is still only a scheme upon paper. hampered by the unwillingness of the people to have their Other people ask what has become of the large income of All Churches pulled down. In one case the parishioners in vestry Hallows, vacant for the last two years ; but nobody seems to assembled flatly refused to allow it! In another instance, know what is to be done with it. which accidentally came under our notice, as soon as the The fact is that it is quite time this work of destruction projected union of parishes and destruction of the Church was put an end to. Even in a business point of view it is a began to be talked about, the inhabitants not only refused to bad season for offering to sell land in the city, where, as every listen to the proposal, but took in hand the restoration of their one there knows, large sites are still vacant and desolate, Church with right good will. A sum of money was sub- because it is too hazardous a speculation to build upon them, scribed sufficient handsomely to repair and decorate the and countless warehouses and offices are without a tenant. fabric, so that it was impossible for the Destruction Commis- And it is most unwise, to say the least of it, to give any counsioners to carry out their proposed scheme with any appearance tenance to the notion that a Church is like a place of common of a decent excuse. Here, too, there was always a good con- resort to be shut up or pulled down when it ceases to attract gregation, regard being had to the population, although a remunerative audience. Especially is it injudicious thus to neither Service nor preaching were anything remarkable or outrage the feelings of Christian people, by causelessly destroying different from the common run of Churches a dozen years ago. the altars at which their forefathers have worshipped, and But the Rector resided among his people, visited them on around which their remains have been laid to rest, at the week days, became personally known and liked, and was ready very time that they are being asked to make fresh sacrifices and willing to do his office whenever occasion might serve ; if and to give more liberally, so that new buildings may be it were only to speak a few words to the workpeople in one erected and more Clergy provided to further the work of the warehouse, or assist the proprietor of another to establish Church of God in this huge, overgrown agglomeration of cities Daily Prayer as a custom among his men before they began and towns which we call London. their work.

In short, we are convinced that if the City Clergy simply did their duty efficiently, if they attended to it as earnestly

REVISION.-No. VI. and systematically as their parishioners, who have offices and

[CONCLUDED.] shops, attend to their business, we should hear no more of Churches being closed and destroyed for want of worshippers. And then, by degrees, people might be brought to understand

DIFFICULT TEXTS. that a Church is not like a lecture room or a theatre, main- In this busy world, where men do their religious duties tained purely for the sake of the audience who come there to with their loins girded and their staffs in their hands, very hear and see, but a Temple of God, built as much for His few, even among the more intellectual, have much time for honour as for the welfare of man ; that it is not a house of studying the Bible critically. There is, moreover, a certain merchandise, to be pulled down when it does not pay, but a fashion even in the literature of Religion, and this is a branch House of Prayer, to be sustained by the offerings of those who of religious study which is not in vogue. But this not being a pray.


may then dawn dimly upon their minds that the case where “ignorance is bliss," it will be excusable to touch Most High may be worshipped on the other days besides upon the subject, even in the superficial manner, which alone Sunday, and that the Holy Sacrifice of the Eucharist is none is possible in the pages of an ephemeral publication. The the less efficacious because two only or three may be gathered treatment of Revision would be far from complete if we together in their Lord's name.

did not endeavour to show, that we can hardly open our We know of course that it is commonly alleged that Bibles anywhere, without discovering some text or texts which Churches and Clergy are greatly needed in other parts of the present formidable difficulties both to the learned and Metropolis, whilst the City has more than it requires, or in unlearned reader. In doing this, we shall not be careful to common phrase is overstocked with them. It may be admitted select passages of importance as affecting faith or morals. that this is a good ground for a revision of the duties and Every text which requires examination with a view to incomes of the City Clergy. It is flagrantly unjust for a Priest re-translation, whatever its immediate subject may be, to receive a thousand or even two thousand pounds a year possesses interest for those who believe in Inspiration from a parish which he scarcely ever sees, satisfying his of any extent or kind. He who has no desire to know what deadened conscience by paying a brother Clergyman one-tenth the writer of any single sentence of Holy Writ did actually of his income for doing what little law and custom require of write, and how it may be best translated, must differ so him, and offering imperfect ministrations to a miserable essentially from intelligent men in general, that we may well handful of people. These are points which men of the world leave him to himself ; not attempting to argue with him, until see plainly enough. But we contend that the proper remedy he has given us primâ facie reasons for respecting a very is not to pull down Churches, but to rearrange the Services unenviable indifference. and Endowments. For instance, the Living of All Hallows, In the first chapter of the first book of the Bible, we find


and very

it written in our version, that the earth was “ without form 2. Gather yourselves together and hear, ye sons of Jacob, and void." The expression “ without form,” as a translation,

And listen unto Israel, your father.

3. Reuben, thou art my first born, does not seem felicitous ; perhaps waste would be better. The

My strength, and the prime of my manhood, same sense is given to both Hebrew words in lexicons. The

Surpassing in dignity, surpassing in power. Septuagint has invisible, other translators give inert; either 4. (Yet) Unstable as water thou shalt not surpass,

Because thou wentest up unto thy father's bed, of these two words in the original may be rendered desolation

Ascending my couch, thou didst defile it. or emptiness: and there seems little reason for without form. 5. Simeon and Levi are brethren, In the same verse we have moved upon; here the notion of

Weapons of violence are their swords; agitation is lost ; probably hovered over would be better. Some 6. Enter not, my soul, into their secrets, have suggested brooded; but here the idea of motion dis

Join not, mine honour, their assembly;

For in their anger they slew men, appears. But these are matters of taste, and it is not

And in their self-will they hamstrung oxen. pretended that anything more is involved.

7. Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce, There are many passages in the first chapters of Genesis in

And their wrath, for it was cruel.

I will divide them in Jacob, which commentators propose corrections ; but as they are of

And scatter them in Israel. uncertain merit, they need not be mentioned. But in the

8. Judah, thee shall thy brethren honour : eighth verse of the fourth chapter there is a general consent

Thy hand sholl be on the neck of thine enemies, that some words have been lost. Talked with Abel his brother

Thy father's sons shall bow down to thee.

9. Judah is a lion's whelp ; is not admissible ; from several versions we find that the

Thou returnest, my son, from the prey text once ran, “ Cain said to Abel his brother, let us go out

He stoopeth, he coucheth as a lion, into the field,” which makes the sense clear. Verse 23 is

Or as a lioness. Who shall rouse him? generally considered unintelligible, and good critics render, 10. The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, * I have slain a man on his wounding me, and a young man

Nor the lawgiver from between his feet,

Until Shiloh come, on his bruising me.” This is introduced in contrast with the

And him shall the nations obey. unprovoked act of Cain. In viii. 21 v. for should certainly 11. He bindeth his ass unto the vine, be although ; "although the imaginations of men's heart be

And his clothing in the blood of the grape ; evil from his youth.” In chapter xxii. 1 v., " for tempt

12. His eyes are red with wine,

And his teeth white with milk. Abraham, we should substitute prove Abraham. In chapter

13. Zebulun shall dwell by a haven of the seas, xx. 14 v., the sense requires took a thousand pieces of silver to

He shall be a roadstead for ships, be inserted; this is found in the Samaritan and Septuagint.

And his coast shall reach unto Sidon. It is in pure instances of error like this, where intentional

14. Issacher is a strong ass,

Who lieth down among the folds ; alteration seems improbable, that we most plainly see that

13. For he seeth that his resting-place is good, the present text is in some passages corrupt, or at least that

And that the land is pleasant, copies varied, even when the Septuagint translation was

So he bendeth his shoulder to the burden, made.

And becometh subject to tribute.
Gen. xx. 16 v., is a difficult

16. Dan shall judge his people,
obscure in our

As one of the chiefs of Israel. version. Many render thug, Behold, it shall be to thee a 17. Dan shall be a serpent by the way, veil for thine eyes, before all who are with thee, and with all

An horned viper by the path, other; and she was reproved.” The story is this : Abimelech,

That biteth the heels of the horse,

And his rider falleth backward. on making reparation, gives a sum of money to Abraham,

18. I have waited for thy salvation, O Jehovah. besides flocks and herds, and also permission to dwell where he

19. Gad, a troop shall assail him, liked, and he accompanies this with an admonition to Sarah,

Yet shall he repel their assault. that she should use the veil of married women (for which he

20. In Asher, his food shall be rich, had given the purchase money), for the sake of modesty, in

And he shall yield royal dainties.

21. Naphthali is a spreading oak. her intercourse with her own party and with strangers. We

He sendeth forth goodly branches. must not forget that the Authorised Version runs thus, 22. Joseph is a fruitful stem, “Behold, he is to thee a covering of the eyes, unto all that

A fruitful stem by the fountain. are with thee, and with all other." Other interpretations,

His branches spread over the wall.

23. The archers have sorely grieved him, however, are given, most of them more intelligible than our

They shot at him and hated him; translation. In the xi. chapter 2 v., from the cast, should 24. But his bow abode in strength, certainly be eastward, as in the margin. In chapter xxv. 18 v.

His arms were supple and vigorous, we have, " He died in the presence of all his brethren.”

Through the power of the Mighty One of Jacob,

Through the name of the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel, This can hardly be said with truth. Some render, It fell to

23. Through the God of thy father who helpeth thee, him, namely, his territory ; others he dwelt. In xlix. 24,


And the Almighty who blesseth thee, " from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel,” disturbs

With blessings of the heaven from above, the sense ; " By the name of the Shepherd, the Rock of

The blessings of the deep that lieth below;

The blessings of the breast and of the womb. Israel,” is the rendering preferred by many critics. A slight 26. The blessings of thy father prevail change in the vowel points gives this sense. The Syriac,

Beyond the blessings of my forefathers, moreover, so translates.

Unto the limits of the everlasting mountains. It would be easy to quote more interesting passages, but

They shall be upon the head of Joseph,

On the crown of the chief among his brethren. those which first presented themselves have been chosen. It

27. Benjamin shall ravin as a wolf; is impossible, in our limited space, to give any idea of the

In the mourning he devoureth the prey, conflict of opinions on many of these passages ; and the

And at night he rendeth the spoil. very perplexity arising from this shows the necessity for Alterations in this passage have been introduced sparingly, re-consideration, even though in many, or in most cases, no but they provide some evidence of the great variations which alteration should be made. But in order to give some idea, different commentators propose. Still in the authorised version in a less desultory manner, of the variations from the common of this passage there are no very strange expressions which offend version adopted with seeming probability by commentators, a the ear, such as these with which we are all familiar, “ Why continuous passage may be exhibited. The benedictions of hop ye so, ye high hills ?" (Psalm 68. Prayer Book Version)

. Jacob (chap. xlix.) will serve the purpose ; and in these we Or this, “Or ever your pots be made up with thorns, so let venture to present some of the most remarkable variations : indignation vex him, even as a thing that is raw.” (Psalm

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58 8 v. Prayer Book version; the Authorised Version being these the disabilities about which so much ado is made ? also obscure.) “Though after my skin worms destroy this There are no more. These are all that have any legal existe body.” Job xix. 26 v., worms being interpolated; but in fact i ence. If there are other disqualifications which press upon it is only too easy to find infelicitous renderings.

'the Parson who has retired from business,” they are such Enough has been said at present to show how difficult it as the customs and opinion of society dictate ; restraints must be to maintain the sufficiency of our present version; imposed by what may be called either prejudice, or right possibly at some future time further evidence may be added. feeling, according to the bias of the speaker. Can it be these For the present we conclude with the deliberate opinion, that which are hinted at in the "certain other respects” of this setting aside all possible corruptions, the translation of the preamble ? An Act to better a man's social standing and text which we have is so often faulty, as to render at least a repute would be a novelty, and no clause in the present one tentative revision a crying necessity for all those who desire seems likely to effect such an object, but rather the reverse. to read the Bible. We also repeat the opinion that the state Be it therefore enacted : of the text is the first consideration, and that the whole work 1. This Act may be cited as The Clerical Disabilities Act, 1870. of revision, however vigorously it may be taken in hand, will

2. In this Act – require a very long time for its execution.

The term “ the Church of England” means the Church of England as

by law established :
The term “Minister ” means a Priest or a Deacon :

The terms “Preferment,” “Bishop,” and “Diocese" respectively have

the same meaning os in the Act thirdly mentioned in the first

schedule to this Act. (3rd and 4th Vict., C.. 86 s. 2). IN a previous number of the Church HERALD we com- The term “preferment has a very wide meaning. It mented upon the general bearing and principle (or rather includes every sort of Ecclesiastical Ofice, from a Deanery absence of principle) of this proposed enactment. To com- down to a Curacy, Lectureship, Readership, or any office or plete the discussion of the subject all the essential clauses of place which requires the discharge of any spiritual duty. The Bill are reprinted here, with a few annotations which may serve to show what would be the actual working and the office of Minister in the Church of England desires to relinquish the

3. If any person admitted (before or after the passing of this Act) to effect of this measure if it were unfortunately suffered to same, he may, after having resigned any and every preferment held by become part of the law of this country :

him, do the following things:A Bill for the relief of persons admitted to the office of Priest or

It is assumed that every Church preferment can, as a Deacon in the Church of England and desiring to relinquish the matter of course, be resigned. This is a common blunder.

The holder may resign, but such resignation is worthless until WHEREAS it is expedient that relief be given in respect of civil disa- accepted by his superior. Suppose the Bishop refuses to bilities and in certain other respects to persons who have been admitted to the office of Priest or Deacon in the Church or England and who accept the resignation what would happen then s Amongst desire to relinquish the same :

all the doubtful points of Ecclesiastical law this seems toleWhat are the “civil disabilities to which the Clergy are

rably well determined, that a Bishop can no more be compelled liable? This is the first and most relevant enquiry. So far to accept a resignation than to confer Holy Orders. Should as the framers of this Bill could discover, and we can add the Bill pass, this power would at least enable him to put a

check nothing to their research, these are few, imposed by two

upon hasty and rash action on the part of any heedless statutes only, and capable of being removed in almost as few young Priest or Deacon in his Diocese. lines. We may instance them as they apply to two Fellows

(1.) He may execute a deed of relinquishment of his office of

Minister in the form given in the serond schedule to this Act: of Trinity College, Cambridge, the one a Priest and the other

(2.) He may cause the same to be inrolled in the High Court of a Deacon, who have recently published their reasons for

Chancery: seeking to be relieved from Ministerial obligations, and have

(3.) He may deliver an office copy of the inrolment to the Bishop actually ceased to officiate as Clergymen. The “civil dis

of the Diocese in which he last held a preferment, or if he has

not held any perferment then to the Bishop of the Diocese in abilities” under which these unfortunate gentlemen labour which he is resident, in either case stating his place of residence : are as follows :-(1) They can neither of them sit as members (4.) He may give notice of his having so done to the Archbishop of of the Commons' House of Parliament, and their election to

the Province in which that Diocese is situate. it would be void. (41 George III. c. 63.) (2) However 4. At the expiration of six months after an office copy of the inrolardent they may be in the cause of local self-government they ments of a deed of relinquishment has been so delivered to a Bishop, he

or his successor in office shall, on the application of the person executing can neither attain to municipal dignity. Cambridge cannot the deed, cause the deed to be recorded in the registry of the Diocese, hope to be governed by the Worshipful Mayor Clark, nor and thereupon and thenceforth (but not sooner) the following conseillumined by the wisdom and experience of Mr. Counsellor quences shall ensue with respect to the person executing the deed : Taylor. Possibly these gentlemen are even now ignorant of This six months is not meant, as might be supposed, to this terrible grievance ! it has also been suggested to us that give an opportunity for better thoughts and wiser counsels to this provision was originally introduced into the Act (5 and 6 prevail, but is simply an interval within which legal proceedWilliam IV. c. 76 sect. 28), to preserve the “respectability of ings may be taken against the relinquishing Clergyman. the cloth," when these municipal offices ceased to be com- Should none have been instituted, at the end of this time the monly filled by gentlemen of birth and education. This may Bishop will have no choice but to give effect to the deed. Some be no more than a lawyer's joke, yet unquestionably the law Clergymen there may be who would willingly perform all this is in an anomalous state. For although a Clergyman cannot in order to qualify themselves for a seat in Parliament, but no be an alderman in the most insignificant country town, he may sane mortal would do it in order to become an alderman or a still be a Justice of the Peace, and as a county magistrate mayor. possess more extended functions, and far greater influence. The fact is that this Act is not seriously intended to relieve The Rev. W. G. Clark cannot be M.P. even for a constituency actual disabilities, for the similar grievances of the Roman of which most of the electors are in Holy Orders; but Mr. Clergy are left untouched, equally with the Dissenting teachers' C. H. Spurgeon, who could not be made Mayor of Little one disqualification. It is no broad, liberal, and well con" Pedlington, may become a candidate for Lambeth at the next sidered effort of legislation, but a miserable makeshift, pat election, if he be so minded, and when elected would take his forward as a sort of salve to the consciences of a few Clergy, seat in the House as a matter of course.

men who desire to enter into the ordinary occupations of Of the two grievances named one may be considered of laymen, and yet have not courage to take the plunge boldly, some importance; the other is trivial. But is this all ? Are for fear of losing their own self esteem or the esteem of

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