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sidered with reference to their Moral and Prophetical Meaning. By HENRY W. I. THIERSCH, D.D., late Professor of Divinity in the University of Marburgh.

"This is a very useful and good guide towards the understanding of the twenty-two Parables which were spoken by our Blessed Lord. To those Priests who want to get at the main drift and burden of one of these discourses-either for a Sermon or a Bible Class-in a few minutes this little book will prove itself to be an

MEMORIALS OF S. LAWRENCE invaluable boon. The salient points of entary seldom

some Account of the Church

of S. Lawrence Jewry from the Earliest Time: together with a Table of the Charities of the United Parishes of S. Lawrence Jewry and S. Mary Magdalen, Milk-street, compiled by THOMAS BREWER, Esq. (inserted by permission); and a Full Account of the Services held in the Church from the time of the celebrated Mission Services, in September, 1867, until the end of the year 1869; and many Articles and Letters from the Newspapers upon the works of the Church.


Will shortly be published " privately," about 400 pp. cloth lettered, 5s. (including postage), to subscribers only.

Post-office orders should be made payable to Robert Alderson Turner, at the Lombard-street Office, E.C. All communications addressed to R. A. Turuer, Esq. 9, Essex-villas, East Down-park, Lee, S.E.

Lately published, 8vo., pp. 530, price 16s. THE VALIDITY OF THE HOLY ORDERS



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By the Rev. FREDERICK GEORGE LEE, D.C.L., F.S.A., Vicar of All Saints', Lambeth. Contents: Preface-List of Books quoted or referred to. CHAPTER I.-Introductory: Statement of the Author's object. II. The Preface to the Ordinal of 1549. III. Form for the Ordination of Deacons, 1549. IV. Form for the Ordination of Priests, 1549. V. Form for the Consecration of Bishops, 1549. VI. The Edwardine Ordinal. VII. The Ordinal of King Edward VI.Objections. VIII. Ordinal of King Edward VI. in substantial harmony with the most ancient forms. IX. Some other ancient forms for Ordination. X. Medieval forms for Consecration and Ordination in the West. XI. The same subject continued. XII Eastern forms of Ordination. XIII. Forms of Ordination amongst the separated communities of the East Christians of St. Thomas. XIV. The Nestorians. XV. Archbishop Matthew Parker. XVI. The Consecration of William Barlow. VII. The Consecrations of Hodgkins, Scory and Coverdale. XVIII. The Consecration of Archbishop Parker. XIX. The Nag's Head Fable. XX. The Case of Bishop Bonner versus Bishop Horne. XXI. The Sacrament of Baptism. XXII. The Office of Consecrator and Assistant-Consecrator. XXIII. The Doctrine of Intention. XXIV. and XXV. Roman Catholic Testimonies to the Validity of Anglican Orders. XXVI. The Cases of Certain Anglican Clergy who have joined the Church of Rome. XXVII. Changes made in the English Ordinal in 1662. XXVIII. Concluding Remarks and Summary of the Author's argument. ADDITIONAL NOTES.

Tables of Consecration: I. Archbishop Parker.
II. Archbishop Laud. III. Archbishop Juxon.
APPENDICES.-I. Authoritative statements regarding
Ordination officially published in 1537 and 1543.
II. An Act concerning the Consecration of a Bishop
made in 25th year of Henry VIII. Cap. xx. sec. 5.
III. Statutes relating to the Consecration of Bishops
under Edward VI.

IV. Act 3 Edward VI. to draw up a New Ordinal.
V. Act to annex the Ordinal to the Prayer Book.
VI. Act 1 of Mary to repeal the preceding Acts.
VII. Act 1 of Elizabeth to re-establish the Book of
Common Prayer.

VIII. Act declaring the legality of the Ordinations.
XI. The Thirty-Nine Articles on Ordination.

X. Documents relating to the Consecration of Barlow and Hodgkins.

XI. Documents relating to Scory and Coverdale.
XII. Documents relating to the Consecration of

XIII. Parker's


Book, De Antiquitate Britannica

XIV. Henry Machyn's Diary, with testimonies regard ing the same.

XV. Breve of Pope Julius III. to Cardinal Pole.
XVI. Dr. Lingard on Parker в Consecration.
XVII. Documents relating to the Consecration of

XVIII. The Nonjuring Consecrations. Bishop Hickes,

XIX. Documents concerning the Case of Bishop Gordon of Galloway.

XX. Dr. Newman's Letters on Anglican Orders and replies to the same.

XXI. Certain Comments on Roman Catholic state

ments. The Charges of Forgery.

XXII. Letters of Orders of various Communions. General Index.

London: J.T. HAYES, Lyall-place, Eaton-square.

are seized upon at once, and the

extends over more than five or six pages. The reader is not burdened with useless matter, and what there is, is very much to the point. There is nothing either verbose or high-flown in the treatise; its very earnest simplicity must commend it to any houghtful mind." Church Review.

London: THOMAS BOSWORTH, 198, High Holborn.
Removed from Regent-street.


Church of England.

No. 1. Protestantism and the Prayer Book. 1s.
No. 2. Church and State. 18. 6d.

No. 3. Confession and Absolution. 1s.
London: THOMAS BOSWORTH, 198, High Holborn,
W.C.; removed from 215, Regent-street.
Now ready, Second Edition, 3s. 6d., post free,


PSALM TONES. By ARTHUR H. BROWN, of Brentwood. Contains eight different Harmonies for each tone and each ending, amounting in all to nearly five hundred.

London: THOMAS BOSWORTH, 198, High Holborn

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Warden.-Rev. W. T. SANKEY, Vicar.

A PREPARATORY SCHOOL to the above was opened in JANUARY Last. Applications at present to be made to the Warden or Secretary of St. Paul's School, Stony Stratford.

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Price 3d.; Post Free, 4d.,


A MONTHLY MAGAZINE AND REVIEW. The British Churchman, so long known as connected with the Church Press Company, has now passed into the hands of Messrs. BRACE, BRACE & CO., publishers of the Church Chronicle. It is hoped that by the importation of fresh life and more varied readings into its pages, not only to make it more acceptable to former subscribers, but also to enlarge the sphere of its circulation and usefulness. To th s end the Editor will be glad to receive contributions and suggestions, which in every case will have due consideration.

All Letters and Books for Review should be addressed to the EDITOR; all Subscriptions and Orders, and orders for Copies, to Messrs. BRACE, BRACE & Co., at the Office, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, E.C. Subscriptions Three Shillings per annum, by Post Four Shillings, payable in advance.



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FANCY FAIR will be held in .conjunction with the ANNUAL MAY FETE

at Wymering on THURSDAY, MAY 19TH,

The proceeds of the whole Fete will be given in aid of the Fund for establishing a Convalescent Hospital on the Portsdown Hill.

The following ladies have kindly consented to receive any articles of work, &c. :LADY SCOTT,

Ashburnham House, Southses

St. Thomas's-street, Portsmouth

St. Mary's Home, Wymering.

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ALFRED TERRACE, UPPER HOLLOWAY, N., FOR DESTITUTE WOMEN AND CHILDREN. PRESIDENT: Rev. W. W. MALET, S.S.J. WARDEN: Rev. A. WILLIS FLEMING, S.S.J. Affords, besides a refuge for those women who desire to forsake their sinful life, a Lying-in Ward and Nurseries for Children.

Applicants are admitted without any distinction as to creed, country, or parish.

FUNDS are urgently needed to carry out the work. Cheques to be crossed "London and South-Western Bank, Holloway Branch." P.0.0. payable at Manorplace Post-office, in Upper Holloway, N.

Hon. Treasurer, J. Cox, Esq., 11, Seven Sisters'-road, N. Hon. Secretary, H. R. GOUGH, S.S.J., Esq., Tollington, Park, N.


418, OXFORD STREET, LONDON, Beg to recommend their ELASTIC STOCKINGS, KNEE CAPS, &c., they are made of the best material,

and warranted to wash.

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The only Remedy for Damp in New or Old Walls. Decorated by First-class Art-Workmen, or Stencilled and Printed in every style, to suit the Palace, the Mansion, and the Cottage.





PILLS.-BILIOUSNESS AND DYSPEPSIA.-There is no organ in the human body so liable to derangement as the liver; food, fatigue, climate, and anxiety all disorder its action, and render its secretions (the bile) more or less depraved, superabundant, or scanty. The first symptom should receive attention. A pain in the side or top of the shoulder, a harsh cough and difficulty of breathing are signs of liver disease, which are removed without delay by friction with Holloway's inestimable Ointment. The Pills should be taken without delay. For all diseases of this vital organ, the action of these conjoined remedies is a specific by checking the over supply of bile, regulating its secre tions, and giving nervous tone,

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The WARDENSHIP, with the charge of both the Divinity and the Public School Departments, will be vacant in the Summer by the resignation of the Rev. Dr. Hannah. The Warden must be "a Clergyman of very high character and attainments," and a Graduate of either Oxford or Cambridge. Candidates are requested to apply by letter, marked "Trinity College," to the Honorary Secretary to the Council, William Smythe, Esq., of Methven, Methven Castle, near Perth. The residence is an excellent furnished house connected with the College. The election will take place on or before July 1.

London: Printed by JOHN HIGGS BATTY, at 6, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, E.C.; and Published for the Proprietors by THOMAS BOSWORTH, 198, High Holborn, W.O.-May 4th, 1870.


Church Herald.

No. 30.-Vol. I.



WEDNESDAY, May 11, 1870.

THOSE who are like the Athenians of St. Paul's time, ever craving after something new in literature or religion, have had their curiosity gratified by the presence of an Indian gentleman, who has come to England to tell us of the revolution now going on in the Indian mind, and his desire to be the Apostle of a new Christianity to his awakening countrymen. Mr. Sen delivered certain lectures before he left India, four of which have lately been published by Allen and Co., explanatory of the principles of the lecturer; and more are promised. These lectures caused a great sensation in India, and encouraged their author to proceed to England to study religion in this country. Here he has been well received; Dean Stanley, ever ready to hold out the right hand of fellowship to anyone who attempts to explain away dogmatic truth, and substitute a vague Christianity in its place, of course affords his gracious patronage to Mr. Sen. The latter chooses, as the most fitting place for ventilating his views, a Socinian Meeting-house; the daily papers which notice his address, do not seem to have been remarkably edified by them. They speak of his fluency of speech, and correct grammar, but they failed to gather anything like a distinct idea of what he was aiming at, or what was the definite object of his discourses. We can well understand this; for, having read his Indian lectures, we find ourselves in something like the same hazy state of mind. We shall, however, give our readers the best idea we can of what this new teaching is, which, Mr. Sen informs us, is to regenerate India. It seems then that the Indian mind is passing through a revolution of a religious character, one which Sir Bartle Frere describes in his essay in The Church and the Age, which we lately noticed. The higher and more educated Hindoos are rapidly losing all faith in their old idolatries, and their older cosmogonies; and they are turning to the Bible for a truer religion, and a more authentic history. This revolution of thought is perhaps quite as much owing to material progress, as to Missionary teaching. Railways and commerce are rapidly destroying caste, and rendering it impossible to observe the requirements of the Brahmin code; education and intercourse with the European mind has rendered the inquiring Hindoo ashamed of his forefathers' idolatry, and impelled him to acknowledge its absurdity; but it has not substituted for these the Catholic Faith. Sir Bartle Frere gives some remarkable instances of the influence of the teaching of some passing Missionary, of the reading of the Bible, or of some Christian book, not only in some individual Indian, but upon a whole village. But still it is not the Catholic Faith that he receives, nor does it seem that he desires Baptism into the Catholic Church. On the contrary he sets himself, like his forefathers, to create and work out a system of his own, which he calls and thinks to be Christianity. It is, however, not very easy to understand what this Christianity is, and what are its features, for the language of Mr. Sen is, like that of some British Apostles of Christianity without the Church-e.g., Mr. Maurice for instance-very misty: indeed, in reading Mr. Sen's lectures

Price 1d.

we were reminded throughout of the discourses of a Scotch Presbyterian Minister; full of platitudes, generalities, truisms; expressed in copious wordiness, but devoid of anything definite or distinct. This new system is called by its authors the Brahmo Somaj, which they improperly translate by "Theistic Church." We say improperly, for they have no idea of what is connoted by the word Church, the communion or kingdom founded by our Lord; what they mean is a rationalistic and philosophical system, not a community. There are, apparently, no Rites, no Sacraments, hardly any Creed, only a religious philosophy. This is to regenerate India. When Mr. Sen describes his (so-called) "Church of the Future,”—that grand conception of Mr. Maurice and his followers also, which is to overthrow and take the place of the Church of Christ, as well as absorb all the sects-he is careful to tell us, that it is a purely Indian conception, not influenced by European ideas; an Eastern creation, not borrowing aught from the West.

The programme of these theosophists appears to be something of this sort; we say appears, for nothing is clearly shown, excepting the want of clearness: That there is one God, the Creator, who is also the God of Love, under whose Providence we live and move, as well as have our being. That this idea of God is the regenerating power which makes us the children of God. That great men are incarnations of the Spirit of God, among these Christ stands first. That the great duty we owe to God is love. Take, for example, the following sentences from Mr. Sen's lectures on great men :-"What is there on earth so noble as man? The human body is indeed the living tabernacle of the living God. There is but one temple in the universe,' it has been beautifully said, and that is the body of man. Nothing is holier than that high form. Bending before man is a reverence done to this revelation in the flesh. We touch heaven when we lay our hand on a human body. incarnation means the Spirit of God manifest in human flesh, certainly every man is an incarnation of God Himself."

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On the "future Church" Mr. Sen writes :-"But while admitting the unity of the Divinity, the future Church will recognize a Trinity of Divine manifestations. God manifests Himself to us through external nature, through the inner Spirit, and through the moral greatness impersonated in man."

We need not quote more: we see in this Brahmo Somaj a revival of the Gnostic ideas of the first and second centuries, ideas and doctrine which troubled the Church in the days of the Apostles, and for two hundred years afterwards and no doubt are destined to trouble us again. The foundation of all the error that pervades this system lies in listening to the oldest temptation of all:-"Ye shall be as Gods, knowing good and evil,"—it is the making of all religion consist in intellectual knowledge. It does, however, behove the Church to know all this, in order to be able to resist it. It is in itself a fascinating system, for it tends to raise self. What is the antidote? How is it to be met? We answer, in the like manner as the Primitive Church met Gnosticism and overthrew it. This can only be done by teaching the Church, and not mere "Christianity," and far more than teaching, by

making the Church, and the Church system, a reality; by insisting on the Sacraments as the only means of uniting man with God, and by making the Incarnation of the Son of God a definite doctrine by means of the Holy Eucharist. We have every reason to suppose that the Incarnation of the Son of God is not properly understood in India by the Hindoo converts. Their native religions are full of what are termed incarnations, nay they have been known to believe that disease is an incarnation of some evil power; but their incarnations are a very different thing from that of the Catholic Church; they more resemble our idea of the indwelling of the Third Person; or still more, that of "Wisdom" in the Apocryphal writers which, "dwelling in holy souls, maketh them sons of God and Prophets." They do not seem to realize that

God became Man.

Again, from the number of conflicting sects, and we must add, from the Church Missionaries teaching Christianity instead of the Church, Hindoos have failed to realize the idea of a Body of which they are members, a Kingdom of which the Incarnate God is the Head and King. In a word, the notion of an intellectual system has superseded that of a spiritual one-Gnosticism instead of the Church.

We are convinced that the whole plan of Evangelising India has hitherto been wrong. On one point Mr. Sen is right, when he says that Indians are Asiatics not Europeans, and that it is an Asiatic form of religion, not a European, that is needed. In want of this Asiatic form of the Church, they have adopted the Asiatic form of Gnosticism. Our Missionaries ought to have taken their lesson from the Oriental Church, rather than the Western, and adapted their own ideas to those of the East, rather than tried to adapt the Oriental mind to Western notions. Thus they ought to make more of Sacraments than preaching. They ought to enforce the observance of Fast Days as well as Feasts; to encourage bodily mortification and vows, as St. Paul did. Instead of the British "Dearly Beloved " on Sunday and Holy Days, there ought to be the Holy Eucharist as the one great act of worship; instead of a Catechist in every village, a native Priest, chosen not because he can preach, but that he may offer up the great Sacrifice at least every Sunday. An Oriental would comprehend a religion of this sort, where a mere intellectual one is almost certain to make him a heretic.

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It is impossible to have a good translation where there is not a good text; or to speak more correctly, however faithfully a translation is made, or however well it reads, if the text is corrupt, the translation cannot represent the mind of the author. Consequently, in considering the question of Revision, it is impossible not to include that of the integrity of the Text, which we shall now, diffidently and briefly, attempt to deal with.

A study of this subject as regards the Old Testament brings us to two conclusions; 1st, that the text requires considerable emendations; 2ndly, that such errors as there are, originated prior to the Masoretic Recension, inasmuch as existing manuscripts and printed books do not widely differ from that standard nor from each other. It might at first sight appear that this material agreement (which, however, does not exclude a multitude of discrepancies of minor note) was a proof that the text is incorrupt; but the important divergence of the Septuagint and Samaritan translations in some passages shows, on the contrary, that, at the time when they were made, the Hebrew copies must have varied considerably, otherwise the discrepancies are unaccountable. It follows from this, that modern critics, having but limited assistance from manuscripts, must either acquiesce in readings

which seem to be doubtful or probably incorrect, or emend on somewhat less substantial ground than they would desire. The question then arises, is it open to us to attempt any corrections whatever? Would they not be liable to the charge We shall not be of a rashness altogether to be deprecated? far wrong if we answer, that the alterations which might be made from a judicious use of existing manuscripts, of the Septuagint, and internal evidence, while they would not revolutionize the text of the Old Testament, would render it more nearly such as it originally was than it is at present. It is difficult to see on what grounds it could be denied that this modest result would be in a high degree desirable. Whether the text were altered little or much, the result would in either case be most valuable. To know that our version admits of very little alteration, and to find that the application of a temperate criticism removes considerable difficulties, would either of them be an advantage deserving of universal thankfulness.

But such a labour must be undertaken independently of translation, and of course prior to it. A translator cannot, in the course of his work, fairly and wisely choose between different readings; the two are different departments of scholarship, and not to be confounded. There is nothing, in truth, which requires greater delicacy than the choice of a reading. The antiquity of manuscripts may lead one astray, because a less ancient one may be a copy of one more ancient than its competitor: a more ancient translation may seem of more authority than a later manuscript, but then it is difficult to say whether it was intended to be literal or paraphrastic. Difficulties themselves are often arguments of integrity, inasmuch as no one, it might be said, would supersede what was easy by what was difficult; but then again, as copyists make mistakes, and what is worse, are reluctant to mar their works by corrections, even when they are aware of the fact, difficulties may be corruptions. The Masorites may have been learned and faithful critics, but then their learning often beguiled them into childish minutia, and their fidelity made them scrupulous in retaining errors; nor can it be denied that a vastly improved insight into the science of language must sometimes give modern critics the power of discriminating in cases of difficulty between rival claims. On these grounds it is but fair to insist on a laborious recension of the Hebrew Text, before any final steps are taken towards a new translation; but whether the translation so produced should be exalted into an Authorised translation will still be a question for further consideration.

As to the very early sources from which we may expect assistance in emendations, besides the Septuagint, there is the Samaritan Pentateuch. This frequently differs from the modern text and also from the Septuagint. Scholars are not agreed about the value of the Samaritan variations, but they certainly show that some three or four centuries before Christ there was not a universal correspondence between the various manuscripts.

When we come to the time of Talmudic activity, we find some references to different readings. These were not committed to writing till the date of the Masora, when these traditions became fixed by a quasi-official sanction. From this school of critics we learn that the text proper to the Jews of Palestine, as distinguished from others that may have existed, was substantially the same as it is now; and the translations of Aquila and others, so far as they are preserved, bear witness to the same. At the same time it must be admitted that the absence all mention of important discrepancies is so complete as to be suspicious. The Talmudists ignored various readings of importance altogether, and show signs of a puerile conservatism in not correcting the text, even where they acknowledged that errors had intruded themselves.

The Masora or traditional school, which followed the Talmudists, prevailed for about five hundred years. The same

spirit is manifested here also. We have admissions as to the superiority of certain readings, but an obstinate determination not to amend the text. It was during the growth of the Masora that the system of vowel-points and accents arose, which of course rendered any latitude in textual criticism still less possible. From this source come all our manuscripts, whether for public or private use, those for the synagogues being still written without the vowel-points and accents. The value of many of these is obviously great, but materially diminished by the difficulty of pronouncing positively as to their dates, and even as to the countries to which they belong. Moreover, as a rule they only contain portions of the Old Testament. Printed Bibles all followed the Masora in the main, and are substantially the same.

The wilder school of critics has not been able to inflict any injury on the text as generally received; if we have lost some judicious, we have also escaped much rash and unjustifiable conjecture. But the via media between the temerity and cowardice in textual criticism is yet to be found. The ventures of Houbigant, weak in authorities and full of conjectures (1753), began a new era, but are in themselves disappointing. The labours of Kennicott and De Rossi, which were far more extensive, are worthy of all praise; but they do not go beyond the variations of manuscripts which, as we have said, are not independent witnesses. Dr. Davidson's "Critical Revision of the Hebrew Text" is the most valuable work that we have yet seen in England; but until the revision of the text excites an interest among the many; equal to its importance, the results which we may well hope would follow must remain in abeyance. A profound ignorance, natural to the obscurity which curiously hangs over all Jewish literature, has yet to be dispelled; but the unexpected results attained in other walks of scholarship by the persevering industry of many, and the instinctive sagacity of a few, give us room to hope for great future discoveries in Hebrew philology, which has not as yet advanced beyond its infancy. It seems strange, and almost incredible, that scholars should find so many perplexities in this path of literature; they seem not to be able to determine within many hundred years, when the Aramean letters were introduced; when vowel-points became general; when the Samaritan Pentateuch, or different Targums were written; or under what circumstances the Septuagint and other versions came into existence. Chinese literature could hardly be more obscure.

With respect to the text of the New Testament we need not say much. That text is apparently in a much sounder state, and fewer passages consequently occur in which the sense is altogether obscure. Both the date and the subsequent matter conspire to exclude insoluble obscurities. On the other hand it is far more important that we should know what our Lord and His Apostles said, than that we should be acquainted with the exact text of the Hebrew Scriptures. We must, however, stoutly protest against the idea, that the production of an accurate text is a matter of secondary importance. In a matter like this we must not be misled by the inert acquiescence of the multitude, but consider every portion of the Christian community, and its wants. Controversialists require a sound text for the basis of their arguments; we must retreat from the arena of contention if we are not inferior or equal in learning to unbelievers; but indeed the utmost perfection of the text is in itself and abstractedly so desirable, that it would be a waste of words to illustrate it by any arguments. That the Textus Receptus is capable of some improvement is admitted by most, and, as we proceed, some evidence of this will be produced. In the meantime let us be devoutly thankful that the substantial correctness of the text of both Testaments is beyond doubt.

The Royal Commission on Primary Education met on Saturday in Dublin.


Ar the Annual Meeting of the Church Missionary Society which was held last week, several speakers lamented the deficiency between the income and the expenditure of the past year, which amounted to no less than £12,116, a deficiency which is said to have arisen mainly from fewer legacies having been received. But with all due deference to ingenious Secretaries and apologetic speakers, we venture to ask, is it a wise plan to take credit for legacies as part of the regular income of a Society? Ought they not, at any rate the larger ones, to be treated as capital, either to be invested in the funds, or dedicated to some permanent work effected once for all, instead of being reckoned as so much income to be spent at once and anticipated as forthcoming again next year? The latter plan seems a ready way of courting deficiency and financial embarrassment.

Of course, if we believed that this deficit in the funds of

the Church Missionary Society betokened a slackening of missionary zeal in the Church, we should lament it as much as any Exeter Hall speaker. But we say confidently that it betokens something quite different. It indicates not less zeal, but more wisdom in our missionary enterprise. People who really have at heart the extension of Christ's Kingdom upon the earth are beginning to think that the Church Missionary Society is a very cumbrous and imperfect machine for doing this salutary work.


They do not relish the discovery that whatever money they give will be largely diminished before it reaches the distant missionary, that the handsome salaries of deputations, clerks, and secretaries of all sorts, with enormous office expenses, will eat out a tithe of their gift, while of what remains a great deal will be spent on extraneous matters, some of very doubtful utility, and only a portion of the sum be actually applied to sustain the Mission Clergy labouring among the Heathen. It is to the prevalence of this feeling, and not to any slackening in efforts to propagate the faith, that we attribute whatever falling off there may be in the receipts of this Society. The fact is that Christian people are learning to take a more direct and personal interest in Missionary work. As each newly consecrated Bishop goes forth, with his Clergy and assistants, they leave behind a little army of friends, who co-operate with Christ's servants, and do all in their power to strengthen their hands by gifts as well as prayers. will contrive to find clothing for native children, another will adopt and pay for the education of an orphan lad, a third will provide the furniture of the Mission Chapel, and so many hands lighten the labour. All this is done privately, it is never registered by a clerk in a back office, or printed in a thick brown book. It is rarely that we find anything in print about it. There is, however, a modest little magazine, called The Net, edited by the sister of a true Missionary, the saintly Bishop Mackenzie, through the medium of which many of these home efforts are arranged. From its pages we gather that during 1869 the contributions received and acknowledged therein amount to no less than £3,700, three-fourths of which was given to the "Mackenzie Fund" for the endowment of a Bishopric in New Zealand, and the remainder forwarded direct to various Missions, chiefly in the South of Africa, according to the wishes of the respective donors. it wonderful that many Churchmen should prefer to give their money through this channel, where they know that every pound will go straight to the object in which they are interested, instead of pouring it into the coffers of a society in the management of which there is nothing to inspire confidence, and whose official expenses must be reckoned by thousands of pounds?


We hope it is not irreverent to suggest to the Committee of the Church Missionary Society that, perhaps, on investiga

tion, it might be found that "the exigencies of the Lord's work" in heathendom do not really demand so great an expenditure in Christendom, and that the deficiency might be partly met at once without any "cutting down Missionary operations to the scantiness of the income," simply by making a wiser and more sparing use of the funds already at their disposal.

Reviews of Books.

AN ESSAY IN AID OF A GRAMMAR OF ASSENT. By John Henry Newman, D.D. (London: Burns, Oates and Co.) It might naturally occur to anyone who first sees the title of this remarkable book, that it may possibly have something to do with preparing the way for assert to the dogmata now being elaborated at Rome. But it is nothing of the sort. The assent it treats of has no more to do with the dogmata of Infallibilism than with those of the Darwinian theory. Or, again, it might occur to a student of logic, that it was an endeavour to supply a want which every thoughtful student has felt on entering keenly and thoroughly into the science of logic, and that "An Essay in Aid of a Grammar of Assent" was an attempt to construct, scientifically, a "logic of probabilities." But neither is this the object of the present work. It does not, except incidentally, touch probabilities. Dr. Newman says explicitly in his chapter on the Illative

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Let us see what Dr. Newman means by "assent." He begins by laying down that there are three ways of shaping a proposition. It may be a question, or a conclusion, or an assertion; and there are three mental acts corresponding to each of these-Doubt, Inference, and Assent. These are quite distinct. In regard to Revealed Religion, for instance, a sceptic doubts, a philosopher concludes it is more or less agreeable to reason, a believer has faith. He assents in fact; and if a man disbelieves Revealed Religion, then he assents in the same way to the contrary of the proposition, and asserts that Revealed Religion is not true. In assent there is no more or less, you assent, or you do not. Then "assents are Real and Notional. Notional assents seem to be much like Inferences, but the first "is always an unconditional acceptance of a proposition, and the latter is an acceptance on the condition of an acceptance of its premisses." Our apprehension of a proposition varies in strength; what is concrete exerts a force on the mind which that which is abstract does not. "Give to him that asketh thee" has more force with us than the best arguments of the political economist against indiscriminate almsgiving. Real apprehension then is stronger than notional, and this variation in the mind's apprehension leads us to speak of strong and weak assents, as if assent admitted of degrees. Therefore, paradoxical as it may appear, "when Inference is clearest, Assent may be least forcible, and when Assent is most intense, Inference may be least distinct." To believe a dogma, is to give the assent of the mind to it. To give a real assent is an act of religion, to give a notional assent is a theological


Belief is not according to Dr. Newman, identical with faith, for faith in its theological sense includes a belief not only in the thing believed but in the grounds of believing. We not only believe doctrines, but believe them because God has revealed them. In speaking of God and belief in God, there is little difficulty in a notional assent!—

But the question follows, Can I attain to any more vivid assent to the being of a God than that which is given merely to notions of the intellect? Can I enter with a personal knowledge into the aisle of truths which make up that great thought? Can I rise to what I have called

an imaginative apprehension of it? Can I believe as if I saw? Since at first sight it would seem as if the answer must be in the negative; for such a high assent requires a present experience or memory of the fact, how can I assent as if I saw, unless I have seen? But no one in this life can see God. Yet I conceive a real assent is possible.

From the personality of God Dr. Newman passes on to the doctrine of Trinity in Unity. We have read again and again. his pages (120-3) on the doctrine of the Trinity, and we have failed to detect Sabellianism in them, yet they seem to leave on the mind a savour of Dr. Newman's old tutor, Dr. Whately. At least at each reading the feeling has recurred to us.

Now it is the belief of Catholics about the Supreme Being, that this essential characteristic of His nature (viz. the being Personal) is reiterated in three distinct ways or modes: so that the Almighty God, instead of being one Person only, which is the teaching of Natural Religion, has three Personalities, and is at once, according as we view Him in the one or the other of them, the Father, the Son, and the Spirit-a Divine Three who bear towards each other the several relations which their names indicate, and are in that respect distinct from each other and in that alone. But let us turn from these depths to the following beautiful passage on the Athanasian Creed:

Break a ray of light into its constituent colours, each is beautiful, each may be enjoyed; attempt to unite them, and perhaps you only produce a dirty white. The pure and indivisible light is seen only by the blessed its diffraction supplies; but they are sufficient for faith and devotion. inhabitants of heaven; here we have but such faint reflections of it as Attempt to combine them into one, and you gain nothing but a mystery, which you can describe as a notion, but cannot depict as an imagination. And this holds, not only of the Divine attributes, but also of the Holy Trinity in Unity. And hence, perhaps, it is that the latter doctrine is never spoken of as a mystery in the New Testament, which is addressed far more to the imagination and affections than to the intellect. Hence, too, what is more remarkable, the dogma is not called a mystery in the creeds, not in the Apostles', nor the Nicene, nor even in the Athanasian. The reason seems to be, that the creeds have a place in the Ritual; they are devotional acts, and of the nature of prayers addressed to God; and in such addresses, to speak of intellectual difficulties would be out of place. It must be recollected especially that the Athanasian Creed has sometimes been called the Psalmus Quicumque. It is not a mere collection of notions, however momentous. It is a psalm or hymn of praise, of confession, and of profound self-prostrating homage parallel to the canticles of the elect in the Apocalypse. It appeals to the imagination quite as much as to the intellect. It is the war-song of faith, with which we warn first ourselves, then each other, and then all those who are within its hearing and the hearing of the Truth, who our God is, and how we must worship Him, and how vast our responsibility will be, if we know what to believe, and yet believe not. It is

The Psalm that gathers in one glorious lay,

All chants that e'er from heaven to earth found way;
Creed of the Saints and Anthem of the Blest,
And calm breathed warning of the kindliest love
That ever heaved a watchful mother's breast.

devotional formulary to which Christianity has ever given birth, more so For myself I have ever felt it as the most simple and sublime, the most

even than the Veni Creator and the Te Deum. Even the antithetical form of its sentences, which is a stumbling block to so many, as seeming to force, and to exult in forcing, a mystery upon recalcitrating minds, has to my apprehension, even notionally considered, a very different drift. It is intended as a check upon our reasonings lest they rush on in one direction beyond the limits of the truth, and it turns them back into the opposite direction. Certainly it implies a glorying in the mystery; but it is not simply a statement of the mystery for the sake of its mysterious


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It is not possible to give an exact analysis of a volume like this, which itself is an analysis of a large theory existing in the writer's mind, if it does not exist in more concrete form. In the second part Dr. Newman still further enters into the distinction between assent and inference, dividing assent into simple and complex, and then contrasting it with certitude. He says, both truly and beautifully :—

Are there pleasures of Doubt, as well as of Inference and Assent? In one sense there are. Not indeed if Doubt simply means ignorance, uncertainty, or hopeless suspense; but there is a certain grave acquiescence in ignorance, a recognition of our own impotence to solve momentous and urgent questions which has a satisfaction of its own. After high aspirations, after renewed endeavours, after bootless toil, after long wanderings, after hope, effort, weariness, failure painfully alternating and recurring, it is an immense relief to the exhausted mind to be able to say, At length I know that I can know nothing about anything' "-that is, while it can maintain itself in a posture of thought which has no promise of permanence, because it is unnatural. But here the satisfaction does not lie in not knowing, but in knowing there is

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