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Lately published, 8vo., pp. 530, price 169.
THE VALIDITY OF THE HOLY ORDERS

PRUDENTIAL ASSURANCE COMPANY,

62, LUDGATE Hill, LONDON, E.C.

MAINTAINED AND VINDICATED BOTH THEOLOGICALLY
AND HISTORICALLY, WITH FOOT-NOTES, TABLES OF

CONSECRATIONS AND APPENDICES.
By the Rev. FREDERICK GEORGE LEE, D.C.L,

Trustees.
F.S.A., Vicar of All Saints', Lambeth.

REV. JAMES GILLMAN, B.C.L. . EDGAR HORNE, Esq.
Contents: Preface-List of Books quoted or referred to.
CHAPTER I.-Introductory: Statement of the Author's

Directors. object. II. The Preface to the Ordinal of 1549. III. Form for the Ordination of Deacons, 1549, IV. Form REV. JAMES GILLMAN, B.C.L., 14, Wimbledon Park Road, Wandsworth, CHAIRMAN. for the Ordination of Priests, 1519. V. Form for the Consecration of Bishops, 1519,

RICHARD THOMAS PUGH, Esq., Grosvenor VI. The Edwardine

THOMAS BULLMAN COLE, Esq., 29, St. Ordinal. VII. The Ordinal of King Edward VI.- Augustine Road, Camden Square.

Road, Pimlico. Objections. VIII. Ordinal of King Edward VI. in sub- H. J. GIBBINS, Esq., Rosendale Lodge, THOMAS REID, Esq., 3, Fenchchurch stantial harmony with the most ancient forms. IX.

West Dulwich.

Buildings, E.C. Some other ancient forms for Ordination. X. Mediseval forms for Consecration and Ordination in the West. EDGAR HORNE, Esq., Parliament Street. PETER SERS, Esq., 152, Leighton Road, XI. The same subject continued. XII Eastern forms

Kentish Town. of Ordination, XIII. Forms of Ordination n use amongst the separated communities of the East.

Auditors. Christians of St. Thomas. XIV. The Nestorians. XV.

RICHARD ATKINSON, Esq.

J. ALLANSON, Esq. Archbishop Matthew Parker. XVI. The Consecration of William Barlow. VII. The Consecrations of Hodg

Bankers.
kins, Scory and Co verdale. XVIII. The Consecra-
tion of Archbishop Parker. XIX. The Nag's Head

CITY BANK, Ludgate Hill Branch.
Fable. XX. The Case of Bishop Bonner versus Bishop
Horne. XXI. The Sacrament of Baptism. XXII.

Medical Adviser.
The Office of Consecrator and Assistant-Consecrator,

ROBERT CROSS, M.D., 20, New Street, Spring Gardens.
XXIII. The Doctrine of Intention. XXIV. and XXV.
Roman Catholic Testimonies to the Validity of Anglican

Solicitors.
Orders. XXVI. The Cases of Certain Anglican Clerky
who have joined the Church of Rome. XXVII.

CHARLES HANSLIP, Esq., 25, Great James Street, Bedford Row.
Changes made in the English Ordinal in 1662. XXVIII.
Messrs. PHILLIPS & SON, 11, Abchurch

Messrs. BARNARD & Co., 148, York Concluding Remarks and Summary of the Author's

Lane. argument. ADDITIONAL NOTIS.

Road, Lambeth.
Tables of Consecration: I. Archbishop Parker.

Surveyors.-Messrs. CRAWTER.
II. Archbishop Laud. III. Archbishop Juxon
APPENDICES.-I. Authoritative statements regarding

Secretary.--HENRY HARBEN Esq.
Ordination officially published in 1537 and 1543.
II. An Act concerning the Consecration of a Bishop
made in 25th year of Henry VIII. Cap. xx. sec. 5.

ANNUAL INCOME £210,000
III. Statutes relating to the Consecration of Bishops

under Edward VI.
IV. Act 3 Edward VI, to draw up a New Ordinal.
V. Act to annex the Ordinal to the Prayer Book.

New Premium Income progressing at the rate of £55,000 a-year.
VI. Act 1 of Mary to repeal the preceding Acts.
VII. Act 1 of Elizabeth to re-establish the Book of

Common Prayer.
VIII. Act declaring the legality of the Ordinations. The extraordinarily rapid progress of this Company attests the estimation in which it is held
XI. The Thirty-Nine Articles on Ordination.

by the Public ; and the large amount of new business transacted, is the best evidence of the popuX. Documents relating to the Consecration of Barlow larity of its principles, and its adaptability to meet the requirements of Assurers.

and Hodgkins. XI. Documents relating to Scory and Coverdale.

Every description of Assurance Business effected. XII. Documents relating to the Consecration of

Assurances in one payment. Parker. XIII. Parker's Book, De Antiquitate Britannica Assurances by Annual Premiums.-One-half only of which are payable for the first seven

Ecclesiæ. XIV. Henry Machyn's Diary, with testimonies regard- years, whilst no debt either for Premiums or Interest for the period during which the Halfing the same.

Premium only is payable is incurred. XV. Breve of Pope Julius III. to Cardinal Pole.

Endowments and Temporary Assurance, for Assuring a sum at a specified age, or in the event XVI. Dr. Lingard on Parkers Consecration. XVII. Documents relating to the Consecration of

of previous death. Hors

Endowments for Children for Educational and other Purposes.
XVIII. The Nonjuring Consecrations. Bishop Hickes,
Records.

Annuities, either immediate or deferred, payable to the time of death.
XIX. Documents concerning the Case of Bishop Assurance of the lives of Members of Building Societies.

Gordon of Galloway.
XX. Dr. Newman's Letters on Anglican Orders and

All claims are paid in three months with most undeviating regularity and prompitude. replies to the same.

A liberal Commission allowed to Solicitors and others introducing business into this Company, XXI. Certain Comments on Roman Catholic state ments. The Charges of Forgery.

Prospectuses, Forms of Proposal, and every information may be obtained from the Secretary. XXII. Letters of Orders of various Communions. to whom application for Agencies should be addressed. General Index.

HENRY HARBEN, Secretary. London: J. T. HAYES, Lyall-place, Eaton-square. Now ready, Second Edition, 39. 6d., post free,

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lium jam antea factum esse volebat juxta usum perpetuum ON THE CONSECRATION OF BISHOPS ACCORDING Ecclesiæ.

TO THE ANCIENT AND COMMON LAW OF THE Here follows his translation of this fourth canon :—EpisCHURCH CATHOLIC.

copum convenit maxime quidem ab omnibus, qui sunt in

provincia Episcopis ordinari. Si autem hoc difficile We have made use of the terms ancient and common fuerit, aut propter instantem necessitatem, aut propter because of the difference of opinion upon the liberties of the itineris longitudinem, tribus tamen omnimodis in idipsum English Church, some writers receiving only the four Councils, convenientibus, et absentibus quoque pari modo decernentibus others more.

This ancient and common law consists of the et per scripta consentientibus tunc ordinatio celebretur. first four General Councils, and the Canons confirmed by the Firmitas autem eorum, quæ geruntur, per unamquamque profirst of Chalcedon ; in all 207 Canons, called Jus Canonicum. vinciam Metropolitano tribuatur Episcopo. Canonem hunc (Confirmed by 1. Eliz. c. 1, s. 36). Then parts were added sequuntur et interpretantur Concilium Africanum can. xiii. called Jus Pontificium. Now part of the Jus Pontificium is (a) et Antiochenum can, xix. quod addit, Metropolitanum received here in England on the basis of custom and usage,

ea de causa coepiscopos suos convocare. by authority of Parliament in 25 Hen. VIII., c. 21, s. 1.

P. De Marca then delivers his rules taken from these three Again, there are parts we do not observe, because we keep close to the “ Ancient Canons " referred to in our ordinal for 1. That is a rule which precisely states the actual doctrine the Consecration of Bishops. The Jus Canonicum, though

of the case.

The law is not taken from the rule, but the rule mutable, yet being immediately based upon the divine law, is made by the law. partakes of the immutability of the divine law itself, and 2. A rule, therefore, delivers a compendious decision of there are rules of Church Government which cannot vary the point at issue, and is a brief explanation of the principle according to time and place. The fourth Canon of Nice, by which the cause should be governed. A.D. 325, of the consecration of Bishops, literally translated

XI. Itaque tres ex iis canonibus regulæ colliguntur. Prima from the Greek text, is as follows :-“ It is most proper that est, debere Episcopos provinciæ illius, in qua ordinandus est a Bishop should be ordained (Kathistasthai) by all (the Episcopus, ejus electionem approbare eique consensus suos Bishops) in the province (eparchy); but if this be difficult, adhibere, viva scilicet voce, si præsentes fuerint; aut per either on account of urgent necessity or on account of the litteras, si eos abesse contingat. Secunda, ordinationem a length of the way, it is proper) at all events that three tribus saltem Episcopis esse peragendam. Tertia, firmitatem should meet at the same place, the absent and consenting corum omnium, id est, confirmationem, sive to kūpos (to (or the absent if they consent), giving their suffrages together kuros) ut loquitur Concilium pertinere ad Metropolitanum. in writing ; (it is proper) that then the consecration should Regula prima et tertia explicantur in canone sexto Nicano, be made; and (it is proper) that the ratification of what is ubi statuitur, eum pro Episcopo habendum non esse, qui done should be assigned in each province (eparchy) to the absque consensu Metropolitani fuerit ordinatus. Unde patet, Metropolitan."

magni momenti visam esse veteribus auctoritatem MetroThe word here rendered ordained, and freehandled into politani. Attamen si ille aut alius quispiam Episcopus perclected, is by the canonists translated ordinari. The construc- tinacia potius, quam ratione pugnaret adversus communem tion shows that the whole canon is only one sentence, and, sentertiam collegarum suorum, ita tamen ut numerus repugbeing coupled with consecration (the laying on of hands which nantium duos vel tres non excedat, statuit Concilium, obtinere is the matter of the Sacrament), in one and the same sentence, debere sententiam plurimorum. Obtincat, inquit, sententia ordained is taken by the canonists to mean consecrated. The plurimorum. canon excludes the notion of election, and is in harmony When a new law has reference to an old law, or ancient with "the law of this Church and Realm.” For example, in custom ; or, vice versâ, when an ancient law refers to a 25 Hen. VIII., c. 20. s. 5, of the consecration of a Bishop, it modern law, the one helps to interpret the other, according says : • To invest and consecrate the said person so elected;" to their common intention, in so far as the latter law has not and in the title of the ordinal : “A form of ordaining or abrogated the former. We refer to the common law to underconsecrating a Bishop,” that is duly elected and confirmed. stand a statute repealing or altering the common law; and Here ordaining is the same as consecrating. It follows that one of the most valuable works upon the Laws of England, “A Bishop ought certainly to be ordained or consecrated by all • Coke upon Littleton," is full of obsolete law, which is the Bishops of the Province.' (Compare this with a letter absolutely necessary for the right understanding of the law to the Guardian, written “after the gulf of Christmas by a

now in force. By this rule we shall have a fuller compreMember of Convocation.")

hension of the meaning of this fourth of Nice, A.D. 325, if We turn to P. De Marca, De Concordia Sacerdotii et Imperii

. we compare it with the practice antecedent to the Nicene Lib. V., cap 11 x. Ex iis, quæ supra dicta sunt, discimus, canon ; and further, this alone will enable us to understand canonem quartum Concilii Nicæni primi non tribuere Episcopis the Greek commentator, Balsamon, upon this self-same canon jus slectionis

, sed consensus tantum aut confirmationis, et when we come to quote him. auctoritatem ordinationis. Interpretationi huic meæ favet

We turn to an Epistle of St. Cyprian (lxvii. Oxford and versio Dionysii Exigui, qui Keirotonian (laying on of hands) (n). The title of this canon is---Ut non liceat episcopum nisi a hic vertat ordinationem, non autem electionem, quam Conci- plurimis ordinari, sed si necessitas fuerit vel a tribus ordinetur episcopis.

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lxviii. Pamelius and Benedictine), A.D. 254. The Bishop of justice cannot make contrary statements relative to the should be chosen in the presence of the people, who know same transaction. The rule is allegans contraria non est most fully the lives of each, and are thoroughly acquainted audiendus. The pith of the law for the confirmation of Bishops, with the character of every one from his conversation. This, to be found in Novel 123, cap. 1-2 of Justinian, was received too, we see was done among you in the ordination of our here in Anglo Saxon times. The Archbishop is required to colleague, Sabinus, so that by the suffrages of the whole examine diligently whether the Bishop-elect has been chosen for brotherhood, and by the judgment of the Bishops who had met friendship, or any other sinister reason, whether he holds the together in their presence, and who had written to you concern- | Catholic faith, is of good character and learned. ing him, the Episcopate was conferred upon him, and hands In the next section (xii.) of P. De Marca on the confirmawere laid on him in the room of Basilides.

tion of the Bishop-elect, he says examen, discussio, judicium, The comment of Balsamon shows how much of the ante- et dein ordinatio ad Metropolitanum, et ad Episcopos comcedent practice of A.D. 254 was repealed by the Canon of provinciales pertinent secundum antiquos canones ia). A.D. 325, and why.

objection is brought against the Bishop-elect the creation is to Ex Græcis potissimum Balsamon asserit per hunc canonem be delayed. The objection must be proved to bar his election noram abrogata vetere disciplinam inductam fuisse ; according to law-secundum leges vel canones—Justinian. quatenus olim Episcopi ex suffragio populi electi habe- The Archbishop of Canterbury endorses the letters patent of rentur, solaque Episcoporum Comprovincialium, et Metropoli- the Bishop-elect-fiat confirmatio. All objectors are formally tani confirmatio accederet, et subsequeretur consecratio ;, cited in the name of the Archbishop to Bow Church to make deinde vero per hunc Nicænum canonem plebi seu populo , their objections. The objectors made their appearance, and it adempta electio fuerit, ne forte seditionibus, locus fieret,' was naturally thought that they would have to state their solisque Episcopis Comprovincialibus omnia

reservata objections, and, if declared by the Court to be valid, the extiterint. (Gratiani canones genuini ab apocryphis discreti, Crown would have to make a fresh nomination. But the Caroli Sebastiani Bernardi, Pars Prima. cap. vii. De Concilio judge refused to hear the objections, there Nicæno I., Generali, Can. 1 dist. 64).

examen, no discussio, and, consequently, no judicium aut conThe Book of the Decretals is of greater authority than the firmatio electionis. P. De Marca xii. There was still one Decree of Gratian, and was the statute law of the Western more act reserved for the security of the Church against an Church. Now, the Institutes of Lancelottus contain the pith unfit Bishop—the act of cons cration. It is manifest that of this law, and those who deny its authority will have to the consent of a majority of the comprovincial Bishops is show why it does not deliver truly the Ecclesiastical Law for required by “ the ancient canons” before the Bishop-elect can the consecration of Bishops at the time of the Reformation (a). be consecrated. And Obtineat sententia plurimorum—the act Title. Institutionum juris Canonici Lib. 1. De Consecra- of the majority is the act of all. On St. Thomas' Day A.D.

tione. Consecrationi interesse debent ad minus tres 1869, the Archbishop committed the consecration of Dr. Episcopi : alioqui non valet.

Temple to his delegate. A Court was held in the Jerusalem Ordinationi autem interesse debent non solum Metropoli- Chamber before the consecration, where the delegate laid tanus, verum etiam comprovinciales Episcopi, qui numerum . down a doctrine of majority and obedience never before heard conficiunt trium. Nam et Beatus Jacobus, qui Justus of since the beginning of the world. There were the Quatuor appellatus est, a Petro, Joanne et altero Jacobo Apostolis contra Christum in favour of, and eight Bishops made their ordinatus est, Successoribus suis, scilicet formam dantibus, ut protest in writing against the consecration. The rest stayed non minus quam tribus Episcopis, ceteris quoque assensum at home and made no sign. So the consecration was lost by præbentibus, Episcopus ordinetur. Quod si ab uno vel duobus

majority of two to one against the consecration. « Persons Episcopis ordinatio expedita fuerit, taliter ordinatis, ut Episcopi so ordained are not even entitled to the name much less to nominentur a sanctis Patribus interdicitur. Eryo si nomen non the oflice of Bishop ” (Lancelottus). “But if things be done habent, officium qualiter habebunt?

contrary to the established rules, the ordination (Keirotonian) Suffraganei a Metropolitano vocati debent cooperare, vel se shall be null and void (0). If, however, the appointment be

Evocandi sunt igitur a Metropolitano suffraganei, made according to the established canon, and some out of qui si omnes concurrant, bene est, si aliqui convenire non private contentioueness oppose it, the votes of the majority possunt, sui presentiam per epistolam facere debent. Archie- shall hold good.” (xix. Antioch). piscopus impeditus consecrationem sui suffraganei alteri com- “ If, however, two or three Bishops shall from private conmttere potest. (Romæ ex officina, &c., 1587).

tention oppose the common choice of all others, it being a It is time to apply this law to the consecration of Dr. reasonable one, and made according to the ecclesiastical Temple in order to ascertain whether or not he has been Canons, let the choice of the majority hold good ” (vi. Nice). canonically admitted into the office of Bishop.

There are

“ Three must meet, the absent, if they consent, giving their five acts necessary for the creation of a Bishop-Designation, suffrages in writing” (vi. Nice). Mission, Election, Confirmation and Consecration. The Crown How, then, did the consecration of Dr. Temple come to designates, the Primate gives Mission, the Dean and Chapter pass ? The delegate was obliged to pass by (1) the "ancient elect. But did the Archbishop earnestly solicit the Dean to elect Canons ” which have been “the law of this Church and his friend Dr. l'emple? ()). If so, this vitiates the election. Realmı” from Anglo-Saxon times, and are included in his An Archbishop cannot act as a friend in one place, and as : 0:2th of obedience to the Metropolitan known to all the world; a judge in another, by his delegate and mouthpiece in Bow (C) the law of the first Christian Emperors and of the Early Church. This is blowing hot and cold with the same mouth. Church, East and West, as well as Anglican ; (3) the law of In common life the Trustee of a school cannot persuade a feofiee to elect William Smith into the office of schoolmaster, (). De Marca gives here the answer to the Bishop of London. "The when by the deed of endowment that same Trustee is bound Bishop of Lincoln wishes for delay until Dr. Temple can be examined. to examine strictly the said Smith. and decide upon his fitness Chamber on St. Thomas' Day, A.D. 16699). And 2 Hen. VIII.c. 20.5. 1;

Examined by whom.” (From the judgment given in the Jerusalem for the office. The Court of Chancery would cancel the “any Archbishop or Bishop, after any such election shall be signified election, and make the Trustee pay the expenses of the petition unto them by the King's letters patent, must confirm, invest, and conseand the expenses of a fresh election. A witness in a Court crate with all due circumstances the Bishop-elect, within twenty days

after the King's letters patent shall have come to their hands.” * That (a) The statutes of Hen. VIII, introduced no new matter for Eccle- is, the statute allows twenty days' grace for all clue circumstances ! siastical Law.

(b). Tangpum illegitime ordinatus ab oficio suspensus habebitur. (6). Vide the Church Herald, Jan. 7, 1870, p. 185).

(Van Espen, hoc loco).

excusare.

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the Western Church, a part of the Jus Pontificium, received tion in a comparatively small degree, few will be prepared
here down to the Reformation, and confirmed by the authority to deny that there is much need for caution and care, if not for
of a Reformation Statute ; (4) the law of the majority, by anxiety.
which every province of Bishops, every Chapter, corporation, But, of the many noisy spouters who force their vague
college, company, guild, body of trustees, and what not, in notions upon the public ear, how many are there who would
the society of mankind is governed-to take his stand upon be utterly unable merely to define what they mean by educa-
one section of one Act of Parliament, out of a code of ten tion, if called upon to do so. How many who flood the
or a dozen acts, all passed in defence of the Church against columns of Liberal journals with verbose trash about an
the Pope! The Act made for the protection of the Church educational Utopia, bave no other basis for their silly nostrums
against foreign intrusion was quoted against her. This in than an intimate acquaintance with the ignorance which they
Holy Writ is called “ seething the kid in his mother's milk.” deplore. Among those, however, who read these pages there
(Sævitiæ est enim argumentum, a qua Deus removendos probably exists but little, if any, difference of opinion, either
censuit Hebræos. (Calmet's comment on Exod. xxiii. 19). upon the weakness at present existing, or the best means for

Now this is an act of arbitrary power which we do not remedying it in the future. We shall all agree that what is
choose to characterize. And absolutely nothing can justify wanted is a religious as well as a generally useful training for
the act of the delegate in allowing the consecration to pass, the young of all ranks, and that the way to obtain it is a
unless his Superior the Archbishop be an absolute Monarch system supported by authority, in which the Church shall
with all jurisdiction as to origin, power, and use centered in have its due influence, and which shall put every encourage-
his own person by divine right; and unless the delegate be, ment and inducement before parents to provide their children
what Cajetanus calls every Romanist, the born slave of a with these advantages. Undoabtedly, in the present state of
Pope. But the Archbishop has no arbitrary power to give ; things there are many who are not reached by any sort of
he is himself subject to the authority of the collective Epis- instruction, and whose unbroken ignorance results in the crime
copate as their ministerial executive head. Arbitrary power and misery which so widely prevails among us. The vast
is a thing which the whole Church of England cannot hold, and unmanageable population of many of the large towns,
and nemo dat quod non habet. There is another doctrine of and the dull prejudice in many scattered or agricultural
majority (superiority) and obedience besides that laid down in districts, afford fields for the greatest enterprise and the most
the Jerusalem Chamber, which pervades the whole order ardent energy. Experience sufficiently proves, if any proof
of the society of the civitas terrena and of the ciritas Dei.were needed, the evil and danger to the State of such a con-
The King has no arbitrary power to give. We are all born dition, and the unexample i rapidity with which the population
in subjection, and no one can govern himself by his own will. has increased during the last quarter of a century in a country
On the two great commandments, the sum of the Law so limited in area as our own, points out very distinctly the
Natural, hangs all the law. As language precedes grammar, necessity of immediately adopting some course which may
so rude custom precedes law-the law of man. But there is bring about some amelioration in this respect.
a law eternal, immutable, prior to all our devices, and ante- But recent legislation has not been of a kind to inspire
cedent to our very existence. Quod si tanta potestas est those who regard the question from a Conservative and Church-
stultorum sententiis atque jussis, ut eorum suffragiis rerum man's point of view with much confidence. It remains to be
natura vertatur; cur non sanciunt, ut quæ mala perniciosaque seen if we can so far unite as to be successful in leaving our
sunt, habeantur pro bonis ac salutaribus ? aut cur, cum jus impress on the decision of Parliament, without submitting to
ex injuria lex facere possit, Bonum eadem facere non possit any dishonouring and futile compromise of principle. Against
ex malo ? Atqui nos legem bonam a mala, nulla alia nisi secularism, now so noisily advocated, our voice must be
naturæ norma dividere possumus.

unanimous and strong. If we are to preserve any claim to the We respectfully submit that at the first Session of Convo- title of a Christian country, if we are to retain any connection cation the Lower House should petition the Upper House to with an honourable past, and wish to guard against an appoint a committee to examine—1) whether the acts of appalling future, we must utterly scout and refuse the proposal the election, confirmation, and consecration of Dr. Temple of a system which might stock the country with intelligent are validsecundum leges vel canones ; (2) if not, whether young heathens, but which would certainly do much to remove tanquam illegitime ordinatus ab officio suspensus habebitur ; the standard of Christianity from our shores. But apart from and to say wbat steps ought to be taken to prevent future the consequences which such a system might be expected to mal-administration of “the ancient canons.”

produce, a little reflection must show it to be practically
impossible among ourselves. In the present generation, at

all events, the large majority of available teachers consists of
EDUCATION.

persons holding religious opinions, Christians, it may be, of

very different sects or denominations, but still Christians. It appears to be tolerably certain that one of the subjects Now, however precluded or indisposed from distinct proselyfor Parliamentary consideration in the approaching Session tizing. it is in the nature of things impossible that their teachwill be popular or general education. For some time past it ing of history, for example, or of general morality, should not has engaged a great deal of attention, and furnished inatter be to some extent moulded by their own prepossessions or for controversy, and abundance of crude criticism to politicians prejudices. It must be remembered that we have not to deal and sober persons who commonly abstain from political dis- with a virgin soil in our efforts, but an old and highly civilized cussions. It is sufficiently clear indeed already that there is country, where every kind of opinion has its upholders, and no prospect of an at all unanimous conclusion on the general where, indirectly at least, religious controversy dust affect all question ; but on one point all may be said to agree, namely, those of its inhabitants who do not live in absolute seclusion. its extreme importance to the nation, and the peculiarly So that, in fact, the only real effect of the system urged by pressing manner with which it comes before us at the present the Birmingham League, would be that in popular estimation moment. When we reflect that it is a question which affects any religious teaching would be lowered, and that the whole in the most serious way the future condition of all classes of influence and authority of Government would be exercised the population and their relation to each other, and that we against the inculcation of Christian principles in the minds of are called upon to systematize or revise it at a time when the Christian children. Of course it is easy enough to pick holes Government of the country has just been subjected to a large in the present system, or to find out where and how often it influence from a class that has hitherto benefited by educa-Ihas failed; it is easy enough to draw vivid but imaginary

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pictures of rural victims to inquisitorial Parsons, or to decry And with him of whom we are now speaking how long was the our existing want of uniformity and completeness in com- ripening, how deep and searching the discipline of perfection. In so parison with the rigid exactitude of the plan proposed by our long a life

, he had been more than human had there not been many

faults. In so long a tenure of office, there could not but have been some Brummagem prophets. The only weakness in these flights of mistakes. But of those, brethren, the occasion, the place, the time, and, fancy is that they are all fancy, and præterea nihil. Anyone in my own case, the gratitude for great kindness, and the reverence for who is at all acquainted with ordinary country villages or

noble talents of mind and soul, forbid me to speak. But he is gone, agricultural neighbourhoods, is perfectly well aware that in and we should be ungrateful and unwise not to take diligent note of the

legacy of instruction, experience and example he has left us. I will fact there is no religious difficulty, in ninety-nine cases ont of not dwell on the splendour of his intellectual power, on his prevailing a hundred; that Dissenting parents with scarcely an excep- eloquence, his unerring memory, his keen perception, nor on the marveltion, do not hesitate the least to send their children to the lous promise of his youth, amply fulfilled in the achievements of Church School, and that it is not the custom to whip unhappy pens than mine. But I want you to look at him as a member and as a

his riper yeors. All these have been, and will be, dealt with by abler children of schismatical connections if they will not say the ruler of the Church of Christ. Of that part of the Church of Christ Catechism. The common difficulty with which the Parson, established in this land he was an unflinching defender. Loyal to the as representing the higher intelligence of the nation, has to principles of the English Reformation, he recognised in that great movecontend, is simply the strenua vis inertir, the dull dislike of ment the love and not the contempt for the institutions of the primitive

Church: firmly Protestant against every innovation and superstition of the rustic mind to all knowledge, all improvement, all inter- the Church of Rome, he grasped at the same time with a tenacity of ference. The Radicals would vindicate the liberty of the sub- purpose which no opposition could loosen, and defended with a logic ject in this matter, by fine and imprisonment; but we very which no argument could overthrow, the Catholic position of the Church much doubt if such an enactment would not prove as abortive and Apostolic order, in all the details of the Faith once for als delivered

of England ; claiming as her heritage the heirlooms of Evangelic truth and impossible as Lord Russell's notorious Ecclesiastical to the Saints." Titles Act. Englishmen are still Englishmen, especially in Another point to which I would call attention of late years those country parts; and we should be surprised if an imprison- who have known or heard of him, have had before them the picture of ment or two for neglect in sending children to school did not though still retaining in a marvellous degree the great gifts of memory

an old man physically exhausted with his long and arduous pilgrimage, stir up a tumult which would somewhat open the eyes of these and mental power. But in former years the picture must have been very would-be philosophers.

different. Through this vast Diocese, then utterly destitute of the great That education, properly so-called, that is, a training in at means of locomotion of the present day, and in some parts wanting even least the elementary principles of Christianity, with full the ordinary facilities for travelling, he journeyed visiting every part of opportunity for such further religious instruetion as the

both counties, holding Confirmations, examining the state of the parish,

and labouring with all the power of his keen insight and strong will to parents or guardians may desire,-a training in such remove the then abuses of the Church, On one of these occasions he elementary knowledge and arts of civilization as may not only went throughout the two counties on a special tour, for the stirring up fit the learner for the due performance of his part in his own

of that Missionary zeal which we hope, brethren, you are about to station, but may also enable him, with the aid of natural exhibit to-day, taking with him the present Bishop of Oxford, then a

young, and comparatively unknown man. He set his face steadfastly ability or advantageous circumstances, to raise himself in and with much success against the then prevalent and disgraceful evil of what is often termed the social scale without causing any Clergy not residing at their Cures; and he grappled with energy with derangement or impropriety in his position,-tbat this should the spiritual destitution of the great towns of Devonport and Plymouth, be attained if possible in the case of every English child of munificent also in works which in other ways might tend to the spiritual

raising funds for building and endowing Churches in each. He was however low, poor, or degraded parentage, every motive of good of the people committed to his charge. He endowed with £10,000 justice, religion, and policy, must make us most desirous. a College at Exeter for the education of young men for the ministry of We shall not achieve it by establishing a plan which may in the Parochial Schools of the Diocese , presented his own very valuabic

the Church ; founded a prize to encourage the study of the Prayer Book look symmetrical enough on paper, but which is devoid of, theological library to the county town of Cornwall; and laboured, and hostile to, Godliness; we may do much towards it if, though unsuccessfully. to obtain, at a considerable loss to himself, the instead of destroying, we strengthen our present means ; if division of this impracticably large Diocese by the erection of Cornwall we unite for the main object instead of squabbling over petty into a separate See. details ; if, in a word, we employ all the power at our com- Bishop in his gradually deepening retirement. Severe domestic calamity

And so the years rolled on, and blow after blow fell upon the aged mand as a nation to spread knowledge among those who overtook him, many of those who might have been the props of his age, need but cannot get it for themselves, and yet found all our and have followed him to the grave, being taken away before him. His action on the conviction that “the fear of the Lord is the failing eyesight also cut him off more and more from the outer world, beginning of wisdom.”

and from the fields of literary interest. But calmly, patiently he waited, while severe suffering began to be added to his other trials, But at

length the struggle ceased; the brave heart beat no longer; the strong Reviews of Books.

will was relaxed at last; a life's conflict was over, and the old man had departed to his rest, there to wait, as we believe, in the Paradise of God

till the Resurrection trump shall summon the reaper angels to their final Tur THREE HARVESTS. A Sermon preached in St. Mary harvest-work at the end of the world.

Magdalene’s Church, Torquay, by the Rev. G. C. Harris, Truly his last utterance might have been “I have finished my course, Prebendary of Exeter. (Torquay : Cockrem).

I have kept the Faith,for there had been his struggle—for that, having Every one who wishes to possess a memorial of that truly And herein, at any rate, we have one intimation how to follow his

once made up his mind, he faced all opposition, hatred, and unpopularity. great man, the late Bishop of Exeter, should purchase this example and the Apostolic precept—" Stand fast in the Faith; quit you eloquent and touching Sermon, which seems to us just now like men, be strong." And in the quiet of his decliving years, and the so doubly valuable, when-in the excitement caused by the tribute which has on all sides been lately rendered to his memory, we appointment of the new Bishop, and by that love of novelty foe, and how gentleness and humility win even those who have been

read on the one hand how even an opponent can learn to respect a noble as much apparent in the Englishman of the present day as in perhaps in the open fight of former days among the bitterest antagonists. the Athenian of St. Paul's time—the acts and works of the So works the grace of God. Dealing with and employing the grandest brave old Henry of Exeter seem well nigh forgotten in the zeal gifts, but “ showing still a more excellent way” in the light of Christian and avidity with which every word of Bishop Temple is read, charity, as it bathes and sanctifies all with the stream of suffering love

from and for the Holy Cross. devoured, criticized or admired, according to the opinions of the hearer or reader. We do not wonder that Mr. Harris was requested to publish his Sermon ; we are only surprised

Literary Notices. that it has not long ere this obtained that wide circulation, and attracted that attention which it deserres.

All who wish for full and accurate information as to the We can only find room for those passages which relate London and Suburban Churches should buy Mr. Mackeson's especially to the late Bishop :

Guide (published by Metzler and Co.), which contains copious

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