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nothing more than an exalted use of those natural human sympathies required ; I feared, therefore, lest if I remained silent any longer I might which they saw in so many other bodies. The same union existed in be considered as assenting to the consecration of Dr. Temple. nations and in families, and as our Lord had provided that this unity of Accordingly, I anticipated the prayer of your memorial, and before I spirit should be the starting point of the Church, so also He had pro- received the document I signified to the Metropolitan of the Province of vided that the power of personal intercourse should be the means by Canterbury, in the most solemn manoer known to me, that I did not which the Ministry of the Church did its work. The operation of the consent to, but protested against, Dr. Temple's consecration to the See of Ministry was independent of personal character ; yet on the other hand Exeter, until he should have publicly and expressly notified his disavowal Ministers were something more than instruments—they were ambassadors of any complicity in the general teaching of the volume entitled of Christ; they had a special work to do; and by the ordinance of God it “ Essays and Reviews.” That the protest was duly delivered I have reason was arranged that the efficiency of the Ministry should depend on their to know; but the importance attached to it I have no means at present power to reach the souls of their hearers ; upon their power of influencing of ascertaining. the lives of their flocks; upon the influence which their personal To me, and I think I may say to the memorialists generally, the days character should exercise over those amongst whom they laboured. It seem very evil; yet let us remeinber for our comfort that this is not the was obvious that a bad man could not be an efficient Minister of Christ. only era in the Church's history when clouds of error have swept the sky; A worldly, false, and selfish man could not teach people to be heavenly, and still the Great Head of the Church has steered His own ark through truthful, and unselfish. The preacher then proceeded to remind his the storm and tempest; why should we doubt that now, also, if we be hearers of another power they possessed the power of personal inter- faithful, He will overrule for grod what in our infallible judgment seems course with Christ Himself, by studying His life, by prayer, by the Sacra- so disastrous ? Having done what we cousidered our duty, the result we ment of the Lord's Supper; and concluded by urging upon them the may safely and thankfully leave in His hands who doeth all things well. importance and benefits of personal religion.

Believe me to be, dear Mr. Rural Dean,

Your affec ionate brother in Christ J. HEREFORD. We quote the following from the John Bull:- An important meeting of the Long Chapter' of Lichfield Cathedral was held on Dec. 30. The

The Rev. Prebend:ry M.Laughlin, &c., &c. Dean, Archdeacon of Stafford, Canon Lonsdale, and twelve of the Pre- RITUALISM EXTRAORDINARY.--The Daily Telegraph says :-A Clergybendaries, the Vicars-Choral and Choristers, assembled, met the Bishop inan in the Diocese of Lichtield has been recently prosecuted for some of the Diocese and Bishop Abraham at the west door of the Cathedral, truly horrible offcuces. He "adopted the surplice throughout the whole and went in procession to the altar singing the Te Deum. The Bishop Service," and instituted an afternoon Service without consulting the then knelt before the altar, and the Canons avil Prebendaries within the wishes of the parishioners.” For these enormities the Rev. A. S. Prior, rails, while the Dean offered some short Collects. The Bishop then went Vicar of St. George's, Wolverhampton, has been tried in a Court held by to his throne, and the members of the Chapter to their several stalls, and

the Bishop of Lichtield, with two assessors. We are gravely informed Morning Prayer was sung. After Morning Service there was no cele-, that the trial lasted tive hours. The cut and colour of the Clergyman's bration of Holy Communion, as might have perhaps been expected on garb, and the propriety of additional Services, were questions too the Chapter House, and continued in Session with closed doors till two sided with the Parson--preferring the surplice to the preaching gown, p.m., when all went to the palace for luncheon. The Session was resumed and saying that, as regards the afternoon ministrations to Sunday at three o'clock, and continued till the hour of Evensong. We under- scholars, Mr. Prior might please himself. For wearing a black gown in stand that the chief matters discussed were a resolution passed at the the pulpit there is not a syllable of authority in any law or direction Stafford Archidiaconal Conference, that the Chapter should take into con: relating to the Church. Where there is only one officiating Clergyman, sideratior the report of the Cathedral Cornmissioners, 1851-5.5, and point he must, in order to doff the surplice and don the gown, leave the couout any matters suggested thereby, which might be beneficially applied to gregation in the middle of his ministrations--a questionable practice, increase the general efficiency throughout the Diocese of the Cathedral for which, again, there is no authority. Nor has any advantage to be brdr, especially of those members of it who are non-residentiary. We secured by the sudden change of appearance froin white to black ever Sather that little reference was made to this report, but that a memorial been explained. The law has been invoked pretty severely of late was presented sigued by about 120 Clergy and 100 Laymen of the Arch- against High Churchmen for innovations which are clearly contrary to deaconry of Stafford, urging the Chapter to cement and invigorate the the ecclesiastical laws; but fair play is a jewel, and by their excited prorelations between the work of the Diocese and of the Cathedral; and ceedings on the subject of what is merely the furniture of the Church, that in reply to this a resolution was adopted, by which the Bishop, Dean, the Low Churchmen provoke mistrust and censure just as much as those and Chapter acknowledged their responsibility and promised to exert whose opposite excesses they so bitterly denounce. themselves to the utmost to bring the message of the Gospel and teaching of the Church to bear on the masses of the people.”

THE TWELVE DAYS' MISSION. The Bishop of Hereford has addressed the following letter in reply to

That the above Mission was a nanerously-signed memorial he had received from his Clergy :

a decided success—that many souls The Palace, Hereford, Dec. 21, 1869.

over from licentiousness and sin, to lead godly and sober Dear Mr. Rural Dean.-l address this letter to you, because your name lives—may be confidently inferred from the opposition it encountered is at the head of the numerously-signed memorial which I have received from the “ Church Association.” Here is its last expression of malignant from certain Clergy and Laity in iny Diocese ; but I shall be obliged if malice :you will take such steps as you may think proper for communicating my

14, Buckingham-street, Strand, W.C., Dec. 16, 1869. reply to the memorialists.

My Lord, -I am requested by thd Council of the Church Association Veither yon, I hope, nor they, will require to be assured that the to address your Lordship on the subject of the Twelve Days' Mission, matter to which the inemorial has called my attention has been very near which was announced to have been undertaken with your sanction, as iny heart for wecks; I only doubted how I could best discharge myself well as that of the Bishops of Winchester and Rochester. The movement of wliat seemed to ine my bounden duty at the present crisis.

was thus invested with special importance, and the publicity afterwards Recollecting the acknowledged connection between Dr. Temple and given to its proceedings by the newspaper press, combined with the the well-known “ Essays and Reviews,” I felt with the memorialists that notice that the Services were likely to be repeated in Lent, will, I am before consecration to the office of a Bishop he was bound to take steps persuaded, in your Lordship's opinion, justify the anxiety of the Church "to convince all that should be committed to him in the Lord that the Association to ascertain how far the method of conducting these Services book called · Essays and Reviews' is far indeed from being an exponent has met with your approval. With regard to some of the proceedings of of his sentiments and of his religious teaching ;” and anxiously I waited, the Mission, conducted as these were by faithful Clergymen, and carried on in hope that he would listen to the earnest and affectionate representa- with the single object of benefitting the ignorant and the poor, I tions made to him By speaking the words which I verily believed he rejoice to be able to speak in terms of sympathy and praise. These could speak, he might have comforted and re-assured many an aching Clergymen gave themselves to an arduous effort to remove the barriers heart in my own Diocese and in others.

which, from various causes, have kept back masses of the poor from But he remain d silent; the words were not spoken, and the faithful resorting to our Churches. In these cases the Clergyman of the parish were left in the same painful suspense which had troubled them ever addressed an affectionate appeal to his parishioners, and this was left, by since the proposed appointment of Dr. Temple to the Bishopric of the the exertions of his Curates and lay helpers, in the house of every inhabiSee of Exeter was made known to the Church.

tant. The appeal was followed by Services held in schoolrooms, and in When the day of consecration drew near, it seemed to me that further the Church, at hours convenient for the poor, the Services in the Church silence on my part would be criminal, or at any rate might be misunder- being short, consisting of Psalms and Collects, selected from the Liturgy, stood, and therefore I dared no longer hold my peace. Most unreservedly, interspersed with Hymns, and accompanied with addresses plain and indeed, I recognise the validity of any consecration to the office of a earnest, in which the message of the Gospel was presented in a manner well Bishop in the Anglicau Church in wbich three Bishops at least have fitted to move and influence the hearers. Such a Mission, benevolent in taken part ; but I remembered also (as you have reminded me in its end, lawful in its means, and honourable in its self-devotion, deserves your memorial) that, by the law of the Universal Church, notably the cordial sympathy of all true members of our Church. But whilo as expressed in the 4th Canon of Nicæa and in the 19th of Antioch, the some of these Services were thus honourably characterised, there were Saffragan Bishops in a Province were all interested in the consecration of others conducted by different parties which intruded practices of a very a comprovincial Bishop, and that their consent to his consecration was different nature, and in describing these, the Council takes the facts from

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those organs of the press which favoured these practices, from informa- THE CONSERVATIVE PRESS IN THE PROVINCES.-- That there has long tion received by them from trustworthy persons, who heard and saw what been much latent Conservative sentiment does not admit of doubt now; they relate ; your Lordship will find some statements in the December but unfortunately for them, Conservatives as a body have, until within number of the Intelligencer, which I have the honour to enclose. The the last few years, been too slow to assert themselves and their opinions. proceedings referred to, which have given such pain to all faithful mem- They allowed the more pushing Liberal and Radical parties to steal å bers of our Church, may be stated summarily thus :-1. The introduction march upon them, and too long neglected to avail themselves of those into the Church of Services wholly unauthorised--not taken from our modern instruments of power which their opponents were actively Liturgy. 2. The exhibition of crucifixes to the people for their venera- employing. They remained insensible to the great importance of assotion. 3. The use of incense during the Celebration of Holy Communion. ciation and organization, and what, perhaps, was not less damaging to 4. The elevation of the consecrated elements for the purpose of adora- their cause, they neglected their press. While Liberal associations kept tion. 5. Instructions given in the Church by the Officiating Minister, in together the motley crowd of their party, Conservatives depended too which the dogma of Transubstantiation was set forth with a grossness much upon their own unity of principle. While Liberal journals, well revolting to every honest member of the Church of England. 6. Pro- supported, disseminated the views of which they were the organs cessions in the Church, with crucifixes and banners, during Divine throughout the country, the Conservative press, feebly encouraged, if not Service, accompanied in one case by a ceremony of blessing candles, actually discouraged, appealed only to a comparatively limited circle, and and handing them lighted to 500 professed penitents, a performance struggled painfully for existence. Matters, we are glad to say, are altered of gross superstition, which, as far as I know, has never before profaned now. Conservatives have been roused into action, they are improving a Protestant Church. To these ceremonies must be added the inculcation their organization, and they recognise the value of the press. Our able of auricular confession, which your Lordship will find anuounced in the contemporary, the Standard, is one of the most prosperous and widelyBook of the Mission, which I have the honour to forward, and this prac- circulated of metropolitan journals

, and we are glad to know that in tice was pressed repeatedly on the hearers as an urgent duty, while many parts of the country the Conservative press is in a flourishing conthe Preacher claimed for himself a power of absolving from sin, which dition. We ourselves have no cause of complaint, but, on the contrary, belongs to God alone, which no Primitive Church "for ten centuries rejoice at the manifestation of political activity of which our progress is arrogated to herself, and which the Church of England has repudiated, as a sign. At the same time, in the interests of the cause which we have opposed both to morality and Scripture.* Of this pernicious practice the at heart, we would frankly tell our supporters they have still much Bishop of Winchester has spoken so emphatically, that I gladly refer to do before they can be regarded as worthy rivals of their Liberal your Lordship to his impressive words. Such being the facts of the case opponents. It is to the confidence they have placed in their newsestablished on undoubted evidence, the Council of the Church Association papers

, and the increased efficiency which, by aid of different kinds, appeal to your Lordship, convinced as they are that such imitations of they have helped to give to those journals that the Liberals owe Romish superstition, and teaching so opposed to the order and purity of very much of their power and influence. Such is the importance our Church, must inflict upon her if suffered, still more if sanctioned by her which the Liberal attaches to the publication of news, that it is, as it rulers, the heaviest blow. I am directed therefore by the Council to were, his instinct to impart any information he may possess at once to convey to your Lordship their respectful entreaty that you will relieve his newspaper. Of course every journal depends, and ought to depend, the fears of the faithful meinbers of our Church

by informing them that mainly on its own organisation for the collection of intelligence; but it the sanction which you extended to the Mission was not designed to is certain that the success of many newspapers has been due in no small cover the proceedings contrary both to our Liturgy and the law, and measure to the assistance they have derived from those who sympathise that when these practices are brought under your Lordship’s notice you in their views and are interested in their welfare, It is equally true will feel it your duty to mark them with the expression of your strong that Conservatives have not displayed that active zeal in rendering disapproval.-I have the honour to be, my Lord. your Lordship's obedient assistance of this kind which Liberals have shown, and it behoves them servant, J. C. COLQUHOUN,

to exert themselves if they wish their organs in the press to have Chairman of the Council of the Church Association. increased authority and weight with the public.-Yorkshire Post. The Right Reverends the Lord Bishop of iondon, the Lord Bishop of The South KensINGTON MOSAICS.—The plan proposed by “ The Rochester, and the Lord Bishop of Winchester.”

Science and Art Department” for the historic illustration of the art of mosaics has had an unfortunate commencement. The fac simile copy

from “ The Figure of the Good Shepherd seated amongst his Flock," Fulham Palace, S.W., Dec. 20, 1869. My Dear Sir,- The approval I gave to the proposal for a special season

which has reached South Kensington from Ravenna, the authorities of

the Museum decline to exhibit, on the plea that the replica is badly exeof prayer and an effort for the conversion of souls, was neither more por

cuted. This famous mosaic, in the mausoleum of the Empress Galla less than the words express. It was a general approval of the objects Placidia, of a date as early as the fifth century, was rightly considered and a prayer for God's blessing on the endeavour. There is reason to by Mr. Cole and Colonel Scott specially worthy of reproduction, believe that that blessing has not been withheld. The means employed Accordingly, a commission was given to Salviati and Co., who are in some Churches I neither sanctioned nor approved.

entrusted by the Italian Government with the restoration of the mosaics I am, my dear Sir, yours very faithfully, J. LONDON,

in St. Mark's, to make a copy of the original; and we are in a position J. C. Colquhoun, Esq.

to state that more than ordinary pains were taken to secure accuracy. It

so happens that in Ravenna resides a trusty mosaicist, trained at the Danbury Palace, Chelmsford, Dec. 22, 1869.

Papal mosaic establishment in Rome, and of late years employed by the Sir,—I have been prevented by the urgency of other business from Goverynient of Victor Emmanuel to guard and to keep in repair the replying to your letter before. When I sanctioned the Twelve Days' cute for our Government the copy now in London, and the way in which

much-lilapidated mosaics of Ravenna. This man was engaged to exeMission in the parishes within my Diocese which border upon London, he went to work was as follows. He made on the face of the original I had no idea that its proceedings would have been marked by any coloured tracing, which is now in our possession. This sketch, which is excesses in Ritual, as I regret to see they were in some Churches. But notwithstanding this, I trust there has been an awakening of souls in of the nature of a working drawing, was executed not only to secure many places, and that God has blessed the zeal and love that have been

truth in general outline, but minute literalness in detail-it is, in fact, a manifested towards His poor.

cast as well as a sketch, for the indentations on its surface indicate the I am, Sir, most faithfully yours, T. L. ROCHESTER.

number, size, and disposition of the tesseræ or cubes of which the mosaic is J. C. Colquhoun, Esq.

constructed. In Italy we are told that Mr.Cole rightly deemed such details essential to the value of the historic series which the public may still hope

some day to see complete. The mosaicist, in obedience to his instructions, Lavington-house, Petworth, Dec. 28, 1869. proceeded step by step with caution ; living on the spot he was able once Sir,--I beg to acknowledge your favour of Dec. 15, which shall have a day, or oftener, to correct his copy by a visit to the original, and, my best attention. I have no hesitation in saying that my answer as morcover, Salviati's director made a journey from Venice to Ravenna, 10 Bishop-Designate to the promoters of the Twelve Days' Mission was not order to verify the replica ere it was sent to London. Why the result intended to sanction proceedings contrary both to the Liturgy and the has proved unsatisfactory to the authorities at Kensington it is not easy law of the land, that " I "strongly disapprove of any such proceeeings.” to explain, save on the supposition that they expected a mosaic of the

I am, Sir, your obedient servant, S. WINTON. fifth century to be as smooth, clean, and pretty as the ceramic works which J. C. Colquhoun, Esq.

the Department produces and puts up now in the nineteenth century.

The making of this copy has led to the restoration of the original. The In letter to the Bishop of Winchester this paragraph was altered as fac-simile of an invaluable work, which might any moment fahen dohen

Italian Governinent, on hearing that England possessed the only existing follows:-"On this pernicious practice your Lordship has spoken so clearly to your late Diocese, that I gladly point to your impressive words." from the wall and be destroyed, were moved with so much envy that they

actually scraped together a little money to secure its better safety. A

few weeks since we saw a man and a boy on scaffolding busy on renovaWe shall be glad if the Publishers of Country Newspapers who in time, for parts of the mosaic are, in fact, not mosaic, bat patches of

tions, which a photograph in our possession shows arc undertaken scarcely e.cchange with us would still have our copies forvarded to paint to disguise dilapidations. And we are sorry to add that this per6, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET, E.C.

nicious practice of rubbing in colour with a brush has been fatal to other mosaics in Ravenna and Venicc.-Pall Mall Gazette.













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Ordinal. VII. The Ordinal of King Edward VI.ROBERT CROSS, M.D., 20, New Street, Spring Gardens.

Ohjections. VIII. Ordinalof King Edward VI. in sub.

stuutial harmony with the most ancient forms. IX. Solicitors.

Some other ancient forms for Ordination. X. Mediaval

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MXSSRS. BARNARD & Co., 148, York of Ordination. XIII. Formy of Ordination in use Lane.

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amongst the separated communities of the East.

Christiaus of St. 'I'homas. XIV. The Nestoriens. XV. Surveyors.-Messrs. CRAWTER.

Archbishop Matthew Parker. XVI. The Consecration

of William Barlow. XVII. The Consecrations of Hodg. Secretary.-HENRY HARBEN Esq.

kids, Scory, and Coverdale. XVIII. The Consecration of Archbishop Parker. XIX. The Nag's Head

Fablo. XX The Case of Bishop Bonner rersus Bishop

Horne. XXI. The Sacrament of Baptism. XXII.
The Office of Consecrator and Assistant-Consecrator.
XXIII. The Doctrine of Intention XXIV. and XXV.

Roman Catholic Testiinonies to the Validity of Anglican
New Premium Income progressing at the rate of £55,000 a-year.

Orders. XXVI. The Cases of Certain Anglican Clerky who have joined the Church of Ronie. XXVII.

Changes made in the English Ordinal in 1662. XXVIII. The extraordinarily rapid progress of this Company attests the estimation in which it is held Concluding Remarks and Summary of tho Author's

argument. ADDITIONAL NOTES. hy the Public; and the large amount of new business transacted, is the best evideuce of the popu- Tables of Consecration: I. Archbishop Parker. larity of its principles, and its adaptability to meet the requirements of Assurers.

II. Archbishop Laud. III. Archbishop Juxon

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Ordination officially published in 1537 and 1543. Assurunces in one payment.

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Common Prayer. Endowments for Children for Educational and other Purposes.

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Salisbury: BROWN & CO., and W. P. AYLWIRD.
Inventors of the IMPERCEPTICLE TRUSS. Bolts

for the Proprietors by THOMAS BOSWORTH, 198, London SIMPKIN, MARSHALL & Co., & METZLER & Co. for the Support of tbe Back, &C., &c.

High Holborn, W.C.-January 5th, 1870.



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that “in virtue of which Protests”-of eight Bishops of the PROTESTS-DR. TEMPLE.

Province" so signified and rejected, the Consecration of Dr.

Temple is a Consecration contrary to the Canon Law of the PROTESTS seem so very popular a method of expressing Church Catholic.” The result he points out to be that all opinion at present that we propose to make a few remarks on Episcopal acts performed by Dr. Temple will be of doubtful their use, and to point out where they fail, and sometimes validity. frustrate the very aim they were intended to

With a plain and practical difficulty of this kind clearly in Having so recently stated our views in regard to the Protest view, one might have expected that so thoroughly sound and against Rome of three hundred years ago, we do not now practical a Churchman as the Archdeacon would say, Let us at intend to return to that subject, but rather to view the Protests once petition the Upper House to join with us in appointing a of modern days especially, as bearing upon that ever-pressing Committee to examine into the whole Canon Law on the point, and most grievous calamity—the Consecration of Dr. Temple. and advise us as to the best means of freeing the Church from It may arise merely from the activity of the men and their this evil

, either by bringing forward such evidence as may depth of feeling ; but, undoubtedly, it is not a little singular convince the Archbishop that Dr. Temple is not lawfully conseat first to observe that Protests in the last twenty years have crated, or, if he is, may satisfy those who think otherwise. mainly come from those most opposed to the theory of Instead of this, what do we find in the last paragraph on private judgment, and who will hardly acknowledge that page 5.

5 He proceeds—" In this extremity one resource they are Protestants. We have had Protests since the remains ; one only: it remains that the Church of the ProGorham Case against almost every decision of the Eccle- vince Protest by her Synod.” O impotent conclusion! Most siastical Courts down to the St. Alban's Case ; and now we worthy Protestant Archdeacon, how will it serve at the Great have a whole heap brought out by the nomination of Day, when we have to answer for the wrong we have not preDr. Temple, and his subsequent election and consecration. | vented, to say, I protested against it, but felt doubtful of sucThey may fairly be divided into two great branches, cess if I had acted ?" Let God arise, and let His enemies be according as they are intended to free the protestors from scattered! We must labour and pray. Let us all do everycomplicity in that which they disapprove, or to obtain its thing we can by acts, words, and prayers, to bring the memrevocation, or else to oppose and avert some future action. bers of Convocation to a sense of the necessity there now is The danger, which appears to be ever increasing, is that of for action, to preserve the Church from being fatally commen thinking that to protest against evil is sufficient. No mitted to accepting a Bishop whose Order is of at least doubt it is very right to protest against what we know to be doubtful validity. wrong, but if we a man committing a robbery or a Why should not the laity in each parish press the matter murder we should have a very imperfect sense of our duty if upon their Clergy, that they may take it up vigorously, and we merely protested against his act, and did not use every urge their Proctors in Convocation to action. Anything that means within otr strength to prevent him, and that without we can do to aid in the matter will be most heartily underregard to the certainty of success; though, of course, our taken by us, and our pages shall be open any practical actions would take form by what seemed most likely to suggestions that may be offered. achieve the object. For example, it might be the part of Let us ever remember that though the State nominated Dr. wisdom to go for the police rather than to endeavour ourselves Temple, he was elected and consecrated by Churchmen. to restrain an armed villain, but that we should have satisfied As Archdeacon Denison well says, “Granting that Archbishops, the demands of Christian duty by a Protest no one will assert. Bishops, and Clergy were powerless, not only to prevent the

This seems to us plainly to point out what rule we ought nomination, but to procure its recall, they were not powerless to follow in Church matters. Let us by all means protest to prevent Election, Confirmation, or Consecration. All these against wrong.doing, but let us act also and continue to act were in their own hands.” The case appeared from the first as long as it is possible. Have we done so with respect to the about as plain as might be. The Archbishop of Canterassault upon the Faith by the appointment of Dr. Temple ? bury and Bishop of London in fact acknowledged that the Certainly not. Clergy and Laity protested in large numbers matter was in their hands, by the way in which they put under the leadership of Dr. Pusey and Bishop Trower ; | forward, in justification of their action, the vain hope that Lord Shaftesbury also brought weight to bear in the same Dr. Temple would, after Consecration, explain and prove his way, and certainly at first there was a show of action ; faith to be orthodox. On the other hand, by their but it was a fight in which the assailants stated from the reference to the requirements of the State and the penalties ontset that they did not hope for victory, but only wished of Pramunire they let an unpleasant feeling arise that they to free their own consciences.

were not of the opinion of them of old time who said, “We After matters had advanced very far, we had Mr. Burgon ought to obey God rather than men.” As to there being any issuing his most able Protest ; and now Archdeacon Denison real fear of a Bishop being imprisoned in this country at this comes with a forcible letter to the Prolocutor of the Lower time for refusing to do that which, in his conscience, he House of Convocation, which we published last week, and believed to be wrong, this idea cannot be entertained by which, while we honour most highly the Archdeacon fr his anyone who thinks for an instant of what the present outspoken language, seems to us to raise entirely a falst sug- tendency is in regard to freedom of opinion ; furthermore, it gestion. For at the commencement the Archdeacon states, seems very doubtful indeed if there is any statute which


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