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PENN'S TREATY WITH THE INDIANS.
science was well exemplified in the case cutions and scoffs of the worldly-minded. of the celebrated William Penn, whose name America was then the haven in which all who is better known in connection with the propa- were persecuted for conscience' sake sought gation of Quakerism than even that of its refuge and rest. A sum of £10,000 was due founder, George Fox. Imbibing the doc- to him from the crown, on account of money trines of the new sect while a youth of sixteen, advanced by his father for the use of the at the university of Oxford, he was fined for navy; and Penn petitioned for a grant of a nonconformity, and afterwards expelled the tract of land on the west bank of the Delaware, college. His father, Admiral Penn, who was to him and his heirs for ever, in consideration high in the favour of Charles II. and the of his claim. Charles gave a ready assent to Duke of York, and anxious for his advance this arrangement, and the Duke of York ceded ment at court, was deeply offended with him; an adjoining tract, lower down the Delaware, and, finding remonstrances and arguments in adšition. The royal patent was dated ineffectual to wean his son from his new March 4th, 1681, constituting Penn absolute opinions, he inflicted personal chastisement proprietor and governor of the province, upon him, and turned him out of the house. which received from Charles, in honour of Awakening, however, to a sense of either the the founder and his father, the name of Pennim policy or the injustice of this treatment, he sylvania. A settlement had been made by the provided him, shortly afterwards, with the Swedes on the shores of the Chesapeake Bay, means of passing two years in France and in 1627, which, after being some time in the Italy; and, on his return, sent him to Ireland possession of the Dutch, had been ceded, in to manage his property there-a step which 1664, to England. Several other small settleproves that he had confidence in his judgment ments were scattered along both sides of the and steadiness; for the future founder of bay. Three vessels sailed with emigrants, Pennsylvania was then only in his twenty- chiefly Quakers, as soon as the preliminary second year. Admiral Penn immediately sent arrangements could be effected; and Penn for him to London, and again remonstrated followed in the autumn of 1682, leaving his and threatened, but without effect, ending, as wife and children in England. before, with turning him out of doors.
The voyage across the wide Atlantic was He now began to preach and write in sup- made in safety; and it is related that he went port of his religious opinions, and his zeal in up the Delaware in an open boat, or barge, a short time caused him to be imprisoned in and reached the site of his future city about the Tower, where he remained nearly seven the 8th of November, as noted in the minutes months. On his liberation, his father once of the Friends' meeting, held on that day at more received him into favour, and he again Faivan's mansion, Shackamaxon, near Kenrepaired to Ireland to superintend the family sington. Dock Creek, now marked only by estates, remaining there about twelve months. the line of Dock Street, a crooked phenomenon He returned to London just as the Conventicle among Philadelphia right angles, was then a Act had been passed, and the Friends expelled beautiful rural stream, and the emigrants who from their meeting-house. He had not been had preceded Penn had commenced to build long in the metropolis when he was arrested on the north side of this creek, in the angle on the charge of preaching to “a riotous and formed by its connection with the Delaware. seditious assembly”-that is, an open-air Here stood the “Blue Anchor Tavern,” on the gathering of the Friends—and committed to corner of Front Street and the creek margin ; Newgate. He defended himself on his trial and at the landing opposite this house Penn with great ability, and, though the judge disembarked. Among those who welcomed directed the jury to convict him, they had the the founder were the Swedes and Indians; honesty and courage to return a verdict of and Penn, who had brought with him a acquittal. The bench fined the jury, and theoretic líking for these sons of the forest, ordered them to be imprisoned until the fines and a determination to test what kindness were paid; but the Court of Common Pleas could do in civilising them, took an early pronounced the proceeding illegal, and opportunity to cultivate their acquaintance, quashed it. Admiral Penn died shortly after- He walked with them, sat down on the ground wards, perfectly reconciled to his son, to whom at their side, and partook of their primitive he left a considerable estate ;, but he had repast of roasted acorns and hominy: The scarcely succeeded to it when he was again delighted Indians, at a loss for words with committed to Newgate, for six months, for one who could not understand them, expressed preaching. On his liberation he married the their pleasure by feats of agility; and William daughter of Sir William Springett, and the Penn, not to be outdone by his new friends, next five years were spent in the calm felicity sprang up, and outleaped them all! of rural retirement.
After the transaction of such business as He now began to look for a land in which opportunity afforded, and the circumstances he and his co-religionists might live in peace required, Penn visited the province of New
York, visiting Jersey Friends, with whom he ting themselves in the form of a half moon, had been in business relations, and seeking awaited the conference. Tonunend signified out, also, the people his faith in Long through an interpreter their readiness to hear, Island, and at other places. In November he and William Penn addressed them in a speech returned; and during the latter part of this of which tradition has preserved the submonth was held the famous meeting with the stance. The Great Spirit, he said, who made Indians, at the treaty tree at Shackamaxon, him and them, and who knew the innermost now Kensington. This tree stood until 1810, thoughts of men, knew that he and his friends when it was blown down, and a small monu- had a heart desire to live in peace and ment now marks its former site. Penn had friendship with them, and to serve them to instructed his commissioners, who preceded the utmost of their power. It was not their him to this country, to make a treaty, or custom to use hostile weapons against their league, with the Indians. It appears from fellow-creatures, for which reason they had the circumstances that this meeting was held come unarmed. Their object was not to do for the ratification of the work commenced by injury, but to do good. They were then met these cominissioners. No written record of on the broad pathway of good faith and the transaction remains, and there is no deed good will, so that no advantage was to be or grant of land bearing date from this meet- taken on either side, but all was to be opening; It was not, therefore, for the purchase ness, brotherhood, and love. After these and of land, but for the interchange of friendly other words, Penn opened a parchment which greetings and assurances, that William Penn he held in his hand, and conveyed to the met the Indians at Shackamaxon. It was the Indians, article by article, the terms upon proper commencement of his intercourse with which he placed the intercourse between them, ĥis new neighbours, and its effects remain as already given in his instructions to the upon them to this day. The traditions of the commissioners, and made the basis of their aborigines have canonised the great“Onas," as conferences with the Indians for the purchase they call him, translating the word Penn into of land. He then laid the parchment on the their language; and the dress and manners of ground, observing that the ground should be
Quaker” are assurances of their confi common to both people. dence. The venerable John Heckewelder, Having distributed presents among the the Moravian missionary, remarks upon the chiefs, he proceeded to say that he would not aversion of the Indians to treaties made any- call them children or brothers only; for often where except in the open air. “William parents were apt to whip their children too Penn," the Indians told Heckewelder, “when severely, and brothers sometimes would differ, he treated with them, adopted the ancient Neither would he compare the friendship bemode of their ancestors, and convened them tween them to a chain, for the rain might under a grove of shady trees, where the little sometimes rust it, or a tree might fall and birds on the boughs were warbling their sweet break it; but he would consider them as the notes. In commemoration of these confer- same flesh and blood with the Christians, and ences, which are always to the Indians a sub- the same as if one man's body were to be ject of pleasing remembrance, they frequently divided into two parts. He then took up the assembled together in the woods, in some parchment, and presented it to the sachem, shady spot, as nearly as possible similar to who wore the horn in the chaplet, and desired those where they used to meet their brother him and the other sachems to preserve it for Miguon (Penn), and there lay all his words or three generations, that their children might speeches, with those of his descendants, on a know what had passed between them, just as blanket, or a clean piece of bark, and, with if he had remained himself with them to great satisfaction, go over the whole. This repeat it. practice, which I have repeatedly witnessed, The Indians, as is their decorous custom, continued till the year 1780, when the dis- listened in perfect silence. The chiefs, we turbance which then took place put an end may suppose, as Penn describes their general to it, probably for ever."
custom, deliberated for some moments, and The name Miguon has the same significa- then one of them, speaking in the king's name, tion as Onas. The Indians assembled at and taking Penn by the hand, pledged thé Shackamaxon in great numbers, painted and Indians to live in love with William Penn as armed. The handful of Friends who met long as the sun and moon endure. them were without any weapons whatever ; No tradition of the Indians' speeches on but Onas, or Penn, was distinguished from this occasion is preserved. We may remark, his suite by a sash of blue silk network. that this tree had been the place between the Various articles of merchandise, intended as Indians and Penn's commissioners when they presents, were borne before thé Europeans. settled the purchases which were made before The Indian chief who presided was Tonúnend, Penn's arrival ; and, as Shackamaxon signiwhose name seems to belong alike to the fied, in the Indian language, “the place of legends of New York and Pennsylvania. kings,” probably it was an old council ground. Advancing before his warriors, he placed The principal tribes represented were three, upon his head a chaplet adorned with a small the Lenni-Lenape, the Mingoes, and the Shawhorn, the emblem of kingly power, and of The Lenni-Lenape, usually called the religious and inviolable peace. At this symbol Delaware Indians by the Europeans, appear to the Indians laid aside their arms, and set- have been the fathers and possessors of the soil
. The Mingoes, called by the French the dren with this league and firm chain of friendIroquois, were a confederacy known among ship made between them; and that it should the English as the Five Nations, and after- always be made stronger and stronger, and be wards the Six Nations. The Shawnees were a kept bright and clean, without rust or spot, warlike tribe, exiled from the South, and tole- between our children and children's children, rated or protected by the Delawares.' It should while the creeks and rivers run, and while the be observed that these Delawares, or Lenni- sun, moon, and stars endure." Lenape, with whom Penn had most dealing, It would be pleasant to know whether the were among the least warlike and most placable above “heads” are the Indians' understanding of the aborigines.
of the treaty, or Governor Gordon's presenAlthough, as we have said, no copy of the tation in simple language, or whether they treaty has been preserved, and the original, in are in the same style of expression as the the hands of the Indians, has never been read, document itself. If the latter be the case, so far as appears by any white man who has then William Penn was very happy in so recorded the fact; yet in the early minutes of drawing up a treaty that its terms could be the Provincial Council, the stipulations of the easily comprehended. From the treaty tree instrument are frequently referred to. They William Penn proceeds to his new mansion, were quoted by the Indians at many subse- at Pennsburg, nearly opposite Burlington. quent conferences with the authorities of the It was then in progress of erection, having province. And in May, 1728, we find Gover- been commenced by Colonel Markham before por Gordon in an Indian council, recapitulat- Penn's arrival. The mansion had sixty feet ing the nine principal heads of the treaty: front, by forty in depth; the lawn and garden " T'hat all William Penn's people, or Chris- sloped down to the river side, and the offices tians, and all the Indians, should be brethren, were built in a line with the main building. as the children of one father, joined together all that now remains is the brew-house, as with one heart, one hand, and one body. converted into a dwelling. In the mansion That all paths should be open and free to both was a spacious hall for councils and Indians' Christians and Indians. That the doors of conferences; and at Pennsburg, when he was the Christians' houses should be opened to the in this country, Penn fully carried out the hosIndians, and the houses of the Indians open to pitable treatment which he desired should be the Christians, and that they should make shown to the aborigines. The site was bought each other welcome as their friends. That the of“ an old Indian king." Christians should not believe any false rumours There are allusions to several Indian con or reports of the Indians, nor the Indians believe ferences held at Pennburg, usually closing any such rumours or reports of the Christians, with a “cantico," or song, and dance around but should first come, as brethren, to inquire the council fire out of doors. Penn was a of each other; and that both Christians and frequent visitor to the Indians, and delighted Indians, when they hear any such false reports to watch their sports and feats of agility, and of their brethren, should bury them as in a to be present at their dances. At a wedding bottomless pit. That if the Christians had any near Pennsburg, perhaps at the manor house ill news that may be to the hurt of the Indians, itself, Penn was present with several Indians. or the Indians hear any such ill news that may The bride, who died in 1774, aged 100 years, be to the injury of the Christians, they should and whose descendants still live in Buck's acquaint each other with it speedily, as with county, used to describe Penn as “of rather friends and brethren. That the Indians should short stature, but the handsomest, best-looking, do no manner of harm to the Christians, or lively gentleman she had ever seen.” their creatures, nor the Christians do any hurt While Penn was thus affable and kind to his to any Indians, but treat each other as their dependents, and courteous to all whom he met, brethren. But as there are wicked people in and upon occasions of relaxation could lay all nations, if either Indians or Christians aside the governor, he was not at all unmindshould do any harm to each other, complaint ful of the influence of proper forms and the should be made of it by the persons suffering, decorum of official intercourse. His barge that right might be done; and when satisfac- was a stately conveyance for those days; and tion is made, the injury or wrong should be his coach and full-blooded horses were in forgot, and buried as in a bottomless pit. That keeping with the style of his residence. When the Indians should in all things assist the the council was in session, an official guarded Christians, and the Christians assist the In the door; and when he went to open the asdians against all wicked people that would sembly, or to hold the high court of the prodisturb them. And lastly, that both Chris- vincial council, he was preceded by the sheriff tians and Indians should acquaint their chil- 1 and his deputies, with their insignia of ofice.
1. I am worth worlds, Will. A celebrated English
poet. 2. The son o' a lion, R. A celebrated admiral. 3. France is dark. A famous statesman of Queen
Elizabeth's time. 4. Got a cur in. A battle won by the English
against the French.
In some houses I get the highest place,
A kind of cloth.
To fix on.
To be quick.
A parson. 201 Ann.
A biscuit. 501 ea.
An opinion. 50
Is a map: If the initials of the above be read downwards, it will name a state of America, and the finals upwards its capital.
2 500 and No snow (the highest mountain in Wales). 502 Anna (a state of North America). 550 » Rosy en (a celebrated portrait-painter). 1001 Ajaa (an island in the Caribbean Sea). 510 Rofo town in England). 150 Heresh (a celebrated astronomer). 101 None r (a French biographer). 1156 Heea (a famous Italian politician).
PEOPLE AND PLACES.
1. A mathematical girl. 2. A seafaring girl. 3. A heathenish girl. 4. A southern beauty. 5. A pretty young belle. 6. And a girl hated by all wonien. 7. An evil-tempered girl. 8. An amiable girl. 9. A yellow complexioned girl. 10. A most difficult girl to manage. 11. An ancient relative. 12. A forbidding girl. 13. A scientific girl. 14. A deceitful youth. 15. A sparkling beauty. 16. A bitter, but well-intentioned fellow. 17. And his sister. 18. A brilliant beau. 19. His sister--a brilliant northern beauty. 20. A bountiful girl. 21. A culinary girl. 22. A healthy mountaineer. 23. A growing girl. 24. And a Dublin beauty. 25. Lofty old gentlemen. 25. Maid of honour.
My whole will name
50 Rowel (a river of England).
The initials will give the name of a celebrated British general.
J. S. BARBER.
Pli ilurw lu wkh khdg ri d qxphurxv-udfk ;
J. S. BARBER.
with the usual kind of screws employed for such 1
purposes. The copper wires are then fixed to the My first we get from a pig,
screws, and the whole immersed in a solution of My second is a pronoun,
salt and sulphur. This is an easy way of making My third is a tree, and
an useful philosophical apparatus. My whole is an animal.
llow to make a steam-engine?-A full description 2
given in No. 1, Vol. VIII. of Boy's Own Magazine,'' My first is a total,
and also how to construct a boiler in No. 3, same My second is a pronoun,
JOIN COATES, JUN.
Who was the first English Freemason ?--St. Alban 3
was not only the first master mason in Great My first is a part of you,
Britain, but he was also the first man who sufMy second is false hair,
fered martyrdom, being beheaded in a general My whole is an animal.
persecution of the early Christians. In 303 the
Empress Helena girt the city of London with a 4
stone wall, and after this period masonry began to My first is a male,
be encouraged; but in 584 a horrid period was put My second is a soldier's duty,
to the progress of architecture by Hengist, King of My whole is an aniinal.
Kent, who, in his bloody congress, murdered 300 DOUGLAS J. HASTINGS,
British nobles, many of them great artists and encouragers of masonry Pope Gregory I., who was
a great encourager of the arts, sent Augustin and ANSWERS TO QUERIES.
a colony of monks into Britain, who converted How to cure corns ?--The strongest acetic acid, Ethelbert, King of Kent, and, in return, was made applied night and morning with a camel's hair
the first Bishop of Canterbury, the cathedral of brush. In one week the corn will disappear.
which was first built in 600; in 602 the Cathedral
of Rochester; in 604 the Cathedral of London ; How to cure the toothache?-Two or three drops and in 605 the Cathedral of Westminster; four of essential oil of cloves put upon a small piece of cathedrals within the short period of five years. cotton wool, and placed in the hollow of the tooth, The clergy at this time made architecture their will be found to have the active power of curing study, and their mason lodges or assemblies were the toothache, without destroying the tooth or usually held in the monasteries. In 680, Bennet, injuring the gums.
J. S. BARBER. Abbot of Wirral, first introduced stone and brick; What causes thunder and lightning?_“ It happens formerly wood was the chief material. Many of
our ancient worthies filled the masonic chair in sometimes that some clouds will move in a direction
succession. In 857 St. Swithin was Grand Master; contrary to that of others; when this is the case,
in 957 St. Dunstan filled that office. Several of and the clouds are placed one above the other, by
the Bishops of Exeter, the famous William of the friction of the one against the other, the
Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, Chicheley, Archelectric matter contained in them is put into bishop of Canterbury, Wainfleet. Bishop of Winactivity, and one or more of them becomes electri
chester, Beauchamp, Bishop of Salisbury, Cardinal fied. When clouds are thus impregnated with the
Wolsey, and many other dignitaries, wero all electric fluid, this substance rushes out into every master-nasons. other cloud that is either not electrified, or that does not possess the same species of electricity, Origin of All Fools' Day?-From a very cariy age under the appearance of a vivid flash which is called this day bas been considered as one set apart for lightning.
the exercise of all kinds of practical jokes and “The identity between lightning and electricity mirthful folly. The term given to it we may hold was first asceriained by the celebrated Dr. Ben- as a travestie of the festival of All Saints' Day. jamin Franklin.
The custom of playing-off little tricks on this day, "Owing to its nature, and to the rapidity of its whereby ridicule may be fixed upon unguarded course, the lightning produces a vacuum in the air individuals, appears to be universal throughout through which it passes; and the contact between Europe. In France one thus imposed upon is the two masses of air, that rush in to fill this called “Un poisson d'Avril,” an April fish. It is vacuum, produces a violent explosion, which, re- very remarkable that the Ilindoos practise preverberated by clouds, hills, &c., occasions the cisely similar tricks on the 31st March, when they lengthened and awful peal termed thunder.
have what is called the “Huli Festival."'-MATT. “As the progress of light is almost instantaneous, GUNSBY. whilst sound moves through no more than 1,142 An old friend and subscriber, Mr. B. Lowe, of feet in one second of time, by noticing the time Manchester, furnishes the following authorities for that intervenes between the flash and the report, the origin of All Fools' Day. In the “British some idea of the distance of the thunder-cloud Apollo," 1708, vol. i., No, 1, is the following query: may be formed.”—Extracted from Picquol's "Astro- " Whence proceeds the custom of making April
W. F. DENNING. fools ? " Answer: It may not improperly be deHow to take rust off a steel plate?--The following between the Romans and Sabines, mentioned by
rived from a memorable transaction happening will be found a very effective way :--Procure a piece of the hardest wood you can-for instance,
Dionysius, which was thus:--The Romans, about
the infancy of the city, wanting wives, and finding oak-dip it in oil and then in emery powder ; this
they could not obtain the neighbouring women by. rub well upon the plate, and it will immediately
their peaceable addresses, resolved to make use of remove all rust.
a stratagem; and, accordingly, Romulus instituted What is the best Natural History ?-I think the certain games, to be performed in the beginning of best is Cassell's “ Popular Natural History,” 4 vols.,
April (according to the Roman calendar) in honour 8s. 6d. each; or 2 double vols., 15s. each. Cassell,
of Neptune. Upon notice thereof, the bordering Petter, and Galpin, Ludgate Hill, London.
inhabitants, with their whole families, flocked to
Rome to see this mighty celebration; where the How to make a galvanic battery?-The Society of Romans seized upon a great number of the Sabine Arts published in its Journal the following new virgins, and ravished them, which imposition we method for making a galvanic pile :-Two plates, suppose may be the foundation of this foolish one of lead thinly plated with copper, and one of custom." them with zinc, are fastened together at the top " Humorous Jewish Origin of the custom of