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VIII. If William Fingland will send us a stamped expand the chest, and should not be used of too envelope, we shall have pleasure in forwarding it great a weight at first. to him.
CHARLES RUINE GRAHAM. Who was Amphitryon! - Amphitryon was
Why are the Ides of March so called ?—The Ides Theban prince, son of Alcæus and Hipponome,
or Idus, with the Romans, were the fifteenth days and was promised the crown, and his daughter of March, May, July, and October. In other months Alcmena in marriage, by Electryon, king of
it was the thirteenth, owing to the variation of the Mycena, if he would revenge the death of his sons
nones. These days were sacred to Jupiter (to whom who were killed in a battle by the Teleboans. In his absence Jupiter, who was enamoured of Alc
a sheep was sacrificed), also to different deities.
The Ides of March, on account of Cæsar's death, mena borrowed the features of Amphitryon, and introduced himself to Electryon's daughter as her
was an oter dies, and was called parricidium.
The senate was not allowed to sit on that day. husband returned victorious; and Alcmena became preguant of Hercules by Jupiter. HUGH WYATT. What is an Interregnum ?-An Interregnum is a
time in which a throne is vacant between the death Who was Jugurtha?-Jugurtha was the illegitimate son of Manastabal, the brother of Micipsa, successor, as the interregnum between Romulus
or abdication of a king and the accession of his who were sons of Masinissa, king of Numidia.
and Numa Pompilius. Micipsa, who had inherited his father's kingdom, educated bis nephew with his two sons, Adherbal and Hiempsal; but, as Jugurtha was of an aspir- in chronology by placing an event after its real
The meaning of the word metachronism is an error ing disposition, he sent him with a body of troops
R. FLETCHER. to the assistance of Scipio, who was besieging Nu. mantia. Jugurtha showed himself brave and
What is the Habeas Corpus Act?-This Act (31 active, and gained the esteem of the Roman general. Car. II., c. 2) was passed A.D. 1679. It did not Micipsa appointed him successor to his kingdom | introduce any new principle, but confirmed and with his two sons ; but the kindness of the father
rendered more available a remedy which had long proved fatal to the children. Jugurtha destroyed existed. It prevented the illegal and indefinite Hiempsal, stripped Adherbal of his possessions, | imprisonment to which persons obnoxious to the and obliged him to fly to Rome for safety. The government could be subjected. By its provisions, senators listened to his complaints, but the gold of 1. All persons, except those charged with treason Jugurtha prevailed among them; and the suppliant or felony, could
demand from one of the judges a monarch forsaken in his distress, perished by the writ of Habeas Corpus, directing the jailer to bring snares of his enemy. Metellus was at length sent him before him, so that the validity of his detention against Jugurtha, and his firmness and success soon
might be tested. 2. All persons charged with reduced the crafty Numidian, and compelled him treason or felony must be tried at the next sessions to retire among his savage neighbours for support. after commitment, or else admitted to bail; and if Marius and Sylla succeeded Metellus, and fought not tried at the second sessions, they must be diswith equal advantage. Jugurtha, who had claimed charged. 3. No person could be re-committed for assistance from his father-in-law, Bocchus, King of the same offence. 4. No person was to be imprisoned Gætulia, was betrayed by him and delivered into beyond sea. 5. Heavy penalties were imposed on the hands of Sylla, after carrying on a war of five those who violated the provisions of the Act.years' duration. He was exposed to the view of
Curtis's Chronolugical Vullines. E. PEWTRESS. he Roman people, and dragged in chains to adorn the triumph of Marius; and afterwards put in Between whom was the battle of Narva fought, and prison, in which he died of hunger. The name at what date? - The battle of Narva was fought be. and wars of Jugurtha are immortalised by the pen tween the Swedes, under King Charles XII., and of Sallust, B.c. 106.
HUGH WYATT. the Russians, under Peter the Great, in the year Answers also received from 8. G. WILLIS, Том 1704. Brown, and AN OLD SUBSCRIBER.
When were watches first used ?--About the year How to cure the toothache?-If the pain arise from 1577, in the reign of Elizabeth. They were ina decaying of the outward surface of the tooth, vented at Nurenburg, in Franconia, in Germany. whereby the dental nerve is exposed to contact
S. G. WILLS, with the external atmospheric air, a plug of lint steeped either in chloroform, oil of cloves, or oil of When was Magna Charla signed ?-Magna Charta thyme, when inserted into the cavity of the tooth was signed by King John, 19th of June, 1215, at will be found to give considerable relief. If the Runnymede, near Staines. It either granted or pressure occasioned by putting the plug into the secured very important liberties and privileges to tooth he found to increase the pain, make a mix.
every order of men in the kingdom-to the clergy, ture of chloroform and camphor, with a small
to the barons, and to the people. 1. The privileges quantity udanum, and carefully smear the granted to the clergy in the preceding February whole of the tooth, inside and outside, with it, by are confirmed by the Great Charter. These were means of a camel-hair pencil. This very seldom as follows:--the king relinquished for ever that fails. If, however, the pain arise from a small important prerogative for which his father and all abscess forming at the root of the tooth a poultice
his ancestors had zealously contended, yielding to of a roasted fig applied to the gum may give relief,
tbem the free election on all vacancies, reserving but generally the only cure is to have the tooth
only the power to issue a congé d'élire, and to subdrawn. Finally, if the pain arise from a nervous
join a confirmation of the election; and declaring affection, it will generally be felt over the whole that if either of these were withheld, the choice side of the face, along the teeth and gums. This
should, nevertheless, be deemed just and valid. 2. disease is termed neuralgia, and the best cure for it The barons were relieved of the chief grievances is to keep warm, and take some doses of quinine.
to which they had been subject by the crown. The One word of advice, however: Never get a tooth
“reliefs" of heirs of the tenants in chief, succeeddrawn till you cannot absolutely help it ; try and ing to an inheritance, were limited to a certain endure the pain, and keep in your possession an
sum, according to the rank of the tenant; the humble yet useful servant.
guardians in chivalry were restrained from wasting
the lands of their wards; heirs were to be married Best exercise to strengthen the muscles of the arms ?- without disparagement; and widows secured from The best means to develop the muscular strength compulsory marriages. The next clause was of the arms are Indian clubs, dumb-bells, and still more important, It enacted that no " SCUgymnastic exercises on parallel bars. Indian clubs tage” or “aid” should be imposed without the are decidedly the best; dumb-bells tend more to consent of the great council of the kingdom,
except in the three feudal cases of the king's ran- renders it innocuous, whereas there is practically som. the knighting of his eldest son, and the no antidote to arsenic. marriage of his eldest daughter; and it provided Again, take a piece of copper-say a cent. or any that the prelates, earls, and greater barons should copper coin -drop a little vinegar upon it, allow b- summoned to this great council, each by a par- the vinegar to remain for a few moments, then ticular writ, and all other tenants in chief by a finally immerse the coin in some water contained genera' summons of the sheriff. All the privileges in a wine-glass. However pure the water might and immunities, granted to the tenants in chief, have been previously to this operation, it will now were extended to the inferior vassals. The fran- be charged more or less with copper. Perhaps the chises of the City of London and all other cities and non-chemical experimentalist, unaccustomed to boroughs were declared inviolable; and aids in like testing, had better make a tolerably strong solution manner were not to be required of them, except by of copper, by taking out the copper coin, smearing the consent of the great council. One weight and one it with vinegar, and re-immersing it several times measure were extended throughout the kingdom. following. Instead of vinegar, aquafortis may be The freedom of commerce was granted to alien mer- used, and with quicker effect, though vinegar will chants. '1 he Court of Common Pleas was to be answer every purpose. stationary, instead of following the king's person. Pour in a little solution of prussiate of potash into But “the essential clauses" of Magna Charta, as a portion of the copper solution, and a mahoganyMr. Hallam has well observed, are those“ which red colour will be evolved. protect the personal liberty and property of all Into a second portion of the copper solution pour freemen, by giving security from arbitrary impri- in a little hartshorn, and mark the lovely blue colour sonment and arbitrary spoilation.” “No freemen which is generated. No metal in creation, other shall be taken or imprisoned, or be disseized of his than copper, when dissolved and the solution treated freehold, or liberties, or free customs, or be out- by prussiate of potash and hartshorn, successively lawed, or exiled, or any otherwise destroyed; nor can yield by the first a mahogany-red or brown will we pass upon him, nor send upon him, but by colour, by the second a blue colour. Which facts lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the being duly committed to mind, the reader will perland. We will sell to no man, we will not deny or ceive the method of determining the presence of de'ay to any man justice or right." These last are
copper. Usually hartshorn is quite suflicient to the the words of the 4th chapter of Henry III 's end in question, without the use of prussiate of Charter, which is the existing law. They differ potash or any other testing. only slightly from those in John's Charter.--Student's Humne.
Here is another:Colour Changes.--Here are some of the best we
To change Iron apparently into Copper.--If a piece know:
of iron or steel-the blade of a knife, for example
- be immersed in a solution of copper, the copper Dissolve about ten grains, a good pinch, of iodide is deposited in the metallic condition upon the of pol assium, sometimes called hydriodate of potash, iron or steel, and creates the notion in the mind in pure water--i.e. distilled water ; put the solution of the observer unauguainted with chemical aside in a wine-glass or phial. Get a chemist to science, that the result is a case of transmutation, dissolve for you (the operation is not easy) two It has no pretensions to be regarded in that light; grains of corrosive sublimate in an ounce of dis- it is merely the deposition of one metal upon the tilled water. He will label it "poison," of course.
surface of another. When this solution is prepared and given into your
Should you desire to surprise a friend by this possession, do not let it out of sight for a single in. sort of transmutation, and surprise him effectually, stant, and any portion which may not have been it will be necessary to operate on a somewhat used in your experiment throw away.
stronger solution of copper than the one just menBy adding a solution of iodide of potassium and
tioned. You had better dissolve a drachm of blue solution of corrosive sublimate to each other in vitriol (which is a salt of copper) in a pint of various proportions, you will get some of the water, which will be enough to furnish a good strangest changes of colour imaginable. The tints bath, capacious enough to dip a knife blade into. rapidly vary from all shades, beginning with canary Depositions of copper will speedily take place, and yellow, up to the most lovely carnation; and the in a few minutes the iron knife will apparently be formation of each separate colour takes place not
transmuted into copper, irregularly, but in festooned garlands, as if some Copper is a very poisonous metal : it frequently invisible fairy amused herself by throwing flower gets into articles of both food and drink, where its garlands into the liquid. Presently, if either of presence is highly undesirable. Wherever present in the solutions be added beyond the limit of certain the soluble form, it admits of being discovered by proportions, the mixture suddenly becomes colour- one of the methods indicated above. If the solution less. This beautiful experiment is of more value be at all strong, the mere immersion of an iron than that of furnishing a means of chemical amuse- knife blade, well freed from grease, into the liquid, ment. It illustrates to those who are unacquainted will sufficiently indicate the presence of copper, with chemistry the method followed by chemists in without having recourse to any further test. speaking so confidently as they do about the presence of this or that thing. The beautiful play of colours just supposed to have been produced by
ANSWERS REQUIRED. mixture of the two agents, iodide of potassium and corrosive sublimate (bichloride of mercury), is
May an attorney's clerk (if qualified) pass an yielded by no other agents; consequently, if a cer
examination for the purpose of becoming an attortain unknown liquid yields the above tints, as par
ney without having been articled ? ticularised, when tested with iodide of potassium,
F. J. STAPLES. it is an unknown liquid no longer—it contains corrosive sublimate, or bichloride of mercury. The
What varnish is used to varnish coloured photolaiter substance is a frightful poison, far more
graphs? violent than arsenic, but less to be dreaded, not
The best book on the use of dumb-bells, and by withstanding-1. For the reason that arsenic is by whom published ? devoid of taste, whereas sublimate has a powerful
How to take rust off a steel-plate. taste (dip the end of a straw in your solution and
A SUBSCRIBER (Edinburgh). taste it), and therefore can hardly be administered
How to make a model steam-engine ? by a murderer to his victim ; 2. Because there is
JAMES ROBERTSON. an antidote for sublimate in the shape of white of egg, mingled with water, which curdles it, and How to make a galvanic battery? J. M. N.
The necessary steps for entering the medical profession, and the expenses of an education at King's College, or other of the medical scbools ? The best book on Phrenology ? The best means of catching pike?
The price of a useful double-barrel gun, and the best maker in London to get one ?
ADJUDICATION OF OUR PRIZE ESSAYS.
· Unavoidably, the adjudication on “Henry V., Shakespeare version." told in prose, has been postponed." An apology is due to the competitors, and we beg leave to offer it. We have a dozen essays, one of the least is the best ; we have some ponderous M-S.,-heavy enough-weighty, too, no doubt, but what a difference there is between “heavy" and • weighty!' - and they tell us all about King Harry in the style of grave historians. Wm. W. Cullwick gives us Shakespeare's Henry V., excellently well told. We give him the prize without hesitation.
But W. J. Malden is not to be forgotten. He does well--he writes with even more graphic force than Cullwick, but does not keep it up all through. Master C. wr tes at a good even pace in tone all the way, and that's how to win in the long run.
We pass no criticism-except that which is passed in the above remarks-on the other competitors, but we give the names and addresses in our usual course :
William W. Cullwick, aged 17; 20, Horsley Fields, Wolverhampton.
W. J. Malden, aged 17; Biggleswade, Beds.
Z D. Ferriman, aged 15; Wymeswold, near Loughborough.
Arthur William Jakeman,aged 17; near Banbury.
OUR PRIZE ESSAYS FOR 1867.
During the year, the following subjects will be open to competition:
1. The Rise and Progress of the Sunday School Movement; with remarks on the best Management of Sunday Schools.
(Essays to be sent in not later than Feb. 1.) 2. Self-made Men.
(Essays to be sent in not later than March 1.) 3. What the Poets have said about May.
(Essays to be sent in not later than April 1.) 4. A map of Europe at the beginning of 1867.
(Essays to be sent in not later than June 1.) 5. A Visit to the Crystal Palace described.
(Essays to be sent in not later than July 1.) 6. Dreams, all about them-how they are caused, what they mean, or whether they mean anything.
(Essays to be sent in not later than August 1.)
The best place in London to dispose of an English concertina and a photographic apparatus ?
G. C. 0. What is the best book on natural history?
Where can I buy a good cheap electrotyping apparatus, and how to use it ? D. J. (Hastings. )
How to obtain a midshipman's berth in the Roya Navy-also in the Merchant service-with probable cost of outfit ?
A SURACRIBER. The lowest price for a camera ?
W. Robinson, aged 16; Manchester.
FIREWORKS. The essays-only two(!) reach us—are both so very detective, that we decline say nything about them; the writers must try us on some other subjects; if we touch the Fireworks we sball blow
ANCIENT CHRISTMAS CUSTOMS.
BEST!!! To the Essay of W. B. EASTWOOD we accord the honour of print in the present number ; the rest have “honourable mention.”
J. S. Williams, aged 16.
John William Parker, aged 15;, Dores-street, Borough.
Horace Handley O'Farrell. aged 13.
7. What have I done with my holidays?
(Essays to be sent in not later than Sept. 1.) 8. The 'True History of Guy Fawkes.
(Essays to be sent in not later than Oct. 1) 9. King Charles the First-was he a Martyr ?
(Essays to be sent in not later than Nov. 1.) No competitor is eligible above the age of eighteen.
Every Essay must be written plainly, and on one side of the paper only.
The pages should be legibly numbered, and strongly fastened together at the left-hand corner.
The name, address, and age of the writer must in all cases be given in full, and written distinctly on the first page of the Essay.
A Prize of Books to the value of One Guinea will be presented to the successful competitor.
Essays cannot be returned to the writers.
A ROMANCE OF THE DAYS OF BLUFF KING HAL.
BY JOHN TILLOTSON,
Stone," etc., etc.
HOW ART THOU CALLED, AND WHAT IS THY DEGREE ?” PROFITING by the disorder consequent | man stopped and dismounting, gravely listed
upon the sudden discovery of the royal his plumed hat, and bowed low to the king. presence, Henry, and the horseman who had The stranger was a young man tall of stature saved his life, made their way to the more and well proportioned, with regular and handunfrequented parts of the city. In those some features, a profusion of nut-brown hair, days there led from the Cheap Cross to Wat- with beard and monstache of ample growth. ling Street an unpaved narrow lane, with tall His dress consisted of a short doublet, open and blackened houses on each side, whose in front, displaying a white shirt, embroidered overhanging stories made sunshine a thing of with gold. The doublet, after the fashion of mere report, with superannuated signboards the time, was made very broad at the shoul. that on a windy night creaked and groaned ders, exaggerating what nature had already in their crazy frames as though in mortal made fair and square. The sleeves were puffed agony. It was a lane through which few and slashed, and the doublet was girt at the people cared to pass after nightfall — the waist with a baldrick of gold and black. A watch shirked it; and now, on the Eve of St. dagger was suspended, in a gilded case, from John, when all London seemed at large, there this girdle. He had tight stockings, and a were but two lanterns in the whole length flat cap with a circle of feathers. Altogether of it.
he was a proper-looking man, and had the Beneath one of these lanterns the horse-' bearing of gentle birth.
“ Certes,” said Henry, "I owe my life to to your Highness—I must be shunned, and your good arm; and, by my troth, I have counted as an outcast, fit rather to company no cause to be ashamed of my deliverer. The with the turnspit than to sit at the board of rogue would have made my reign short, and the well born." himself a figure in our annals."
The king langhed. "Men,” said he, “may “The knave was iguorant of your royal win for themselves what they were not born person, or he would have held bis hand. He to. Gentle deeds may surely rank with gentle belongs to a loyal house. He is in the ser. birth. Thou hast the makings of a gentleman vice of Sir Geoffrey Wansted, and has borne in thee, or my senses play me false. Come, his badge for nearly a score of years.” be of good heart, man. On a king's word, “ Art thou of that noble house?”
you will yet win spars, and wear them with A shade passed over the features of the the best and bravest." young man as he answered in the negative. While he was yet speaking the tinkling of “Nay, I would it were so," he added; "bat bells was heard, like that of the moriscans, had we not better hasten to the river? I hear and as they entered Thames Street a compauy the sound of footsteps.”
was seen approaching, but not, as they supSurely, surely,” the king answered, "a posed, of morris-dancers. It consisted of some boat awaits me at Baynard's Castle, Do thou three or four lacqueys bearing cressets, and folremount; it would call attention to us were lowed by two gentlemen on gallant chargers, we to change places."
with a reverend divine of portly aspect beObeying the command, the young man re- striding a white mule, whose harness was mounted, and Henry, walking by his side, decorated with a score of small silver bells conversed freely.
that tinkled at every step, Your name, fair stranger ?"
So unexpected had been the appearance of "I bear the name of Ambrose Quarter- this company to Quartermaine and bis royal maine. The knave who attacked your High- companion, that it was impossible to avoid ness knows more of me than I kuow of myself. them; and one of the gentlemen, recognising He says I bear that name; that my father Quartermaine, called out to him,was a travelling juggler associated with a “What ho, there, Master Quartermaine ! band of gipsies.”
Dost thou not honour the supper at Sir " Haply the rascal lies."
Henry Keble's? Of all men in the world, one “Much of his statement is confirmed by my would say—if report be true—thou shouldst patron, Sir Geoffrey. It was he who adopted be the last to be absent.” me as his son about eighteen years ago." "I may be there anon, Sir Michael, but I “Sir Geoffrey has no children ? "
am in po mood for a revel.” * None living. A few months previous to "Sad heart, sore heart," quoth the other the fortunate day for me when I was taken in a half-mocking tone.
• What hath goue from the gipsy band, Sir Geoffrey lost both wrong?” his wife and infant son in a storm off the "Nothing." French coast. Stricken down by the news of “And yet we sigh over nothing, and are his loss, Sir Geoffrey's life was for a long time heavy hearted ?” despaired of. When he recovered his health a “I said not so, Sir Michael." settled melancholy came over him. Passing Mass,” returned the other; "but it were on his way to London through the gipsy a shame not to pledge fair Mistress Alice in a camp, he saw me—my own father dead, and I wine-cup to-night. 1 and Sir Miles are bent the uncoveted legacy of the band. He pitied on doing it; and our good father here, Dr. me, bought me for five rose nobles, and made Bell, will bless the cup." me what I am.”
“And taste it,” said the other gentleman. “Ay, and by my father's head, he has made * Misericorde," quoth the priest, "I am of thee a proper gentleman.”
no wine-bibber, but I love the taste enow. “Nay, sire, I can never claim that title. Gluttony is the only sin tolerable in a clergyWere it known-all that I have detailed man.”