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A TRUE HISTORY OF GUY FAWKES.
IN of of
shall be compelled to give a general Catholic families, namely, John and Chris. account of the plot, as his biography is so in- topher Wright, afterwards two of the conterwoven with that of the plot, that it will spirators, and Tesmond the Jesuit. As he be impossible to give one without the other. arrived at more mature years, he went I may, therefore, crave forbearance while I abroad, and enlisted as a soldier of fortane endeavour to trace the story of his life in in the army of Flanders. At this time the connection with that plot, which, unless the Roman Catholics in England were groaning record of it had become universal, we could under the hardships inflicted on them by not credit to have taken place.
their king, James of Scotland, who kept Guido, or Guy Fawkes, was a gentleman in force the same stringent laws as were in of good family, “a gentleman by name and force in the reign of Elizabeth, and blood,” as he himself says in his trial. His increased the stringency of those laws. father was a notary at York, and register of They had expected that he would be favour. the Cathedral-Church Consistory Court in able to their party, and the disappointment that city. He died January 17th, 1578, increased their ill-feelings towards the Proleaving a son, Guy, and two daughters. The testants. Some dark and daring spirits proof of this identification is given in an were amongst them, men who had already examination, dated November 7th, 1605, in signalized themselves by their intrigues which he, for the first time, gives his real with foreign states for a re-establishment
was born in the of the Roman Catholic religion. Henry City of York, and that his father's name Garnet, who was educated at Winchester, was Edward Fawkes, a gentleman, who who was a provincial of the Order of died thirty years before," and left to him a Jesuits in England, was a man of furious small living, which he spent; and in the passions, and a most malignant hatred toregistry of burials in St. Michael's-le-Bel-wards the Protestant Church. He had fry, at York, is the following entry: “Mr. great influence among his brethren, from Edward Fawkes, Register and Advocate of his position as provincial, and he had agents the Consistory Court of the Cathedral on the Continent who acted as faithful Church, January 17th, 1578.” Amongst emissaries of his fallen Church. William the baptisms of the same church, appears Baldwin, a confidential priest, resided in the name of Guy, son of Edward Fawkes, Flanders, and Joseph Cresswell was an with the date of April 16th, 1570 (see envoy from the English Catholics at the Jardine’s “Gunpowder Plot”). He received Court of Spain. These three men, with his education at a free school near York, one or two others, were the principal agents which was founded by a Charter of Philip in the plots against Queen Elizabeth, and it and Mary, and placed under the patronage | is, therefore, probable were the projectors of the Dean and Chapter. It is very pro- of the Gunpowder Treason, if, indeed, it bable that his parents were Protestants, did not originate with Garnet himself. On and we may infer, from his being placed in the 22nd of June, 1603, Guy Fawkes and the free school, that he received his earliest Christopher Wright were sent to the education in the Protestant Faith. But, Spanish Court, to give notice of the death after his father's death, his mother married of Elizabeth, and to renew the negotiations a member of a zealous Roman Catholic for the re-establishment of their religion. family, and, as he probably became an in. But Philip of Spain had, in the meantime, mate of his stepfather's house, he would, seen the rashness of the enterprise. The naturally, be brought up in his religion. fate of the Invincible Armada had taught
him experience, and he began to find that it | Fawkes, in a house in the suburbs of Lonwould be more to his interests to negotiate don, on the north side of Clement's Inn, a peace with England. James was as much and in the immediate vicinity of Chancery disposed as Philip to put an end to hostili- Lane. They now began to debate on the ties, and, accordingly, å peace was con- manner of the execution of the plot. After cluded on August 18th, 1604, at London. some inquiry they discovered a house adThe band of Incendiaries, at the head of joining the old palace of Westminster, with whom were Father Garnet and Catesby, a garden extending to the side of the river.
now left to their own resources, According to some accounts, the house was planned a design, which, if it had suc- empty; but in the “History of the Gunceeded, would have more than answered powder Treason,” published in 1678, it is their purposes. In 1603, Garnet and Catesby expressly stated that it was inhabited by a had had a conference together, in which man named Ferris, whom Percy, with con. Garnet proposed to kill the king. Percy siderably difficulty, persuaded to quit. This also afterwards proposed it, but Catesby house was at the disposal of one Whinestrongly objected to that mode of proceed- yard, Keeper of the Wardrobe during the ing. “No,” said he, “thou shalt not adintervals of Parliament. The original venture thyself to so small a purpose. In written agreement which Percy made with vain would you put an end to the king's Ferris, dated May 24th, 1604, may be seen life. He has children who would succeed in the State Paper-office. The back preboth to his crown and maxims of Govern- mises belonging to the house leaned against ment. To secure any good purpose, there. | the wall of the Parliament House. Here fore, we must destroy, at one blow, the they resolved to commence operations by king, the royal family, the lords, the com- cutting a mine through it. No sooner had mons, and bury all our enemies in one they begun than they heard that the king general ruin. They are all assembled on had resolved to prorogue Parliament to the the first meeting of Parliament. A few of 7th of February, 1605, and upon their us combined may run å mine below the hearing it they resolved to separate and hall in which they meet, and consign to meet again in November. During the ineverlasting punishment these determined terval they engaged another house on the enemies to all piety and religion.” This Lambeth side of the river.
Here they conference took place in September, 1603, cautiously deposited. stores of wood, gunand Parliament was to meet on the 1st of powder, and other combustibles.
The July, 1604, at which time it was prorogued Lambeth house was committed to the care to March, 1605. Winter went over to of a Catholic gentleman in reduced circumFlanders to bring over Guy Fawkes. Dur- stances, named Robert Kay, who took the ing the time of his absence new confede- oath and entered into the enterprise. When rates were enlisted in the enterprise. Each they met again they found themselves deone who was enlisted were compelled to prived of the use of the house at Westtake an oath of secrecy, upon which they minster, for the court had thought fit to received the Sacrament of the Lord's accommodate therein the commissioners enSupper, swearing “by the Blessed Trinity, gaged on James's scheme for the union of and by the Sacrament they now proposed England and Scotland. But at last, on a to receive, never to disclose, directly or in- dark December night, they entered the directly, by word or circumstance, the house, and commenced operations, having matter that shall be proposed to them in previously laid in a store of hard eggs, secret, nor desert from the execution thereof dried meats, and pasties, and such other till the rest should give them leave.” This provisions as would keep, in order that oath was administered to them, and when they might create no suspicions by sending Guy Fawkes arrived, in May, 1604, the abroad for food. To Guy Fawkes was same oath was taken, and the sacrament allotted the desperate office of firing the received by Catesby, Percy, Wright, and mine. A ship in the river had been provided at the expense of Tresbam to convey by a dark-complexioned man, and given to him at once to Flanders, where he was to a servant. It was very illegibly scrawled, publish a manifesto in defence of the act, and warned him, “as he valued his life,” and to dispatch letters, invoking the aid of not to attend the meeting of Parliament, all the Catholic powers. They presently “for," says the writer, “God and man have found that the wall to be penetrated was of concurred together to punish the wickedtremendous thickness, and that more hands ness of this nation.” Mounteagle laid the would be required to perform the work. letter before the king, and, after some deKay was therefore brought from the house liberation, he suggested that it might refer at Lambeth, and Christopher Wright (the to a destruction by gunpowder, and ordered brother of John Wright, who was already the vaults underneath the Parliament House in the plot), was enlisted to strengthen the to be searched. They were searched, and party, which now consisted of seven. “All Guy Fawkes was taken as he was stepwhich seven,” says Guy Fawkes in his ex- ping out of the cellar. He was at once amination, "were gentlemen of name and hurried before the king, and examined. He blood, and not any was employed in or confessed to his own share in the transacabout this action (no, not so much as in tion, but steadfastly refused to disclose the digging and mining) that was not a gentle names of any of his associates. There is man; and while the others wrought I stood sufficient evidence to prove that he was put as sentinel to descry any man that came to the torture. He was urged to implicate near to the place; upon warning being given several persons in the conspiracy, being by me they ceased, until they had again promised his life if he would do so, but notice from me to proceed. And we seven steadfastly refused. The other conspirators lay in the house, and had shot and powder, fled through Warwickshire and Worcesterand we all resolved to die rather than yield shire, until they reached Holbeach, the or be taken."
residence of Stephen Littleton, one of their Notice was now brought by Fawkes that accomplices. They were in number about the king had further prorogued Parliament one hundred, all mounted. At Holbeach from the 7th February to the 3rd of Octo- they stood upon their defence. The sheriff, ber, upon which they agreed to separate with his force, commanded them to surrenuntil after the Christmas holidays. They der. They refused, with the resolution to again met and renewed their operations, sell their lives as dearly as possible. An when the vaults of the Parliament House accidental explosion of gunpowder, which were offered to let. They immediately seized was placed by the fire to dry, wounded, and upon the offer, under the pretence of stor. almost disabled Catesby, Rookwood, Percy, ing therein wood and coals. They had now and several others. Rookwood, Grant, no need to continue their work of excava- Keyes, and Bates were taken prisoners ; tion. They therefore proceeded to stow Digby, Winter, and Littleton fought their therein the gunpowder, covering it with way through their assailants, but the first wood and coals. Again the Parliament was overtaken, and the two last were be. was prorogued to November. The con. trayed by a servant in their refuge at spirators now began to feel uneasy lest Hagley. They were all tried on the 27th their plot had been discovered, and that it of January, and acknowledged their guilt, was the cause of the delay. But their fears but made no discovery. They were exewore off, and they continued their opera- cuted, four on the 30th, and the remaining tions. Many are the accounts of the dis. four on the 31st of that month. On the covery of the plot, but the most probable scaffold, Guy Fawkes acknowledged that he one is this. Tresham, one of the conspira- believed God had not been pleased with tors, was brother-in-law to Lord Mount their project, "otherwise,” he said, “He eagle, and it is supposed that he wrote the would not bave given us over into the letter ; but, be that as it may, a letter was hands of our enemies." Thus ended the brought to the house of Lord Mounteagle ever-memorable Gunpowder Plot.
THE ODD BOY ON GOING TO BATTLE. EAR MR. EDITOR-I have not yet could not, and I would not, issue to the pub
projected poem, “Harold Deceased." I without inspecting the ground. Sir, I have said before, and I say again, it is a jolly been to Battle, and in this letter I propose good idea. Talk of the Idylls of the King describing it. -hi-diddle-diddle !—they are nothing to it. Battle, allow me to remark, is seven This may seem as if I were playing a fan miles from Hastings, according to all tasia on my own horn ; suppose I am-I, authorities, except the flymen, who are who wrote the thing, ought to know whe- nearly all prepossessed with a conviction ther it is the cheese" or whether it is not: | that it is “much nigher nine.” If you can cheese-it is Stilton, rare and old. I step it, do: it's a jolly walk; if you can't, showed it to a friend t'other day, and he or are too lazy, don't-you may go in a frankly said he had never read such a thing waggonette for eighteen-pence there and before ; what could be more delicate or com- back. This mode of conveyance, I may plimentary. I read a few lines to another here remark, was unknown at the time of chap--something about Editha of the Swan- the Conqueror. Had he waited for the neck-and he could not stand it, begged me waggon, the probability is, the last of the to stop, which, of course, I did to oblige Saxon kings would never have perished, or him : I considered it a very touching tribute even have been supposed to perish, at Semto my genius. Now, if you do not see your lac, the ancient name of Battle. To return way to put the thing before the public, say to our Southdowns—and here I may inci80: half-a-dozen houses in London are dentally remark, that the, mutton here is jumping for it. And, look here, I send a delightfully tender ; I enjoyed it very much directed envelope with a stamp, not with at three o'clock this day—well, if you purthe old address, but Mr. Tuppennay's, pose going to Battle, there are two ways of No. 2, Cobden Houses, Denmark Place, doing it, riding or walking; take either Hastings, Sussex. Now, don't you bone course that suits you best, but depend on it the stamp, and neglect to send the answer. that, for measuring a road, there is nothing
I am at Hastings, very comfortably like using your own legs as compasses. The lodged, I can tell you, right opposite road is charming. An immense expanse of “Queen Victoria's own Hotel.
land on one side, and water on the other revising my poem, which will be a classic side, glimpses of each being caught at intersome of these days, with the castle cliff vals through or over the hedge-rows, all ever so high to my left, crowned by the alive with wild flowers, bordering the huge ruins of its ancient fortress, and before me grey boulders, in fantastic figures—but, the big sea, the bathing-machines, and the there, I am not going to exhaust my deyachts which make people sick twice a day scriptive powers; I want all that for the at a shilling a head, wind and weather per- poem : mitting. . I admire my own consciousness in this sort of thing. Have not I known “Wood anemone and chickweed, fellows describe the Borghese Palace in Small-leaved cudwort, water crowfoot, Bloomsbury—that is to say, who tell all
And the white convolvulus." about what they never saw-by fagging at the books in the reading-room of the British There are pages in my poem after that Museum. No, Mr. Editor, whatever may fashion; the bit I quote is from my acbe the estimate you put on my poetic count of the road through which our unwel. ability, there is no nonsense about me. Il come guest made his march :
in English, of a pattern not commonly reSea-heath, sorrel, hard-knit trefoil, cognized in the schools, such as “over there Sea-kale Lepididum Smithi.”
as you see them there trees.” Us, I say, he This sort of thing tells—especially with addressed, but there was a gentleman of our those who don't know anything about it. párty, smugly shaven and objectionably
How I went to Battle is of no conse- clean, who took it all to himself, and when. quence to anybody but myself; suffice it ever Straw-hat paused, said, “ Yes, exactly that I got there. And there uprose before sp,” “.of course,
” « to be sure," “nothing me two massive towers, covered with ivy, can be plainer.” He was a sort of Greek and pierced here and there for windows, chorus, only I believe the Greek chorus first for ornament, second for use. The explained something, and he did not. gates were closed, and there was no horn Should this meet his eye, let me advise him on which to give a fanfare and summon the not to do it again. seneschal. There was a bell. A party of Straw-hat having shown us where Harold four had just arrived, and settled down fell, and how his body was discovered and before the gate. They had demanded ad-borne to Waltham, our lively friend intermission; we attended with them, and waited rupts him, by demanding to know whether the result. We had not long to wait ; a it happened lately. Straw-hat is indignant, postern opened, and a girl appeared-a and says--speaking according to his lightsGenevieve, perhaps, to turn away the wrath No; ate undud ears ago." There is an of the Alarics. She was accompanied by a ancient stone coffin shown to us, into which white cat and a white kitten.
everybody curiously peers, and, of course, Sweet emblem of innocence-a maiden- finds nothing. We see the remains of the standing four-and-a-half feet high, and two high altar of the old abbey, and are told a lamb-like animals, who mewed a truce. good deal about it. Some of our party in.
A truce to sentiment; I must reserve all terest themselves in objects of somewhat that for the poem. We entered, passed the modern ages, and being nothing specially ancient gateway, and advanced upon an peculiar to Battle Abbey. Thus I saw a open space, a well-kept lawn--suggesting young man absorbed in an old pump, and the idea that the monks played croquet another curiously eyeing and nosing a drainto the right; the ancient building to the pipe. Straw-hat does not give us much time left, two towers very ruinous towards the to do anything. He takes us into the Abright before us; and, right opposite, some bot's Hall, well-raftered, and in capital steps ascending to a terrace. No holy condition. There is the abbots chair, there monks at prayer, no vigilant soldiers on the the abbot's table; there is the armour of watch ; nothing but an old gentleman in a John of Gaunt or his father, there is the straw-hat, who ordered his invaders swiftly armour of the Black Prince, there is a picto the terrace. More invaders speedily ture of the Great Napoleon, there a stag's arrived, and were chivalrously entreated- head—“a stag as was shot in the year tum that is to say, the owner of the straw-hat ti tumuz.” Why the Abbot's Hall should invited them to “come on this way.” be thus adorned it is hard to say ; I pause
The enemy having come on in sufficient to think of what has taken place here. I number to be worthy of attack, marshalled look up at the little gallery immediately themselves against the straw-hat, who mar. facing the official seat of the abbot. I con. shalled himself against the terrace wall, and jure up the deep and solemn silence which sang to them the song of Roland ; that is to prevailed amongst the cowled forms crowdsay, he recited the story of the Battle of ing the hall when some unhappy prisoner Hastings, and pointed out the principal stood trembling before his judge—for here features of the place. Fields, hedges, low- the priest held judgment. I think I see lands, all richly green, and all abounding the venerable form of the abbot clad in his in wild flowers, were once the battle-plain. sacerdotal garb; I think I hear his voice Straw-hat told us all about it very briefly breaking the dread silence--"Now, then,