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5. A town of Italy, where Napoleon gained a When were the terms Whig and Tory introduced ? decisive victory over the Austrians.

-In the reign of Charles II., 1678. The appel 6. A town of Suffolk, on the Orwell.


was applied to the friends of the 7. The birth-place of Napoleon.

Court, and was originally brought from Ireland, 8. A town of France, with 40,000 inhabitants. where the word Toree (give me), used by a ca

valier banditti, had gradually been extended to the whole of the cavalier or royalist party. The

term “Whig,” which fell to the lot of the oppoSOLUTIONS TO PUZZLES.

sition, is said to have been originated in Scot


In what year was Lord William Russell

cuted? with some particulars of his execution.-On 1. Scipio. 5. Romulus.

the was 26th June, 1683, Lord William Russell 2. Euclid. 6. Urbino.

arrested for complicity in the celebrated Rye 3. Virgil. 7. Suetonius.

House Plot, and cast into the Tower, where he 4. Eutropius.

remained until the 13th of the following month, XXII.

when he was placed at the bar of the Old Bailey, Shovel.

and charged with conspiring against the life of 1. Sidney. 4. Vortimer.

the king, and to levy waragainst his government. 2. Horsa. 5. Ella.

The first part of the charge was undoubted'y 3. Oates, 6. Lloyd. false as the latter part was true.

The trial was hurried on with the most unseemly haste, and XXIII.

on Lord Russell requesting a delay of a few Wallingford.

hours that he might be able to produce import

ant witnesses, Sir Robert Sawyer, the attorneyGirl-Flora-ring--fog-gong-wand-rod

general, replied, “You would not have given lord-wall-ling-fin-dog.

the king an hour's notice for saving his life XXVI.

the trial must proceed.” He, however, was Alexandria.

allowed the use of pen, ink, and paper, and

some one to assist him by taking notes. Lady And-ale-axe-rain-reale.

Russell, at his request, took her place by his We insert solutions received : several ques

side, to assist him in the defence of his honour

and 'life. The witnesses were utterly unworthy tions of the Sphinx remain unanswered.

of belief, being themselves perjured renegades. The unfortunate nobleman was, however, found guilty, and sentence of death was passed upon

him by Treby, recorder of London. ApplicaANSWERS RECEIVED.'

tions were made to the king for his pardon, but they were unsuccessful. On the 21st of the

same month Lord Russell was led to the scaffold, When was gas först introduced for lighting the

which was erected in Lincoln's Inn Fields. He streets of London ?-In the year 1807, by a German named Windsor-he lighted up Pall Mall despatched by the executioner, his head being

was attended by Burnet and Tillotson, and with it.

stricken off at the second blow of the axe. What is Light ? - Light is of three distinct

ED. L. colours--red, conveying heat; yellow, convey. Who was John Pym?-John Pym was descending light; and blue, conveying chemical ac

ant from a good family in Somersetshire, where tion, The three combined form a colourless

he was born in the year 1584. It appears from mixture. Light travels about 192,000 miles a the abstract of title to certain estates, that John second. Light could pass round the earth in Pym was the lord of the manors of Woolaving. the 18th part of a second. The late Sir William ton, Pym, and Woolavington Throckmorton, Herschel stated, in writing, upon the power of near Bridgewater, in the county of Somerset. telescopes to penetrate into space, that the His son, Sir Charles Pym, Bart., afterwards light from the brilliant nebulæ seen by him at possessed these manors, which at his death dethat time by means of his powerful telescope, scended on coheiresses, and ultimately by marcannot have been less than 1,900,000 years in its riage passed into the family of Hales (of Kont), progress.

S. W. BUTTON. who became the representatives of the Pyms. What is the best book on Natural History? In the year 1599, John Pym was gentleman “Cassell's Popular Natural History," profusely commoner of Broadgate Hall, now Pembroke illustrated with splendid engravings. Bound in College, Oxford. He was early distinguished cloth, in four volumes, complete, 34s. Ditto, in for bis eloquence and knowledge in the common two volumes, 308. Ditto, half-calf, gilt back, law; he served in several parliaments towards 428. Ditto, half morocco, full gilt back and the end of the reign of James I., and in all edges, 458. All the above, excepting the first, those held in the reign of Charles I., as mem. are in two volumes. Published by Cassell, Petter, ber for Tavistock, in Devonshire. He soon disand Galpin, La Belle Sauvage Works, London. tinguished himself in the House for his abilities

A. L. W. and zeal in opposing the measures of the Court.

In 1626 he was one of the managers of the articles What is the

best way of strengthening the me- of impeachment against the Duke of Buckingimplies two things : 1st, a capability of retaining ham, and in the Short Parliament, which met on knowledge; 2nd, a power of recalling it to

the 13th April, 1640, he was one of the most our thoughts when we have occasion to apply met on the 3rd November, 1640, the value of

active members. When the Long Parliament it to use.

The qualities of a good memory are, in the first place, to be susceptible ; secondly, to of the House,

as well as of his talents as a

Pym's knowledge and experience in the usages be retentive; and thirdly, to be ready.


speaker, was strongly felt. In November, 1613,

Pym was appointed Lieutenant of Ordnance. What work was published tending to prove that He died at Derby House, on the 8th December of the death of Cromwell would be a benefit to the the same year, and on the 13th of the same nation, and by whom? - A pamphlet entitled month he was buried in Westminster Abbey, his "Killing no Murder,” which was published by body being carried to the grave by six members Titus Oates.

of the House of Commons. His last words were,

that "it was to him a most indifferent thing to in a secure place to prevent their destruction by live or die. If he lived, he would do what service the wicked (this was in 1823). In 1827 the plates he could; if he died, he should go to that God were (he tells us) delivered into his hands, and whom he had loved and served, and who would with them an instrument which he used as a carry out his work by some others." Having re- | pair of spectacles, and by their assistance he covered from a swoon, he cheerfully told his was enabled to translate the characters contained friends, “ that he had looked death in the face, on the records (called “Reformed Egyptian,') and knew, and therefore feared not, the worst it into English, which forms the so-called Book could do, assuring them his heart was filled with of Mormon. He was assassinatod in Carthage more comfort and joy, which he found and felt Gaol on the 27th June, 1844. Polygamy was not from God, than his tongue was able to utter." known in days Smith, but was intro

S. G. WILLS. duced by the present prophet, Brigham Young. Who was Arnold Winkelried !-In 1385 the con

A. 0. SHEARD. federate cantons of Switzerland, then consisting

*** We should advise our correspondent to of Schwyz, Uri, Unterwalden, Luzern, Zug,

read “New America," by Hepworth Dixon, Glarus, Žurich, and Berne, were involved in a

Esq. desperate war with Duke Leopold II. of Austria, Who founded Rugby School ?-Rugby School was brought about by the insolent exactions of that founded by Laurence Sheriff, a haberdasher of imperious noble. It was in the first great battlo London, in the eighth year of Queen Elizabeth's of this war that Arnold von Winkelried distin- reign.

JOHN F. E. DOTASTON. guished himself by that one great deed of patriotism which won him a name, than which there glows no prouder on the annals of fame. On July 9th, 1386, 1,300 Swiss engaged 4,000 Austrians by the borders of Lake Sempach.

ANSWERS REQUIRED. The Austrians fought on foot, formed in one

Where can I get a good book on metallogreat phalanx, their long spears projecting in

graphy ? front, and their stout harness protecting them How to strengthen the memory? from the desperate courage of the Swiss, who

How to make Indian ink? rushed upon their ranks with useless valour.

How to make a lime light? The weapons of the Swiss were huge twohanded swords, halberds, and scythes; they where I can purchase very cheap goldfinches ?

Can any of my London friends inform me were destitute of defensive armour; and in place

SAML. WABD. of bucklers, had bound pieces of flat board to Where to obtain silkworms' eggs? their left arms, to dash away the first blows of

How to get to be a midshipman on board a their enemies. They advanced to the attack in

merchant ship without buying a commission ? a triangular column. In the midst of this hope - State the different

degrees, from the cabin-boy less struggle, a knight of Unterwalden, named

to the captain. Arnold von Winkelried, shouting, aloud,.


Whether the brilliant fire-composition can be open a way for you, confederates,” precipitated

kept any length of time after being mixed, withhimself upon the Austrian phalanx, and grasp- out being spoiled ? The composition to which I ing as many spears as his extended arms could clasp, drew them upon his breast with desperate

refer contains only mealed powder and steel filings.

Η. Α. courage and strength, and bowed over their

How to make a small and inexpensive incubagory and lacerating points, and died. But not

tor, for hatching about a dozen eggs, with inin vain. The Swiss rushed into the opening, formation as to how to proceed, degree of heat and throw the phalanx into confusion. The

required, &c. ? Austrians, fainting under their heavy armour, How to clean delicate white coral which has unable to use their long lances at close quarters,

become soiled from exposure to dust? were slain on all sides by their herculean foes.

E. A. O. R. Their attendants, in whose charge they had left

In which of Cooper's works is there an their horses, fled at the first approach of danger. account of a celebrated horse-stealer among the Duke Leopold was slain, and with him 2,000

Indians ?

A SUBSCRIBBB. men, of whom 676 were nobles, 350 woro coro- Where to obtain a spade guinea ? netted helms. But for the generosity of the

Origin of a baker's dozen ? Swiss they had perished to a man. The loss of

On what terms an emigrant can obtain a pasthe confederates was only 200 men. ED. L.

sage? Can a boy of sixteen do so, being a railHow to teach a parrot to talk.--The best way is way clerk? What would be the best thing he to keep him in a room where he won't hear could do for a livelihood ? many noises, and to repeat the same word or What is the best cure for corns ? words very often, especially in the night, when What is the best cure for chilblains ? just going to sleep. In about two or three

How can the yellowness be taken off the months (if the parrot is young), it will make teeth ?

SUFFERER. some attempt at repeating the words. After Why is the paper called foolscap so called, and this, he will learn other words much quicker. what is the origin of it ?

H. W. HART. At what date was Lord Byron born, how old The Rise of the Mormons. Joe Smith, the was he when he died, and when did he die ? founder of the Mormonites, or Latter Day

WILLIAM LEBK. Saints (who bore but an indifferent charac- The best way of painting magic lantern

slides ? ter), pretended to have certain revelations from heaven, by which he was informed that What causes snow? the whole world was wrong upon religious

What causes rain ? matters, but that the truth would be made What causes hail ? known to him in due time : he was also told that Name the aids for a boy (without money) to his sins were forgiven him, and that he was rise step by step till he gets into an University ? chosen to be a prophet of the most high God. Explain the English Constitution, and how it In subsequent revelations he was informed that differs from that of France ? the American Indians were a remnant of the How does a Bill pass in Parliament, and children of Israel, and that prophets had existed become law; and is it necessary for the Queen to among them from time to time, who had written give her assent to the Bill to become law, or can certain records on golden plates, and hid them it become law by only passing the two Houses ?

The history of the present Government, their R. S. P. (Preston). Many thanks : shall be chief acts, and their chief ministers ?

glad to hear from you often. A short history of the county, language, and DAISY.--Sorry we cannot insert your puzzle ; people of Cornwan.

it is not quite up to our mark; try again. Who were the Ancient Britons ? Name the A LITTLE BOY.-“Frank's Defeat shall have stock they came from, the places they came insertion if we can give space for it, but we canfrom, their different tribes, with their positions, not promise. &c.

W. D. STEELE.--We cannot insert your CryptoWhat is the price (both new and second-hand) graph. of a light wherry to carry three persons, and JAMES W. HUNT.We cannot guarantee that where is the best place to purchase one ?

all the statements made by our advertisers are What is the origin of the term Fenian ? to be relied upon. Supposing we were aware of

Who and in what country were skates in- any wilful misrepresentation we should exclude vented, and where do we first read of them ? the advertiser.

NATURE. Tom C.--Your suggestion shall have our best



adopted next year.

CONSTANT READER.Thanks. Your CryptoG. FRISBY.—The numbers of the Boy's Monthly graph is accepted. Magazine are in print: if you say what numbers J. S. R.- There is no better French and Engyou want, and send at the rate of 2d. per num- lish-English-French-Dictionary to be had by ber (adding, say, 6d. for the postage), they shall self-instructing students than that which is be forwarded to you. Apply to Mr. Pitman, issued by Messrs. Cassell, Petter, and Galpin. Paternoster-row-he will probably inform you It sells, neatly bound, for gs. 6d. as to a shorthand teacher.

P. MʻSWEENEY.-Your article will shortly ap- Communications have been received frompear.

0. J. B.; H. R. W.; C. Hoe; J. Alexander THOMAS YOUNG.-The merits of essays sent in Frederick R.; Hawker Mason; A Regular for competition are not judged by the hand- Subscriber; S. B.; An Admirer of the B. M. M.

3 writing, but a good handwriting is always de- F. Ryland; E. C. Wainwright; R. S. Pringle sirable. The quantity of manuscript required Daisy; An Old Maid ; J. M. D. ; C. R. F.; H. should be sufficient to make about 500 lines of Wyatt; E. Houghton,

M. Bateman; P. Houghthe Boy's Monthly Magazine.

ton; Fredk. Monk; Thomas Young; E. LamFREDERICK MARTIN.-Communications for the plough ; A. D. H.; Durrant; A. L. W.; Edward Editor of the Boy': Monthly Magazine should be Harvey; John Cassells ; W. H. Hart; J. B. addressed “Editor of Boy's Monthly Magazine, Bailey F. P. R.; Arthur W. P.; Charles H. Care of Messrs. Ward, Lock, and Tyler, War- Wells; James Waters; Thomas Dobson; F. W.C.; wick House, Paternoster-row, London, E.C. A New Subscriber; and several others.

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The Map of Europe, at the beginning of the JOHN MOORE.-The outlines are not so definite present year, has been cleverly drawn by several as they should be; there is a want of cleanness competitors. Most of them are accurate, all about the work, but no complaint can be made the recent and somewhat puzzling changes

of its accuracy. in political geography being distinctly given. PHILLIP SMITH sends a word map-a literary The prize is accordingly awarded, not because sketch of the political division of Europe. He is the prize winner is more accurate than some entitled to praise for his able little paper. other competitors, but on account of more care- One small map-the work, we suppose, of a ful drawing, colouring, and finish.

very juvenile hand-reaches us without name H. DANCER sends a large and handsome map, or address. drawn on stout cardboard in a highly creditable style. He deserves great praise, and fairly wins the prize.

Our adjudication stands thus:DANIEL S. MELVILLE makes an excellent 1. H. Dancer, [Prizeman], aged 15 years and second. His colouring is good, but there is not 9 months, 7, Albert-place, Victoria-road, Kenthe same careful finish which marks the work sington. of Dancer.

2. Daniel S. Melville, aged 17, HaddingtonEDWARD FOREMAN merits a good share of place, Edinburgh. praise for the map he sends. He has evidently 3. Edward Foreman, aged 13, Halesworth, taken pains to be accurate.

Suffolk. GEORGE LEA draws with all the precision and 4. George Lea, aged 14, Maidstone, Kent. delicacy of copper-plate. His coast lines are 5. J. P. Houghton, aged 14, Richmond. beautifully drawn.

6. J. J. Robinson, aged 14 years and 9 months, J. P. HOUGHTON contents himself with a clear, Brompton. bold outline, very well done.

7. W. E. Bristow, aged 16, St. John's Collegiate J. J. ROBINSON is a little obscure, and it is diffi- School, Richmond. cult in some places to trace his divisions, but the 8. W. Bishop, Edinburgh. map is very accurate.

9. John Moore, aged 14, Binfield, Berks. W. E. BRISTOW.--A good, plain map.

And-Word MapW. BISHOP.-Well drawn, and very highly 10. Phillip Smith, Magnetic Telegraph, Swan. coloured,


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