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Now, could we remove the ocean waters we flora,* says Agassiz, is as distinct as that should find that there are hills and dales as of terrestrial animals and plants, and late inupon the continents; and generally the slope vestigations have done much to explain the of the land is continued from the inland connection of this distribution with physical mountain summit to the bottom of the ocean conditions. A glance at the coast of North vale. In places where high lands reach down America will show to what a variety of phyto the coast, the immediate depth of the sea is sical influences the animals living along its proportionally great; but wherever the surface shores are subjected. On the shores of Baffin's rises gently landwards, the sea-bed continues Bay-especial the inner coast of Greenwith a corresponding slope downwards. Were land, where the glaciers push their way down the ocean waters in reality quite absent, so as to the very brink of the water—we shall hardly to leave the whole slope exposed to the air, we expect to find a very abundant littoral fauna. should expect to see the lower parts of it clothed On its western shore, where the ice does not with vegetation in zones, the species of plants | advance so far, and a greater surface of rock is differing from those in the upper zones. But exposed, the circumstances are more favourthe lower parts of these mountain slopes are in able to the development of animal life. Here fact beneath the waters, and it has not been abound the winged molluscs (pteropods), the given us to perambulate the submarine meads, whale-feed, as fishermen call them, because or to force our way leisurely through dense the whales devour them voraciously. Along thickets of algæ, as we can traverse the glens the shore of Labrador and Newfoundland the and climb the mountains of the dry land. Is coast is wholly rocky, and especially about it possible to ascertain whether, beneath the Newfoundland, it is deeply indented with waves, any distribution of life occurs corre- bays. Here there is ample opportunity for sponding at all to that which prevails above the growth of certain kinds of animals in them ? Yes, in spite of natural impediments, sheltered nooks. The number of species is, the thing has been done; and there are found however, much greater along the shores of to be zones of life in descending from the Maine, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, shore, as there would be in ascending a moun than in Labrador, owing, no doubt, to the tain, and provinces of life with their geogra- milder climate. Farther south, from Cape phical limits, as there would be in going from Cod to Cape Hatteras, the character of the country to country.
coast changes, becoming more sandy and flat. Let us speak first of t':e horizontal distribu- | With this new character of the shore, the tion. What beautiful subinarine landscapes fauna is also greatly modified. South of Cape are we permitted to distinguish as we sail over Coil come in a kind of scallops and perithe sea when the water is clear and trans- winkle, very different from the larger scallops parent! M. De Quatrefages speaks with found on the coast of Maine and the British enthusiasm of those on the coast of Sicily. provinces; while an entirely new set of « The surface of the waters, smooth and even crustacea and worms make their appearance like a mirror, enabled the eye to penetrate to on this more sandy bottom. These instances an incredible depth, and to recognise the may suffice to show that there is a geographical smallest objects. Deceived by this wonderful distribution of life in the sea as well as upon transparency, it often occurred during my first land. The causes which confine certain creaexcursion, that I wished to seize some annelide tures to certain localities are, in many cases, or mudusa which seemed to swim but a few easy to trace. The warmth or coldness of the inches from the surface. Then the boatman sea, its tranquil or disturbed state, abundance smiled, took a net fastened to a long pole, and or scarcity of food, solidity or softness of the to my great astonishment, plunged it deep ground, sufficiently explain why many species into the water before it could attain the object of marine animals are abundant in some which I had supposed to be within my reach. localities and wanting in others. In many The admirable clearness of the waters produced cases, however, the causes which regulate the another deception of a most agreeable kind. | distribution of sea-animals are still enveloped Leaning over the boat, we glided over plains, in darkness. It is not known why the teadales, and hillocks, which, in some places plant is confined to a small corner of Asia, naked, and in others carpeted with green or nor can it be understood why coral reefs should with brownish shrubbery, reminded us of the be formed in some parts of the tropical seas, prospects of the land. . . . . Strangely-formed | and not in other parts to all appearances just animals peopled these submarine regions, and as favourably situated. lent them a peculiar character. Fishes, some- The widest oceans abound in organic life at times isolated like the sparrows of our groves, and near thei
and near their surfaces; the tropical seas teem or uniting in flocks like our pigeons or swal- with small molluscs, crustaceous and luminous lows, roamed among the crags, wandered creatures, &c., while in cold latitudes countless through the thicket of the sea-plants, and shot millions of the genus Beroe exist, to say nothing away like arrows as our boat passed over them.of jellyfish, zoophytes, &c. The coral animal Caryophyllias, gorgonias, and a thousand other constructs its reefs near the surface, never zoophytes, enfolded their sensitive petals, and going beyond a depth of twenty or thirty could hardly be distinguished from the real fathoms, at a greater depth all coral is dead. plants with whose fronds their branches intertwined.”
| * Fauna means all the animals of a district; flora, The localisation of marine fauna and all the plants.
On the other hand, Sir John Ross, in his water when the tide has receded. (2.) SucArctic voyage, 1819, records that living sea- ceeding the shore-band or littoral zone, and worms or annelids were brought up during extending to a depth of from seven to fifteen his deep-sea soundings from depths varying fathoms, is the Laminarian zone, or region of from 192 to 1,000 fathoms. At 800 fathoms' the great tangle sea-weeds, which form miniadepth he found a beautiful Caput Medusa, two ture forests. This zone above all others swarms feet in its full expansion, which is still to be with life, and is the chief residence of fishes, spen in the British Museum. A small star- | molluscs, crustaceans, and invertebrata of all fish was found attached to the line, below the classes, renarkable for brightness and variety point marking 800 fathoms. Animals of a of colouring. Here, says Mr. Godwin-Austen, higher degree of organisation, such as molluscs is the chosen haunt of the nudibranchiate moland crustaceans, were also procured by Sir luscs, animals of exceedingly delicate texture, John during the same expedition, at rather extraordinary shapes, elegance of organs and less depths, in Baffin's Bay. Dr. Wallich vividness of painting. Their bodies exhibit ascertained that multitudinous minute forms hues of a brilliancy and intensity such as can exist off Africa, in a free swimming condition, match the most gorgeous setting of a painter's in various regions of the ocean, and at various palette. Vermilion red, intense crimson, pale depths from the surface. Mr. Gosse was ex rose, golden yellow, luscious orange, rich amining a sounding from the bottom of the purple, the deepest and the brightest blues, ocean at the depth of 2,000 fathoms, on the even vivid greens and densest blacks are comexact spot where the Atlantic telegraph gave mon tints, separate or combined, disposed in way in 1865, when he discovered a great num- infinite varieties of elegant patterns, in this ber of “twilight monads," the simplest of all singular tribe. Our handsomest fishes are animals belonging to the Infusoria.
congregated here, the wrasses especially, some It thus appears that there is life at all of which are truly gorgeous in their painting. depths, and we have only now to ascertain (3.) To the laminarian succeeds the Coralline whether the sea-creatures find all depths zone, in which we find the greatest variety and equally agreeable, or whether they are limited abundance of the corneous zoophytes—arboto zones, as vegetation is on a mountain side. rescent animals which seem here to take the The first important investigations on this sub- place of plants. Here, too, we find the great ject were made by Oersted, a distinguished assemblage of carnivorous mollusca, whelks Danish naturalist, who undertook a complete prowling in great numbers, bivalves of remarktopographical survey of the coast near which able elegance buriel in multitudes beneath he lived, carrying his soundings to a depth of the gravels and muduy sands, and spider-crabs some twelve fathoms, and found that both the plentifully congregated, with many other pecufauna and flora of the shore (the animal and liar crustaceans. As a natural consequence of vegetable existences) were divided according this well-furnished table, fishes abound, and to the depth of the water into bands or zones many of our deep-sea and white fisheries owe of life. His observations were, however, limited, their value to the zoological features of the not extending beyond the neighbourhood of coralline zone. (4.) The fourth and lowest his home. It is to Edward Forbes, the great of the regions of depth in the British seas was English naturalist, whose short life was so rich termed by Forbes, the region of deep-sea in results to science, that we owe a more com- corals, on account of the great storiny and extensive invest
nvestigation of the whole zoophytes characteristic of it. Many sea-stars subject. Aided by a friend, Captain McAndrew, and sea-urchins are likewise found in this who placed his yacht at his disposal, he made zone, in the depths of which the number of a series of observations on the British, Scan- peculiar creatures is few, though sufficient to dinavian, and Danish coasts, and explored give it a marked character, also with the same object the shores of the As we descend deeper and deeper in the Mediterranean. He collected a vast amount fourth region, its inhabitants become fewer and of material, and the results of his labours have fewer, indicating, it was thought by Forbes, formed the basis of all subsequent generalisa our approach towards a silent and desolate tions upon this subject.
abyss, where all life dies and death lives. Ile Dredging diligently and carefully, comparing inferred that at a certain depth the weight of the results, he found that the animals brought water became too great to be endured by aniup admitted of classification in zones or bands mals, and that the ocean beyond this line, like as follows:-(1.) The Littoral zone, or the the land beyond the line of perpetual snow, tract which lies between the high and low was barren of life. For some years his theory water marks, which is of course variable in its was very generally accepted, and the results of extent, depending for its dimensions on the Darwin's and Dana's investigations, showing amount of rise and fall of the tides. But that corals could not live at a depth exceeding whether it be only a few inches broad, as in twenty or thirty fathoms, seemed to confirın the Mediterranean, or beyond thirty feet in ex- | it. But quite recently, as we have seen, the tent, as in some more tidal seas, its forms of | soundings in connection with the laying of life are equally characteristic. It is inhabited | telegraphic cables, to say nothing of the wires by animals and plants capable of enduring themselves, have brought us tidings of life at periodical exposure to the air, to the glare of greater depths. In the Mediterranean and in light, the heat of the sun, the pelting of rain, the Red Sea, from depths of 1,800 to 2,000 and able to stand an occasional flood of fresh 'fathoms living animals have been brought upen
the telegraphic wires, not of doubtful infusorial from the Adriatic, and D'Orbigny reckoned no character, hovering on the borderland between less than 3,849,000 in a pound of sand front animal and vegetable life, but of considerable the Antilles. The “twilight monad," thas size, as for instance one of two kinds of crus- round transparent speck, ototh part of all tacea, cockles, stocks of bryozoa and tubes of inch in length, is found in the ocean, and it is annelids. When the cable between France
| the smallest animal known. and Algiers was taken up from a depth of | A no less rən arkable thing is the abundanco 1,800 fathoms, there came with it an oyster, of life in the seas. Even in the polar regions, cockle-shells, annelid tubes, bryozoa and sea- which must be in many respects the least fans. As these animals were growing upon it,
favourable to life, arctic navigators have obthere could be no doubt that they had lived at
| served a remarkable profusion. The whale, the this depth, and since they are carnivorous they
| narwal, walrus, seal, and herring, with crabs, tell also of the existence of other animals with
shrimps, and animalculæ, &c., make up a pretty them, on which they feed. This discovery
good list. 20,000 square miles of the polar alone (says Agussiz) shows how much remains
ocean have their waters darkened by the preto be done before we shall fully understand
sence of medusæ, whose numbers therefore the laws of marine life. But we already have
must almost defy calculation, though Scoresby ample evidence that the same beneficent order l estimated them at 23,388,000,000,000,000. The controls the distribution of animals in the
he larger creatures multiply almost at the same ocean as on the land, appointing to all its
rate. The marvel of the hen laying 200 eggs inhabitants their fitting home in the dim
in the year is nothing in comparison; and waste of waters.
since man is benefited by the large provision, Forbes also established the fact that in the
we must acknowledge the hand of the good sea as well as on the land the living forms all-Father in the matter. peculiar to one locality for a great many ages, Since many of the sea-creatures require carmay at length through a change of conditions | bonate of lime (chalk), silica (flint), and other migrate to a new district. If sayage peoples
substances from which to construct their shells, may be driven from their homes by hunger or
we are prepared to find that the sea water love of conquest, if the greater part of the
contains these substances in solution. The animals of England came from France before
salts of the sea taken altogether, form about the countries were separated by the Straits of
three and a half per cent. of its weight, and Dover, the sea-creatures may be allowed to
consist principally of common table salt, and seek new homes when their old ones become
the sulphates and carbonates of magnesia and too cold through the access of fresh currents
lime. But as the sea continually receives the from the poles, or too shallow through the up- |
drainage of the land, and every river washes heaval of the ocean bed. It was the opinion
| down some of the soil or rock over which it of Forbes that the inhabitants of the British
| flows, there is scarcely a single elementary body seas have immigrated to these parts at different
of which traces are not to be found in the dates, but all of them since the epoch called
deep. Lead, copper, and silver have been debv geologists the ineiocene.
tected; tons of these metals existing in the The seas furnish us with both the largest
vast volume of the ocean, together with iodine, and the minutest forms of life: with the whale
fluorine, &c., and arsenic enough to poison and the shark on the one hand; with forami
every living thing. nifera and monads on the other. While wan
Having thus considered the home of the seadering on the beach take a handful of drift
creatures, we shall in the next chapter make sand and examine it through a magnifying
closer acquaintance with the animals theurglass. You will not seldom find, among the
selves. coarser grains of inorganic silica, a number of the most elegant shells, some formed like
Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean-roll. ancient amphoræ, others like the nautilus, but all shaped in their minuteness with a perfec
in breeze, or gale, or storin, tion which no human artist could hope to
Icing the pole, or in the torrid clime equal in the largest size. Plaucus counted
Dark-heaving ;-boundless, endless, and sublime6,000 of these creatures in an ounce of sand | The image of eternity.
BOYS AT CHEQUASSET ; OR, “A LITTLE LEAVEN.”
BY THE AUTHOR OF THE “CAYWORTHYS.”
“Give yours a little of the same discipline, OFF TO THE COUNTRY.
| then, since you can see what education can do." TIE Osburn family was in all the bustle Johnnie disappeared among the packages,
of moving. Delightful bustle! better and up the stairs. than any possible perfect order to ten-year. Mrs. Osburn joined her husband, for a old Johnnie, who stood, at seven in the morn- moment, at the door. ing, on his father's door-step, in Pinckney "Shall you go down to the counting-room Street, watching the great van, or furniture. this morning ?” she asked. waggon, upon which was piled, and being piled, | “Oh, yes; I must be there for an hour or an apparently confused mass of boxes, baskets, two, at least,” he replied. chairs, tables, bedding, and all the multifarious “ Then, will you remember to call in at plenishing of a long-established household. Blake's on your way, and tell them to send
Behind him, doors stood open away throngh up that little wardrobe, immediately? It the house ; and bare floors, littered with straw, ought to go with the next load.” from the packing of the big crates in the “They promised to send it early; but I'll china-closet, buudles of carpeting, trunks of look in and remind them of it. How soon clothing, buckets and barrels from the store- do you think you'll be ready to go yourselves ?” room, occupying every possible bit of space, “Not until afternoon. I made arrangeoffered a strange vista to the view.
ments there, as far as possible, yesterday; John had not been standing still long. and now I must stop outil the house is cleared.” He had been up and “helping,” since six A couple of hours later, John was stando'clock; sometimes quite effectually, and ing on the side-walk, in the midst of a little sometimes the wrong way.
curious knot of neighbour-children, who, with “We've got to go to-night, father,” he books in hand, were on their way to school, said, gleefully, as Mr. Osburn came out to but had stopped to listen eagerly to his glowthe door-way, "for the beds are all off.” ing description and anticipation of his new
“Yes,” his father answered ; “we shall country home, thinking what a very lucky sleep in Cheqnasset to-night.”
boy John Osburn was, to be out of school, “ But, father,” said the boy, again, “how and exempt from duty, and moving out of old everything looks! It seems to me no- town, too! thing looks nice, as it did in the rooms." “I suppose you won't go to any new school
“The effect of disorder, Johnnie-of things till after vacation ?” said Charlie Robbins. being out of their proper places and use. “I don't know. I guess not. Hallo! here But, somehow, it seems to me that Johnnie comes another waggou! Furniture in it, too. himself looks a little out of his element. No I wonder if folks are coming to move in, collar, and hair beseeching for a brush !” before we get out!”
“Yes, father, but I was in such a hurry ; ! A cart drew up behind the one that stood and I couldn't be very nice to-day, you know.” to be loaded, before the door.
“Ah, why not? At least why not begin “Mr. Osburn's ? ” inquired the driver. by being nice? Here comes your mother. “Yes, sir,” answered Johnuie. I don't see that she has found it necessary to The man unfastened the tail-board of his leave off her collar, or that her hair is not as waggon. smooth as usual.”
“Lend a haud here, somebody, will yon ? “Oh, but mother always looks nice! And Where's this to go ?”. her hair has got used to keeping smooth. I John sprang up to the steps, and found his don't believe anything ever does rumple it.” | mother at the foot of the stairs.
“Mother! there's some furniture come! | same horse. Is his name Blackbird ? Wbo What is it? The man's in a hurry.”
told you ?" Just then, two men came out from the “Is it a good name?” front parlour, each carrying two piano legs, “Capital ! ” which they set down iu the corner of the 1 “Well, I thought so. And since you vestibule
haven't any objection, we may as well settle “Stand back, John; or run out! They it between ns. And I hope we shall have the are coming with the piano, now. What did same horse a great many years. I expect so, you say? Some furniture come ? Oh! the or I shouldn't have bought him." little wardrobe for your room. Tell the John couldu't jump up, or clap his hands, man to wait a moment, and they will put it or throw up his cap, for he was busy with in after the piano.”
the reins. But a great flash of delight Well, Johnnie had enough, now, I think, I jumped from his heart to his eyes, and from to crown the day's delight! A little ward-them up to his father's face; and after a robe for his own rooin! Charlie Robbins breath or two, he just said, in an indescribhad really nothing more to say. They could able sort of emphatic toue, only walk round and round the waggon, "Well, that is goud!” looking at it on every side, and seeing very And so Blackbird was voted into the falittle indeed, for it was wound about with mily at once, name and all; and so, too, after coarse cloth. But there was do doubt in a little drive of five minutes, they were all either of their minds that when it should safely set down at the door of a plain, pleabe unpacked, it would prove to be a very sant, old-fashioned looking house, with a great perfect and wonderful wardrobe indeed. front-yard, and a long piazza; and John
“And oh, mother l” cried Johnnie, as soon never thought of his room, or his new wardas he found a chance to speak to her, “I shall robe, or the hundred things he had been in keep my things so nice in it, you know !” such a hurry to look after inside, till he bad
“No, Johnnie, I don't kuow, yet,” replied walked round and round the horse, and patMrs. Osburn
ted bim on the nose, and called him by his John's strength of mind was to be tried name a dozen times, and at last, by his fastill further, before the end of the day, with ther's desire, had once more jumped upoo joyful surprise.
the seat, and driven him down the avenue, As the family alighted from the 4:20 train, in triumph, to his stable. due at 5.5 at Chequasset, they were met by Mr. Osburn, who had gone down by a pre
CHAPTER II. vious train, and led by him to a pretty, darkgreen carryall;* drawn by a long-tailed black
STEPHEN. horse, and therein comfortably placed, before John woke next morning early. The only they had so much as found time to ask wonder, and, as he thought, no small virtue, questions.
was that he went to sleep at all. John jumped up, last, to the front seat, The first sound he beard was the siuging of with his father,
birds, seemingly close to his window. “Oh, father, what a nice carryall! And Then he just shut his eyes again, for a what a splendid horse! Where did they 1 minute, and let the delicious sense of all his come from? They're a great deal better pleasures creep softly through his brain. than you used to get at Brown's. Mayn't Well, John opened his eyes again, and I drive ?”
saw, first of all-standing awkwardly, and “Yes, drive away. Get acquainted with very much in the way, just where the men Blackbird as fast as you can, for I shall ex. had hastily set it inside his door last nightpect you to be head coachman for us, one of the new, beautiful black-walnut wardrobe. these days."
There was no closet in his room, and there. “But perhaps we sha'n't always have the fore his mother had bought this. * A kind of waggonette used in the United States. “Isn't that jolly now ?” he exclaimed, and