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glyphics-a mailed warrior with his feet on female and an aged “ duffer” gesticulating at Europe, wields a sword in one hand, and waves him on either side, are, to use an American the French tri-colour in the other; while the expression, “a caution.” Certainly, “words Pope's mitre lies upset on the ground. As even cannot adequately express " their meaning, so the whole of the events of last year's hiero- we do not attempt to decipher the enigma. glyphic are not yet fulfilled—but, as Zadkiel And now, last of all, for the “ Penny Pronaively says, “ They will be!"--it would of phecies.” Surely the Penny Old Moore gives course be presumptuous on our part to attempt a good modicum of predictions for the money. to unravel the mystery of the mailed man. In very small type, we may see foretold the
Old Moore in his larger almanack is certainly fate of the whole known world for the next very obscure in the matter of predictions. Un- twelve months. How America will have a like Zadkiel, he does not commit himself to row with France, and Denmark will go to the any downright declaration of forthcoming bad; how Russia will threaten England, and events, but discourses of them in a most cloudy news from India will cause much excitement manner. Like the cuttlefish he obscures him- here. All this, and lots more, we are told in self with his own ink. His monthly observa- | the most definite language. The “ Penny" tions assume quite a homiletic character, and Old Moore is especially minute in his predicthe old man descants upon “ Bubble com- tions. We are to have a new power which panies,” “Enormous Hotels, &c., in a most will supersede the use of gunpowder; the old-fashioned manner. Our aged friend is Americans during the month of April are to evidently constitutional in his politics, for he cast a gun which will carry a ball of 1,100 lbs. closes his address with a prayer for our “country to a distance of three or four miles ; cats are and Queen, our liberties and institutions," and to suffer from disease in June; "a shipwreck" does not once hint at any trouble impending (what wonderful foresight!) will take place in on our royal family. We presume Old Moore August; a new vegetable tasting like green peas, surveys the planets through a constitutional and in appearance like a large green radish, telescope, while Zadkiel evidently does so is to be introduced from Japan; in fact, the through a Radical one. His weather predic- almanack teems with notices of forthcoming tions are charmingly vague,"alternately fair events. Let us whisper this pleasing anand rainy;” “weather alternately fair and nouncement. “The uneasiness arising from wet;” “changeable," and such terms, are often political affairs will be neutralised, in April, met with, and while they do not commit him by rejoicings at the increase in the family of to anything, are as likely as not to be right. two branches of the royal house." Down in our country the farmers almost swear Of course, an aged legal functionary is to by Old Moore, and his almanack in many | die, and the Pope is not to have straight families ranks next to the Bible.
sailing through the year, an extensive fire is His astrological predictions are cloudy in to take place, and the cholera is to have more the extreme. Full as they are of astrological | victims. But space fails us. Without exsymbols and terms, they are quite unintelli hausting the material, we must draw to a close. gible to the million, and consequently are at Just a word about the hieroglyphic, for the once set down as wonderful. Such expres-penny almanack has the biggest of the three. sions as the “2nd Mundane House," “ triplicity In this case, instead of leaving the meaning rules the ascendant,” and so on, are doubtless to the conjecture of the reader, we are invery clever, but they are not popular enough formed that the ostrich egg on the table in our thinking. When Old Moore conde- means the future; the soldier-again in armour scends to employ plain English, his predic- -wishes to break it, but is restrained by a tions sink at once into such general platitudes mystic hand let through the ceiling. The as “In Africa vast tracts of country now offer eight-day clock of modern appearance, and the new scope for commercial operations,” “Spain candlestick of recent date are, we presume, does not appear to be the subject of much that | mere accessories. As the trembling spectators is encouraging" (when indeed does she?), &c., ranged in the background wait for the opening &c. His hieroglyphic, in his own words, of the egg, so we will be content to wait also. “affords matter for profound meditation, and though really one would think the egg had been a thorough examination of it will reveal to opened, judging from the intelligence the contemplative readers a significance and im- almanack affords us anent the future. But port that words could not adequately express.” it is not for us to cavil with Old Moore ; we There we are altogether with Francis Moore. leave our task, fully impressed with the imperThe sun and moon, and some vivid forked fection of our remarks, and trust that after all lightning, an ugly angel with a dressing- 1867 may be a better year than Old Movre, gown on, a morose-looking old monarch point- | Zadkiel, and Co. seem to anticipate. ing at a globe with his sceptre, and a lively
DWELLERS IN THE DEEP.
BY GEORGE ST. CLAIR, F.G.S., ETC.
T INNÆUS classed lobsters, crabs, shrimps, but they are not all developed to the same
D &c., with insects, centipedes, and spiders; extent. Attached to the first segment we somebut modern naturalists have given them a times have a pair of moveable stalks, on the (listinct position, because of their actual differ- summit of which the eyes are situated; an cnce from these creatures, and their own very arrangement which we do not see in any other great numbers. The crustacea derive their division of articulated animals. The second and name from the fact that the body is enclosed third segments bears the two pairs of antennæ in a case or skin rendered more or less hard by or feelers, which are generally threadlike and having a quantity of carbonate of lime (chalk) | very long. The spiny lobster, one of the deposited in it. In some of the lower crea- largest animals in the class, possess antennæ of tures of the class this covering or external very large size, and beset, like the body, with skeleton may be compared to thin horn, while sharp points. The appendages to the six folin others, as for instance in the eatable crab, lowing segments are generally formed into every one knows that it is almost of a stony masticating organs, some of them shading off hardness. The form of the body is excessively into legs; we may say there are one pair of variable, though usually it is somewhat spindle- | mandibles (or jaws), two pairs of maxillæ (or shaped, and divided into a number of distinct secondary jaws), and three pairs of foot-jaws. rings, fitted together and allowing generally of Then we get five pairs of true feet, five pairs a considerable amount of movement. Like of false or swimming feet, a pair of swimming insects, they are provided with antennæ or plates, of the fan-like tail, and a pair of minute feelers, and in their organs of mastication styles at the very extremity of the body. All (chewing) they resemble them, but the points of these members can be separated in the case of (lifference are important. Crustaceans breathe the common prawn. by branchia, or external gills, or by the gene- The crustacea have in general but very ral surface of the body; insects breathe through limited faculties. The eyes, which, as we have trachee, or lateral pores. Crustaceans possess a stated, are on footstalks in all the most perfect heart and circulating apparatus for the blood; of the class, are nearly like the eyes of insects; insects are destitute of a regular circulation. sometimes they are simple, but in general they Crustaceans have always ten legs at least; no are compound. Many of the lower crustacea insect has more than six.
possess only one of these organs, which is then The rings or segments of a crustacean are placed in the middle of the head; and because theoretically twenty-one in number, but some of the classic story of the one-eyed Polyphemus, or other of them are always united-soldered, one of these crustaceans takes the name of the as it were, to their fellow-segments—so that at giant. It is a little creature that swims on its tirst sight there would seem to be fewer. Seven back or sides, giving to its antennæ and legs segments are contained in the head, seven in quick and repeated (motions, and executing the thorax (or breast), and seven in the abdo- | with the greatest ease all kinds of evolutions. men (or belly part): the first seven are small The organs of hearing, situated at the base of and crowded, the next are covered by a great the external antennæ, are composed of a small shield called the carapace, and are visible only membrane or drum, under which we find a beneath, but the remaining seven are generally vesicle filled with fluid, in which is one end of well marked. In the crab we see the rings a particular nerve. The organs of smell, which grown together, which in the woodlouse are have been observed principally in crabs, are quite distinct and moveable. The mention of in the form of cavities at the base of the inner the woodlouse reminds me that some crusta- pair of antennæ; they are lined with a mucous ccans are not dwellers in the deep at all, and membrane, and surrounded on the outside by that others are amphibious. There are species fine bristles. The antennæ appear to be the «f land-crabs that live in the shades of damp organs of touch, though in many cases they are forests, often at a great distance from the sea ; employed in swimming. there is the coryphium, living in mud at the Crustaceans have to submit to the general mouths of rivers; there is the woodlouse, found law—to eat ard to be eaten. To the first part in cellars, caves, holes in walls, and underneath of this rule they have no objection, and the stones. To these we may make some passing carrying out of the second is therefore only a reference, but most of our attention must be just retribution. Mr. Lewis, however, tells a given to the inhabitants of the ocean.
story which shows that crabs at least can It would be difficult to say how many legs a struggle for it, and sometimes escape. “I crustacean has, or whether certain if its dropped," says he, in his “Sea-side Studies”— appendages should be called legs or not. Each“I dropped a tiny crab, rather smaller than a of the twenty-one rings or segments is furnished fourpenny piece, on the tentacles of my largest with a pair of what you please to call them, crassicornis (nearly as large as a glass tumbler). He was clutched at once, and the tentacles / the mouth by the action of the feet-jaws, began to close round him; he struggled which create a whirlpool in the surrounding vigorously, and freed himself after a few l water. In this manner they even devour their seconds. Placed there a second time, he again
a there a second time, he again own young; themselves afterwards falling got away. Later in the day I placed him on victims to the larvæ of aquatic insects, the the tenticles of the voracious anthea, the most water-spiders and other aquatic animals. powerful of all the anemones, and the only / When there is such a demand for animal foort
ch seems to sting; but the crab was it is necessary that large supplies should find too active, or too little appetising; he got their way into the marine markets, and accordaway as before. I tried another anthea and a ingly we find that some crustaceans multiply daisy (Actinia Bellis), but with the same with extraordinary rapidity. It has been ca results. In each case the crab was clutched, | culated by Jurine, who attentively observed but in each case he got away unhurt. I then the habits of the cyclops, that from one chose another crab, not more than half the female 4,442 millions of young might be prosize of the former, and certainly no match in duced in a year. point of strength for the anemone, yet after Dr. Carpenter said that none of the crustacea being embraced and carried to the mouth Il present much to interest, as to their habits; observed the crab slowly appear from the un- but we shall try and throw together a few folding tentacles, and scuttle away with great interesting particulars--of habit, structure, anıl activity.” This experiment disposes Mr. Lewis history - culling some of them from the to doubt whether anemones feed on crabs. | doctor's own books. And first, the apus Rymer Jones has asserted that they will devour | mentioned above, a crustacean with a simple a crab as large as a hen's egg. At any rate shield-like shell and numerous small feet, is the experiment shows that crabby is alive to remarkable as having its body composed of danger, and so disposed to be active that we about two millions of pieces, and also for the may expect often to see him alive after power which its eggs possess of retaining their danger.
vitality for several years, when the waters in The' cirriped, an animal with curled and which they are deposited have been dried up. jointed feet, is a crustacean that obtains its | The mysis or opossum-shrimp, bears in its prey in a most effective and beautiful manner. | general form so strong a resemblance to the İts food, as Professor Rymer Jones observes, ordinary shrimps that it has been frequently consists of various minute animals caught in i placed with them. Its common name is the water around them by a mechanism at derived from a peculiar conformation which once simple and elegant. Any one who watches enables it to afford a special protection to the the movements of a living cirriped, will per- eggs. Attached to the inner division of each ceive that its arms, with their appended cirri l of the posterior legs in the female, is a large (arms or feelers-Latin cirrus), are in per- concave scale, and the two scales overlapping petual movement, being alternately thrown one another form a pouch for the eggs. The out and retracted with great rapidity, and that parasitic lernæa is termed by Mr. Lewis the when fully expanded, the plumose and flexible, most piquant of all paradoxes. It consists of stems form an exquisitely beautiful apparatus, | a sac-like body, bearing a proboscis through admirably adapted to entangle any nutritious which it sucks the juice of its victim, and a atoms or minute living creatures that may pair of modified legs by which it maintains its happen to be present in the circumscribed position. But what, think you, is the position space over which this singular casting net is it chooses to take up? The female, ensconced thrown, and drag them down into the vicinity in the eye or gills of a fish, lives a lazy life at of the mouth, where, being seized by the jaws, the fish's expense, and the male lives upon her they are crushed and prepared for digestion. | as she lives on the fish (not unlike some disThe coryphium, again, keeps up a continual reputable males of the human species), and this war with the amelida (worm-like animals), male is himself infested with parasitic vortiand also attacks mollusca (shell-fish), and cellæ, so that we find parasites of parasites of even fishes, as well as dead animal matter. parasites. Scarcely anything is more curious than to observe these creatures at the rising of the
Great fleas have little fleas, and lesser fleas to bite tide asseinbled in myriads, moving about in
'em, all directions, beating the mud with their arm
And these again have other feas, and so ad in
finitum. like antennæ, and mixing it with the water in order to discover their prey. If they meet Ships' bottoms, if not protected by copper, with amelids even ten or twenty times their are almost sure to have a large number of size, they unite together to attack and devour barnacles clinging to them, so much so as them; and the carnage does not cease until greatly to impede their rate of sailing. The the whole of the mud has been turned over barnacle begins life in a form exactly like that and examined. They are in their turn devoured of a young entomostracous crustacean, with by fishes and by many shore-birds. The apus a broad carapace, a single eye, two pairs of appears to feed chiefly upon the smaller antennæ, three pairs of well-bristled legs, and entomostraca (which are also crustaceans), and a forked tail. It casts off its skin twice, is in its turn attacked by the frog. The cyclops undergoing, especially at the second moult, a --one of the entomostraceans- is carnivorous, considerable change of figure. After the third feeding upon animalcules that are brought to moult it is enclosed in a bivalye shell, and findina selt aisoit powession of two eyes, it , are found very low down in the rocks, and searches fora suitable place of residence. Any seemed to have run their course and passed Hoating piece of timber will serve its purpose, / away before the creation of the mammalia. or the solid rock, or a whale's back, or the back They bear some resemblance to the woodlouse, of a turtle. When its selection is made the and could probably roll themselves into a ball, two antennæ, which project from the shell, though some of them were eighteen inches in pour out a glutinous gum or cement, which length. They are remarkable for the number hardens in water and firmly attaches them. of facets in the eye; in some specimens which Ilenceforth the animal is a fixture, glued by have been very perfectly preserved as many as the front of its head to its support. A large 16,000 are computed to exist. As no informalog of timber covered with barnacles, twisting tion has been gained respecting their appendand diverging in all directions, and so close as ages, it is impossible to say whether they were to hide the surface of the log, is a curious sight, true legs or not, and impossible therefore to -looking like an enormous collection of ser- say whether trilobites walked or swam. But pents. But we must not be misled by superficial at any rate they were crustaceans. resemblances, nor suffer a love of the marvel The facility with which the crustacea cast lous to blind us to the truth, else these barnacles, off their legs and even thieir heavy claws when which are serpents one day, will show them- | they have been wounded in one of these organs selves as waterfowl on another. Old Gerarde or alarmed at thunder, is most remarkable. in his “ Herbal,” first published near the end Without the least appearance of pain they of the 16th century, says, “There are found in then continue to run along upon their remainthe north parts of Scotland, and the islands ing legs. After some time a new limb grows adjacent, called orchades, certain trees whereon out of the old stump, though it never attains do grow shells of a white colour, tending to the size of the original limb. russet, wherein are contained little living The manner in which crustaceans free themcreatures; which shells in time of maturity, selves from their old shell is singular. It is do open, and out of them grow those little liy absolutely necessary to get the old shell off ing things, which falling into the water do every now and then, since the rigidity of the become fowls, which we call barnacles, in the | armour forbids any increase in its capacity, north of England brant-geese, and in Lanca and yet the animals want to grow, In general shire tree-geese ; and the other that do fall they get out of the shell without occasioning upon the land perish and come to nothing." the least change in the form; and when they Thus much by “the writings of others, and also have quitted it the whole surface of their from the mouths of people of those parts." body is already clothed in a new casing, but Gerarde then goes on to relate equally wonder- this is still soft and does not acquire its requiful things concerning the same tree-goose of site solidity for some days. The discarded Lancashire, assuring us that he is declaring shell of a lobster, with all its feet and feelers, what his own eyes have seen and his own perfectly resembles the living animal, and old hands touched. It is scarcely conceivable, Gerarde would probably say that one animal remarks Dr. Carpenter, how any one could had become two. Hartwig describes the prohave been so led away by the love of the cess of pulling off the old garment. Towards marvellous as to rest upon the most superficial autumn the lobster retires to a silent nook, like resemblance, in proof of the extraordinary a pious hermit to his cell, and fasts several superstition that from a barnacle is produced days. The shell thus detaches itself gradually a bird; especially when the author tells us from the emaciated body; soon it splits right that so far he is satisfied by his own observa through the back, like the cleft bark of a tree, tion. The other part of his story, setting forth or a ripe seed husk, and opens a wide gate to that these barnacles grow on trees, which he liberty. After much tugging and wriggling, learned “from the writings of others, and also the legs, tail, and claws gradually follow the from the mouths of the people of those parts,” | body. The claws give the lobster most is by no means so discordant with truth, as trouble; but he is well aware that perseverance they certainly do grow on trees, though not generally wins the battle, and never ceases produced by them. Those who have seen the till the elastic mass has been forced through mangrove trees surrounding the lagoons in the the entire passage. After such hard work he islands of the tropical ocean, their pendent is perhaps exhausted, and with his new and branches loaded with shell-fish of various soft covering he would not be able to stand kinds, may easily excuse a popular error of this the shocks of life's battle, so he retires from nature.
all society until he gets a little more case The phyllosoma (leaf-bodied animal) or hardened. glass-crab, is a curious creature, the whole But this changing of one's case is nothing to of its body being flattened like a leaf, and the extraordinary changes of form which almost as transparent as glass. It is found in some members of this class undergo in advancthe tropical parts of the Atlantic and Eastern ing from infancy to maturity. The young Oceans. And if I may refer to a creature who animal presents a form so different from that dwells in the deep, but knows not the taste of of the parent that it is often in danger of being brine—who sleeps, that is to say, in the deep set down in a different order or class. The rocks and probably crawled on the land when young cyclops does not become like its parent alive--I wish to speak of the remarkable fossils till after several moults; the adult lernæa is known under the name of trilobites. They almost entirely destitute of members or appendagēs the nfant cray-dshi has no trace of 1 hermit s enabled o wa.x with ease upou the the gills which will f terwards show them sandy beach in search of his prey; but the selves. Young crabs are such strange-looking | moment danger threatens him he disappears things, and so different from old crabs, that again into his cell, the orifice of which is then they used to be considered as belonging to a occupied by one of his claws, which is always distinct genus, call Zoea, till Mr. Vaughan larger than the other. As the crab does not Thompson ascertained their true character. If possess the same power of adding to the size you would understand the appearance of a l of the domicile that was enjoyed by the origicrab infant just hatched, you must fancy a nal tenant, he is compelled from time to time preposterously large helmet shaped head, ending to change his residence for one a little larger, behind in a long point, and furnished in front and the way in which he accomplishes this is with two monstrous eyes like the windows of a very amusing. Often he may be seen crawling lantern. By means of a long articulated tail about amongst the empty shells left by the the restless chimera continually turns head last wave, and as if unwilling to part with one over heels. Claws are wanting, and while the residence till the lease of a new one has been old crabs have eight legs, the young have only secured, he slips his tail out of the old house four, armed at the extremity with four long into the new one, again betaking himself to bristles that are continually pushing food the former if the latter is not found suitable. towards the ciliated and ever active mouth. The limulus, or king crab, is monarch by Who could imagine that a creature like this virtue of being a head and shoulders taller than should ever change into a crab, to which it his brethren; that is to say, he is one of the bears not the least resemblance? But time largest of crustaceous animals, sometimes does wonders : presently the little creature will measuring as much as two feet in length. In cast its skin and become somewhat like a structure he differs widely from most of the lobster, and eventually (and while still measur-crustacea, hardly looking like a crab at first ing only an eighth of an inch in diameter) will sight. He lives on the shores of tropical Asia, assume the complete crab-like form.
the Asiatic Archipelago, and tropical America, We have already remarked that some crusta and feeds upon animal flesh. ceans are not dwellers in the deep; and that A strange peculiarity of many crabs is the we have land-crabs as well as those which in- | quantity of parasites they carry along with habit the ocean. The famous East Indian them on their backs. The spider crab, or sea cocoanut crab is said to climb the palm-trees spider, so called from having its back covered for the sake of detaching the heavy nuts, but with spines and hairs, and its legs long and Mr. Darwin, who attentively observed the ani- hairy, is generally studded more or less with mal on Keeling Island, tells us that it merely corallines, sponges, zoophites, algæ, &c. The lives on those that fall from the tree. Having capture of the spider crab is thus rendered selected a nut for its dinner, it tears the husk more interesting, because curious forms infibre by fibre from that end where the tree habiting the deep are occasionally obtained in eve-holes are situated, and then hammers upon this way-forms which would only otherwise one of them with its heavy claws until an be obtainable by the dredge. In Mr. Hyndopening is made. This done, it turns round, man's collection there is a sea spider carrying and by the aid of its posterior pincers extracts on its back an oyster much larger than itself, the white albuminous substance.
and covered besides with numerous barnacles. Most crabs and lobsters, however, are in- ! The extraneous matters which so many crabs habitants of deep water, delighting in narrow | carry along with them are, however, far from and inaccessible clefts of rock, whence they being always a useless burden; they are often are to be enticed by baited traps sunk in their a warlike stratagem, under cover of which the haunts. The pagurus, or hermit crab, pos- sly crustacean entraps r
many a choice morsel. sesses a large tail, or post-abdomen, which, in- | Thus Bennet witnessed at Otaheite the prostead of being protected by the usual hardceedings of an interesting hyas species, which crustaceous integument, is of a fleshy softness. disguised itself by investing its body with a Now it would never do to have this appendage covering of decayed vegetable substances and constantly exposed to be grabbed at by every coral sand. The better to ensure its prey, the passing fish that took a fancy to it, so the pagurus back was covered with rigid and incurved usually seeks some shelter for its tail, selecting | bristles, calculated to retain the extraneous generally the shell of some univalyé mollusc. substances, while the short and well-concealed Into this spiral home the hermit is coiled, and forcep-claws were ready for the attack, and the retains himself in this position by means of a eyes, raised on their stalks above the pile of sucker at the extremity of his tail, assisted by | materials, gave the wily crab the great advantwo or three rudimentary feet. He lookstage of seeing without being seen. As soon fiercely upon the world from out of this appa- as any unfortunate mollusc, unsuspicious of rently inconvenient tub, the Diogenes of crus evil, approached the lurking ruffian, he darted tacea, and wears an expression of conscious, upon it like an arrow, and ere it could recover yet defiant theft, as if he knew the rightful | its presence of mind was busy tearing it to owner of the shell, or his relatives, were coming pieces. immediately to recover it, and he for his part How are crustaceans caught, and with what very much wished they might get it. By grace do they comport themselves when taken? protruding the body, with its three pairs of The common large edible crab is captured by legs, from the orifice of the shell the little I sinking pots, baskets, or nets, bated with de