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in a higher assembly. He speaks now as a peer of the realm. According to papers which he produced, he showed, that in ten years the number of children in unendowed schools had considerably more than doubled. The Returns made to the Commons, on the motion of Lord Kerry, showed that this estimate, framed upon a partial account from certain parishes, was borne out by all the parishes of thirty-three counties, from Bedfordshire to Suffolk, alphabetically, inclusive. The list comprehended Lancashire and Middlesex, those densely peopled districts: but the whole consisted of 10,110,000 souls. The result was, that instead of the 478,282 attending the unendowed schools, the scholars had increased to 1,144,000, and the number of schools from a little more than 14,000 to 31,000. The children of the endowed schools were then about 150,000. There was every presumptive proof that all other parts of the kingdom corresponded. Here was good augury. The youth under instruction amounted to 1,300,000. It was as one-eleventh to the population. But that population increased much faster than the means of instruction. It is now at 18,526,925. The consequence, it is to be feared, is an increased disparity. The evil is aggravated, in consequence of the partial distribution of the means. The quantity may be favourable to one portion of the country, and most disastrous for another. There is no general balance. It may be in different districts as one in ten, or one in forty. It is, therefore, manifest, that if not in respect
of the whole, yet, in many parts, of the proper means there is deplorable destitution.
It is a subject of debate, Whether the provisions of education are more ample in municipal, or in rural, districts ? The data are very limited and insufficient. It need not have been inflamed with any party animosity. But the needless assaults made upon the character of the manufacturing districts has awakened a reprisal of argument, and, perhaps, of invective, very prejudicial to cool discussion. We would endeavour to poise the scales. We seek but even-handed award.
Now there are towns and cities which cannot be called manufacturing. They are ports, and either higher or lower capitals. Bristol and Westminster and York, may be adduced for examples.-In the first there are 512 day and evening schools, and 86 Sunday schools, making a total of 598 schools. The number of scholas is 21,865. The population is 130,000. This but returns seventeen per cent. of the inhabitants as under instruction. But in some of its suburbs, it is not as four to the hundred. --Westminster is a royal, a legislative, an ecclesiastical, a martial, metropolis. There sleeps the dust of our most illustrious dead. There are all the great Officers of State and Departments of Government. In five of its most extensive parishes, daily instruction, including that which is most inferior and perfunctory down to the common dame-schools, is only given to about one in fourteen.
In the largest parishes of London, such as Spitalfields, (which, how
ever, is the scene of a manufacture,) Wapping, Whitechapel, Newington Butts, Bermondsey, only one child in twenty-seven is taught.--York is a seat of considerable influence, of much refinement, of great religious privilege, though its mural glories have waned. Philanthropy is active there, and the religious feeling strong. Yet the education of its youth is but as one to twenty of its citizens. *
Let us turn, after this rapid survey of such great abodes of the oppidan population, to the vast theatres of skilled and artistic labour. A huge obloquy rests upon them. The number of inhabitants in Manchester and Salford is 353,390. The total of children taught there is 28,553. The proportion is more than one to twelve of those inhabitants. Leeds, borough and parish, contains 152,054 souls. Its learners are 15,155. This is almost a tenth of the whole. And yet has it been said that the ratio was one in forty-two! Mr. Edward Baines, a native of that town,--a gentleman of most Christian character, of the highest intellect, of spotless integrity,-has, with pains-taking and research above all praise, collected facts and arranged tables on Educational Statistics, which already have acquired the authority of a standard. They are a noble and dispassionate vindication of a people traduced beyond
* See Publications of the Central Society of Education, and the Bristol Statistical Society.
+ “The Social, Educational, and Religious State of the Manufacturing Districts," &c., by Edward Baines, Jun., Esq.
measure and example. The most perfect specimens of industry, of enduring patience, of strict order, -sufferers to a heroic dint, disciples of most self-denying truth, enthusiasts of hope in each convulsion of traffic and extremity of want, the men of clear spirit and stout heart, — the humble patriots, true to their country, whose principles gold has been tried in vain to debauch, --servants loyal and devoted, but who cannot be made slaves, --it sickens us to think how they have been reviled! Look at the education among them, in comparison with the proud cities of the land ! Not among them are the idle, the venal, the obsequious, the vassal, and there is the offence! They will not be yoked to the chariot of courtly oppression, nor can they be dragged at its wheels, and that is their crime! They are full of thoughts,--they raise enquiries, they demand reasons, and hence their reproach! They will be persuaded in their own minds, and it is charged as their contumacy! A large district was searched for the proper
information. It was constituted of the manufacturing counties of Derby, Lancaster, Chester, and York. It included 2,208,771 persons. The returns, which were carefully sifted, are as follows: One, in every ten, of the population is found in day schools : one, in every five two-fifths, is enrolled in Sabbath schools. And these were the returns made in times, and collected from scenes, of unprecedented distress. The state of clothing always forms a most important condition of attendance. Also, much of this education
is paid for by the poor themselves, who have for these four years obtained, with difficulty, and greatly through charity, a bare subsistence. No expense is sooner curtailed in affluent families, in seasons of pressure which must be felt by all, than that required in the tuition of children. We might expect that among the poor, the reduction would be very great. And yet how much smaller is it than we might have supposed that it must prove! Is not this a most gratifying census !
We may now survey the agrestian population. The very term, we have already found, was used by the Latins in the sense of the rude. Rusticus was a sort of correlate. Paganus meant simply a villager ; but as villages were less likely to receive knowledge than towns, it became a word to denote ignorance; and as towns received Christianity before the villages, those who remained idolaters were called Pagans. There is no argument in the variations of such etymologies against this class. Its moods of mind, its means of information, may have entirely changed. Many arguments are inapposite. Taking, for instance, crime as the general accompaniment, if not the fruit, of ignorance, we might look to the commitments from different manufacturing and agricultural counties. During the last seven years these have greatly increased. Now were we told that they had doubled in Yorkshire and Lancashire, --- though two Ridings of the one, and though the higher sides and acute angle opposite the base of the other, are really agricultural,--it would lie