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wonderful construction of organised material beings. Some of these, it is probable, will ever escape the researches of the physiologist. Rome, April 8, 1819.
W. DRUMMOND. Erratum No. 36. For “ that is, by vau conjunctive," read “ that is, the future preceded by the vau conversive.'
P.S. I find that I was mistaken, when I stated from memory in the 6th No. of this Essay, that Hor-Apollo had mentioned any hieroglyphic, which indicated the needle of the compass, The testimony of Plutarch, however, seems sufficient for my argument; and should the question be farther investigated, I have found several proofs among the hieroglyphics themselves to corroborate my opinion.
NOTICE OF “ Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the
Holy Scriptures.” By T. H. HORNE, M.A. Three large Volumes 8vo. 21. 2s.
Of all the works which of late years have been presented to the notice of the biblical student, this is one of the most correct and useful. It is an encyclopedia of theological knowledge. The extensive reading, and miscellaneous learning of the author is visible in every page of this long desired miscellany. It is a complete abridgment of many extensive treatises of the most celebrated divines both of our own, and foreign countries; and it entitles its author to the gratitude and approbation of every lover of the sacred volume. This is high praise, but it is well deserved, and we trust that every one, who has been gratified with a sight of Mr. Horne's book, and can appreciate the real service he has done to the common cause of religion and learning, will bear witness to the truth and justice of our encomium.
We regret that our confined limits will not permit us to give a copious account of the niost interesting portions of these volumes. We will submit to our readers a very brief abstract, and select two or three points as they are discussed by Mr. Horne, to enable those who have not yet purchased the work, to judge for themselves that we have not spoken too highly of its merits.
For upwards of seventeen years, the plan of the work has been steadily kept in view. The author endeavoured to embrace all those important subjects which he apprehended to be essential to the critical study of the sacred volume. The whole has been divided into three parts.-- Part I. comprises a concise view of the geography of Palestine, and of the political, religious, moral, and civil state of the Jews. In this part the nature and classification of the sacrifices, the Jewish sects, &c. are discussed; the whole of the information collected by Lightfoot in bis Horæ Hebraicæ seems to be condensed and simplified by the patient industry and good sense of the author : and references are given in every page for every fact, and almost for every observation. Mr. Horne's account of the punishment of crucifixion is one of the most interesting descriptions we ever read.
Part the second treats on the interpretation of Scripture in all its branches: first, “ specifying the various subsidiary means for ascertaining their sense, and applying the sense when ascertained to the interpretation of the inspired volume. The utmost brevity consistent with perspicuity has been studied in this portion of the work, and therefore but few texts of Scripture, comparatively, have been illustrated at great length. But especial care has been taken, by repeated collations, that the very numerous references which are introduced, should be both pertirent and correct: so that such of the author's readers as may be disposed to try them by the rules laid down, should be enabled to apply them with facility.” Preface, p. vii.
Many of the author's readers will be of opinion that this part is the most valuable of the whole work. The first chapter of the second part which treats on the several senses of Scripture, the literal, allegorical, typical, parabolic, and spiritual sense; concluding with some general rules for investigating these different senses; and the conclusion of the next chapter, containing rules for the investigation of emphases, are particularly valuable. The examination of the dialects, Hebraisms, Rabbinisms, Syriasms, and Chaldaisms, Latinisms, Persisms, and Cilicisins, is extremely curious and interesting. The chapter on the figurative language of the Scripture, in which Mr. Horne explains in the most satisfactory manner the nature of the metonymies, metaphors, allegories, parables, proverbs, &c. &c. of Scripture; and in which he gives instances of each, with rules for their interpretation, ought to be reprinted as a separate tract. The chapter on reconciling the apparent contradictions occurring in the Scriptures, whether in the Mosaic law, in chronology, morality, history, doctrine, philosophy, and the nature of things, could only have been written by a man who unites enlargement of mind with accuracy of research and
persevering diligence. It is too common to esteem those authors who devote their time and talents to the composition of such works as that we are now considering, as mere compilers, entitled only to a secondary and inferior rank among scholars and divines. The labors and genius of Mr. Horne will raise him to a higher degree of consideration : we have no doubt that his work will supersede all that bave treated in a partial nianner the subjects considered in his pages, and that the author will reap the most ample reward for his exertions,
We do not remember to have seen any account of the quotations from the Old Testament in the New, at all comparable to that of Mr. Horne; we earnestly recommend the chapter in which it is contained to the attentive perusal of the biblical student. The variety of reading collected to illustrate our author's positions is truly surprising. In vol. 1. p. 518, in the note, the principal rules obtained by Surenhusius out of the Talmud and rabbinical writings, to explain and justify the quotations from the Old Testament in the New, are presented for the first time in an English dress to the British public. This part concludes with excellent disquisitions on the doctrinal interpretation of the Scriptures; on the interpretation of the moral parts of Scripture ; 'on the inferential and practical reading of Scripture; on commentaries, with rules for consulting commentaries to the best advantage. An astonishing number of passages is illustrated and explained almost in every page.
“ The third part is appropriated to the analysis of Scripture. It contains a history of the sacred canon of the Old and New Testament, together with an abstract of the evidence for the divine origin; credibility, and inspiration of each—especially of the New Testament; and also copious critical prefaces to the respective books, with synopses of their various contents. In drawing up these synopses, the utmost attention has been given in order to present, at one glance, a comprehensive view of the subjects contained in each book of Scripture. How necessary such a view is to the critical study of the inspired records, it is perhaps unnecessary to remark. lo executing this part of his work, the author has endeavoured to steer between the extreme prolixity of some analysts of the Bible, and the too great brevity of others : and he ventures to hope that this portion of his labors will be found particularly useful in studying the doctrinal parts of Scripture.” Preface,
We have devoted so much of the short space permitted to the notice of the publications of the day, that we cannot spare more to this third part and to the appendix, than to observe, that they contain the most ample, yet condensed, account of the sacred canon,
with critical prefaces to the several books of the Old and New Testaments under the respective heads of title--author-date general argument-scope-synopses of its contents--and observations on its style, and the difficult topics occurring in each book. The remarks on the prophetical books ought to be attentively studied. The appendix contains a copious account of several miscellaneous subjects which could not with so much propriety be included in the preceding chapters. They are among others the Jewish Calendar--list of commentators-rules for the better understanding of Hebraisms --critical account of the principal manuscripts of the Old and New Testaments-rules for applying the various readings-critical notice of the principal editions of the Scripturesman abstract of profanie oriental history, from the time of Solomon to the Babylonian captivity, &c.---table of weights and measures, &c. &c. The volume concludes with a bibliographical index, and a copious index of the contents of the whole work.
We have spoken in such unmeasured terms our real opinion of Mr. Horne's merit, that we consider our readers may justly claim some specimen of the excellencies to which we have so earnestly directed their attention. We will candidly tell them, that we were inclined to decide unfavorably with respect to Mr. Horne's pretensions. When we first read bis prospectus, and when we remembered from our own experience the immense variety of reading required on each of the more important topics, which Mr. Horne proposed to discuss, we thought it would prove to be the most arrogant and presumptuous, as well as superficial attempt to comprise in one work the several discussions in question. We were, and are entire strangers to the laborious author, and our unjust prejudice has been removed by the conviction enforced upon us by a perusal of the volumes.
Thus there were several controverted points, on any one of which he might have shown much reading, but we were agreeably surprised to find a sort of uniform care in every part. The theory of the present Bishop of Peterborough, that there was some common Greek or Hebrew document from which the Evangelists borrowed their similarity of expressions, and respective facts of the history of our Saviour, is clearly stated with all the arguments in its favor, and the contrary. Mr. Horne seems to have proceeded carefully, and patiently, through the chief works which appeared on the question, and sums up the evidence, after a fair and impartial statement. From this part of the book we turned to the controverted passage on the three witnesses in St. John's first epistle. The same research and accuracy were visible in his account of the controversy on that passage, though we think inore notice might have been taken of Mr. Nolan's learned work on the integrity of the Greek Vulgate. Mr. Horve, however, has discussed this point in another part of his work. As these two subjects had given rise to much discussion, we thought it not improbable that greater care than usual might have been bestowed on them, and that our objections to tlie work, if any were necessary, might arise from the prefaces to the several books of the Old and New Testament, where, from the abundance of materials, the author's vigilance might possibly relax. On comparing them with those of other authors, we found no reason to come to an unfavorable decision : Mr. Horne seems to have collected all the knowledge contained in the various authors he has consulted, and to have arranged his materials in the most pleasing, satisfactory, and instructive manner.
The book of Job has been made a subject of most extensive and continued controversy. Mr. Horne is perfectly conversant with nearly all the more celebrated authors who have treated upon that ancient volume. A clear, consistent narrative is given of the several hypotheses which have been embraced : the reality of Job's person is discussed, and proved: the age in which he lived, the scene of the poem, are admirably treated : and the preface concludes with rules for studying the book to advantage, and an account of the patriarchal theology, as it may be collected from the book of Job.
We might adduce many additional instances of our author's research, ingenuity, and talent. He has undertaken and accomplished an arduous and useful work. He has so accomplished it, as to make it truly worthy of every encouragement and approbation from a liberal and enlightened public, which is beginning to resume its former interest in all subjects of a religious nature. We again beg to assure our readers that we have been thus liberal in our praises of Mr. Horne, from our own experience of the labor and difficulty of acquiring satisfactory information on one-tenth of those interesting subjects, which are elucidated and explained in this book. Nor should we have thought it possible that one individual could have succeeded to the extent to which ibis author has rendered himself distinguished and useful. We congratulate both Mr. Horne and the public; and trust that his book has already received, and will continue to receive, the approbation of numerous readers.
Mr. Horne remarks in bis preface, “that he will be happy to listen to the advice and corrections of the public organs of criticism :" though the modest assurances of this vature, which are sometimes made by authors, are generally considered as words to which no meaning should be attached, we will believe