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Soft joys disport on purple plumes unfurled, It has several fine churches with good paintings And love and beauty rule the willing world. and a cathedral standing in a noble square
Faenza was ravaged by the Goths in the sixth “ Yet such the destiny of all on earth :
century, and by the Germans in the thirteenth. So flourishes and fades majestic man.
It fell afterwards into the hands of the Venetians, Fair is the bud his vernal inorn brings forth,
the Bolognese, and finally of the pope. Its inAnd fostering gales awhile the nursling fan.”
habitants carry on the manufacture of linen exThen let the winds howl on! their harmony
tensively. It is twenty miles south-west of RaShall henceforth be my music, and the night The sound shall temper with the owlet's cry, FAERNUS (Gabriel), a native of Cremona in As I now bear them, in the fuding light
Italy, was an excellent Latin poet and critic of Dim o'er the bird of darkness' native site. Byron. the sixteenth century. He was skilled in all
FADGE, v.n. Sax. gefe zan; Germ. fugen; parts of polite literature; and pope Pius IV. parfrom Goth. fagks, fit, accommodated, To suit; ticularly patronised him. He was the author of fit; succeed. Obsolete.
several Latin elegies; of 100 Latin fables, seHow will this fadge? my master loves her dearly,
lected from the ancients, written in iambic verse; And I, poor monster, fond as much on him; and of several pieces of criticism, as Censura Aud she, mistaken, seems to doat on me.
Emendationum Livianarum, De Metris Comicis,
Shakspeare. &c. He was remarkably happy in decyphering When they thrived they never fadyed, MSS., and restoring ancient authors to their puBut only by the ears engaged ;
rity: he took such pains with Terence in partiLike dogs that snarl about a bone,
lar, that Bentley has adopted all his notes in the And play together when they've none.
edition he gave of that writer. He died at Rome
Hudibras. The fox hath a fetch ; and when he saw it would the then unknown fables of Phædrus, for fear of
in 1561. Thuanus charges him with suppressing not fadge, away goes he presently. L'Estrange. FÆCES, in medicine. See EXCREMENTS. Al- written in imitation of Æsop. M. Perrault,
lessening the value of his own Latin fables, chemists, who searched every where for the secret however, who translated Faernus's fables into of making gold, operated greatly on the fæces French, has defended him from this imputation, of men and other animals; but philosophical by affirming that the first MS. of Phædrus's chemistry has acquired no knowledge from all fables, found in the dust of an old library, was these alchemical labors. Homberg particularly not discovered till about thirty years after Faeranalysed and examined human fæces, to satisfy nus's death. an alchemical project of one of his friends, who pretended that from this matter a white oil could
FAG, v. n., v. a. & n. s. Lat. fatigo ; Goth. be obtained, without smell, and capable of fixing facka, to be weary, or to diminish. To grow mercury into silver. The oil was found, but weary or tired; to outrival; beat: a fag is a mercury was not fixed by it. Homberg's labors drudge ; a school-slave. were not, however, useless, as he has related his Creighton with-held his force 'till the Italian began experiments in the Memoirs of the Academy of to fag, and then brought him to the ground. Sciences.
Mackenzie's Lives. The following is the result of a careful analy- The duke of Dorset was my fag at Harrow, and I sis of human fæces by Berzelius in 1806 :- was not a very hard taskmaster.
Lord Byron, quoted by Captain Medwin. Water
FAGAN'S St.), a small town and parish of Vegetable and animal undigested residue 7.0
Glamorganshire, South Wales, and having a casBile
tellated mansion built in a comparatively modern Albumen
style of architecture. Here à sanguinary enExtractive matter
gagement took place in May 1648, between the Carbonat of soda
royalists and republicans, in which, after a moMuriat of soda
mentary advantage, the former were entirely Sulphat of soda
routed, and left 3000 slain. According to the Ammon. phosphat of magnesia
0.05 Welsh chronicle, St. Fagan came from Rome to Phosphat of lime
Britain about the year 180, being sent by pope Slimy matter, consisting of resin of bile,
Elevitherius to convert the inhabitants to Chrispeculiar animal matter, and insoluble
tianity. It is three miles from Cardiff, and 163 residue
FAGARA, iron-wood, a genus of the mo100.0
nogynia order and tetrandria class of plants;
natural order forty-third, dumosæ : CAL. quadriFÆCULENT, abounding with fæces. The fid: cor. tetra petalous : Caps. bivalved and moblood and other humors are said to be fæculent, nospermous. Species twelve, all natives of the when without that purity which is necessary to
East Indies and the warm parts of America, health.
rising with woody stems more than twenty feet FAENZA, a city and bishop's see of the ec- high. They are propagated by seeds; but in clesiastical state, in Romagna, anciently known this country must be kept continually in a stove. by the name of Falentia, and noted in modern The chief is F. octandra with pinnate leaves, times for its pottery wares. Hence the French downy each side. It is a tall tree, abounding give to all fine stone ware the name of Fayence. in a balsamic glutinous juice, racerned flowers,
with white calyxes and yellow corols. Its bal- stations, and conducted the most important nesam resembles the gum tacamaliac.
gociations. In 1814 he signed the treaty of FAGE (Raimond de la), an ingenious de- peace between Great Britain and the Nethersigner and engraver, highly esteemed by Carlo lands. The noble collection of books and MSS. Maratii, was born at Toulouse in 1648. He had made by this illustrious family, was removed to no master nor any assistance; but his superior London in 1794, upon the invasion of the Netalents supplied the want of them. llis perform- therlands by the French, and was purchased ances on licentious subjects are the most esteemed. by the University of Dublin, who have placed It is reported that he never made use of money, it in a suitable apartment, called from the family but contracted debts, and when the accounts “ The Fagel Library.” were brought him, he drew on the back of the FAGEND. From fag and end, says Dr. bills, and bid the owners sell the drawings to con- Johnson, but more probably from Swed. fogan; noisseurs for the amount, by which they were Sax. fegan, to join. The end of a web of cloth, generally great gainers. Several of those draw- rope, &c.; hence the refuse of any thing. ings are in the cabinets of the curious. He led FAGGOT, or Fagot, v. a. Fr. fugot ; Arm. a loose, depraved life, which his repeated de- and Welsh fagod ; Ital. fagotta ; British hagobaucheries put an end to, at the age of forty-two. den; according to Casseneuve froin Latin fugus,
FAGEL, a Dutch family, which has given to a beech tree, the old fagyots being mostly made the United Provinces a series of able statesmen of that wood. Others derive it from Lat. fascis; and warriors. From 1670 to 1795, the important pakedos, a bundle of wood. A bundle of sticks station of secretary to the states-general was or small wood : any one of the pieces in the filled by a member of this family, which has bundle: hence an individual in a muster or list constantly been attached to the Orange party, of soldiers. We only find the verb used by but always from disinterested and irreproachable Dryden. motives. 1. Gaspar Fagel was born at Haerlem, Faggot, in times of popery, was a badge 1629, and died 1688. He filled the highest worn on the sleeve of the upper garment of such offices, and particularly distinguished himself by persons as had abjured heresy; being put on his spirit and firmness, during the invasion by after the person had carried a faggot, by way of Louis XIV. With sir William Temple, he laid penance, to some appointed place of solemnity. the foundation of the peace of Nimeguen, 1678. The leaving off the wear of this badge was In the negociations with France, he resisted all sometimes interpreted a sign of apostasy. the intrigues and arts of the French ambassador Faggots, among military men, persons formerly d'Avaux, and nobly refused a sum of 2,000,000 hired by officers, whose companies were not fuli, livres, which d'Avaux offered him, to gain him to muster and hide the deficiencies of the comto his interests. Fagel's great triumph was the pany; by which means they cheated the king of elevation of William III. to the English throne. so much money. He prepared the proclamation which William FAGIUS (Paul), alias Buchlin, a learned issued on this occasion, and arranged all the protestant minister, born at Rheinzabern in Germeasures for that enterprise. lle died, however, many in 1504. He was a schoolmaster at Isna ; before the intelligence of complete success had but afterwards became a zealous preacher, and arrived. He was never married, and left no wrote many theological works. During the perproperty. Concerning his character, the reader secution in Germany, he and Bucer came over should consult Temple, Wicquefort, and Bur- to England in 1549, at the invitation of archnet.—2. Francis, nephew of Gaspar, and son bishop Cranmer, to perfect a new translation of of Henry Fagel, was, like them, secretary to the the Scriptures. Fagius took the Old Testament, states-general; born 1659, died 1746. This and Bucer the New, for their respective parts ; great statesman's biography, by Onno Zwier van but the design was frustrated by the sudden Haren, was unfortunately burnt in the manu- deaths of both. Fagius died in 1550, and Bucer script.—3. Francis, born 1740, died 1773, was did not live above a year after. Their bodies also secretary of the states. Francis Hemster- were dug up and burned in the reign of queen huis composed a fine eulogy upon him.-4. Henry, Mary. born 1706, and died 1790. He had a principal FAGONIA, in botany, a genus of the monopart in elevating William IV. to the dignity of gynia order and decandria class of plants; nastadtholder in 1748.-5. Francis Nicholas, also tural order fourteenth, gruinales : Cal. pentaa nephew of Gaspar, entered the military ser- phyllous; the petals are five and heart-shaped : vice in 1672, and died in 1718, general of the CAPS. quinquelocular, ten valved, with the cells infantry in the service of the states-general, and monospermous. There are four species; natives imperial-lientenant, field-marshal. He distin- of Spain, Crete, Arabia, and Persia. guished himself in the battle of Fleurus, 1690. FÅGRÆA, in botany, a genus of plants of the The famous defence of Mons, 1691, was directed class pentandria and order monogynia : cor. by him. He also displayed great military talent funnelform, with a very long tube ; stigma pelat the siege of Namur, at the capture of Bonn, tate : BERRY two-celled, fleshy : Seeds globular : and in Portugal, 1703, in Flanders, 1711 and species one only; a shrub of Ceylon; with thick 1712, and at the famous battle of Ramillies and square branches, and large terminal flowers. Malplaquet. Henry, a son of Henry (4) has FAGUS, the beech tree, a genus of the hexbeen ainoassador of the Netherlands in London. andria order and monæcia class of plants ; nalilHe has distinguished himself by his attachment ral order fiftieth, amentaceæ : male cal. quinto the house of Orange; even in periods of the quefid and campanulated: cor, none: stamina greatest adversity, has filled the most important from five to twelve: female cal. quinquedentated; styles three : CAPs muricated and quadri- in drills, that they serve as guides to the fieldvalved; the seeds two in number. There are mouse, who will run from one end to the other of five species, of which the most noted are, a drill without leaving a single nut: we rather
1. F. castanea, the chestnut-tree, has a large recommend setting them with a dibble, either upright trunk growing forty or fifty feet high, promiscuously, or a quincunx, at about six inches branching regularly round into a fine spreading distance. Evelyn says, that coppices of chesnuts head, garnished with large spear-shaped acutely may be thickened by layering the tender young serrated leaves, naked on the under side, having shoots : but adds that such as spring from the flowers in long amentums, succeeded by round nuts and marrons are best of all.' There is a prickly fruit, containing two or more nuts. It striped-leaved variegation which is continued by is chiefly propagated by seeds. Evelyn says, budding; and the French are said to graft chestLet the nuts be first spread to sweat, then cover nuts for their fruit; but Miller says, such grafted them in sand; a month being past, plunge them trees are unfit for timber. The chesnut-tree will in water, and reject the swimmers; being dried thrive almost upon any soil which lies out of the for thirty days more, sand them again, and to the water's way; but disaffects wet moorish land. water ordeal as before. Being thus treated until It sometimes grows 10 an immense size. The the beginning of spring or in November, set them largest in the known world are those which grow as you would do beans. They need only 10 be upon Mount Ætna in Sicily. At Tortworth in put into the holes with the point upmost. In Gloucestershire, is a chestnut-tree fifty-two feet winter or autumn, inter them in their husks, round. It is proved to have stood there ever which, being every way armed, are a good pro- since 1150, and was then so remarkable that it tection against the mouse. Being come up, they was called the great chesnut of Tortworth.' It thrive best unremoved, making a great stand for fixes the boundary of the manor, and is probably at least two years upon every transplanting; if near 1000 years old. As an ornamental, the you must alter their station, let it be done against chestnut is well worthy the gardener's attention. November.' Millar cauiions about purchasing Its uses have been highly extolled. As a subforeign nuts that have been kiln-dried, which, stitute for the oak, it is preferable to the elm : he says, is generally done to prevent their sprout- for door-jambs, window-frames, and some other ing in their passage. He adds, “If they cannot purposes, it is nearly equal to oak itself; but be procured fresh from the tree, it will be better there is a deceitful brittleness in it which renders to use those of the growth of England, which it unsafe to be used in beams, or in any other siare full as good to sow for timber or beauty as tuation where an uncertain load is required 10 any of the foreign nuts, though their fruit is much be borne. It is excellent for liquor casks; not smaller.' He also recommends preserving them being liable to shrink, nor to change the color of in sand, and proving them in water. In setting the liquor: it is also recommended as an underthese nuts, he says, the best way is to make a wood for hop-poles, stakes, &c. Its fruit too is drill with a hoe, about four inches deep, in which valuable : not only for swine and deer, but as a place the nuts about four inches distant, with human food : bread is said to have been made their eye uppermost; then draw the earth over of it. them with a rake, and make a second drill a foot 2. F. pumila, the dwarf chestnut tree, or chindistance from the former, proceeding as before, kapin, rises eight or ten feet high, with a branchallowing three or four rows in each bed. In April ing shrubby stem, and oval spear-shaped and these nuts will appear above ground; keep them acutely serrated leaves, hoary on the under side. clear from weeds, especially while young: in It is propagated from seeds, brought from Amethese beds they may remain for two years, when rica. These should be planted in drills, as soon you should remove them into a nursery at a as they arrive, in a moist bed of rich garden wider distance. The best time for transplanting mould. If good, they will come up pretty soon these trees is in October, though some prefer the in the spring. After they appear, they require end of February; the distance these should have no trouble, except keeping them clean from in the nursery is three feet between, and one foot weeds, and watering them in dry weather. They in the rows. If these trees have a downright tap may stand in the seed-bed two years, and be afroot, it should be cut off, especially if they are terwards planted in the nursery-ground, a foot intended to be removed again; this will occasion asunder, and two feet between the rows. When their putting out lateral shoots, and render them strong, they are fit for any purpose. less subject to miscarry when finally removed. 3. F. sylvatica, the beech tree, rises sixty or The time generally allowed them in the nursery seventy feet high, and has a proportionable thickis three or four years, according to their growth; ness, branching upward into a fine regular head, but the younger they are transplanted, the better garnished with oval serrated leaves, with flowers they will succeed. Youny trees of this sort are in globular catkins, succeeded by angular fruit very apt to have crooked stems; but when they called mast. It is very easily raised from the are transplanted out and have room to grow, as mast or seed. "For woods,' says Evelyn, the they increase in bulk they will grow more up- beech must be governed as the oak: in nurseries, right, and their stems will become straighi.' as the ash; sowing the mast in autumn, or later, Hanbury recommends that the young plants, a even after January, or rather nearer the spring, year after they bave been planted in the nursery, to preserve them from vermin. They are likebe cut down to within an inch of the ground; wise to be planted of young seedlings to be which, he says, “will cause them to shoot vigo- drawn out of the places where the fruitful trees tously with one strong and straight stem. There abound. Millar says, “the season for sowing the is one material objection against sowing chestnuis mast is any time from October 10 February, only
observing to secure the seeds from vermin when from twenty to thirty feet high. It must, howearly sowed. The sooner they are sown the ever, be observed, that the purple beech plants are betier, after they are fully ripe.' Hanbury orders most proper for the park or the lawn, or indeed a sufficient quantity of mast to be gathered for any situation where it is required that they about the middle of September, when they begin grow to a great size, are such as are grafted or to fall; these are to be spread upon a mat in budded on the common sort. Those raised by an airy place six days to dry; and after that layers grow more dwarf; and therefore should you may either sow them immediately, or put be planted in situations where dwarf trees, or them up in bags to sow them nearer the spring; ashes, are required. which method,' says he, “I would rather advise, FAHLUN, a mining town of Sweden, the as they will keep very well, and there will be less capital of the province of Dalecarlia. Somedanger of having them destroyed by mice or times the whole province is called by the name other vermin.' "They must be sown in beds of Fahlun. It stands in a small plain, is surproperly prepared, about an inch deep. In the rounded by hills, and consists of several paralle: first spring many of the young plants will appear, streets, crossing others at right angles. It is whilst others will not come up till the spring chietly built of wood, and the population has difollowing. Having stood two years in the se- minished from above 7000 to a little above 4000, minary, they should be removed to the nursery, the copper mines of the vicinity having become where they may remain till wanted. In stateli- less productive. They still yield an annual ness and grandeur the beech vies with the oak. supply of ochre and vitriol, together with small Its foliage is peculiarly soft and pleasing; its portions of silver and gold. It is 110 miles branches are numerous and spreading; and its N. N. W. of Stockholm. stem waxes to a great size. The bark is remark- FAHRENHEIT, a celebrated experimental ably smooth, and of a silvery cast; which, added philosopher, born at Hamburgh in 1686. He to the splendor and smoothness of its foliage' improved the thermometer, by making use of gives a striking delicacy to its general appear- mercury instead of spirit of wine, and formed a
The beech, therefore, standing singly, new scale for the instrument, grounded upon the and suffered to form its own natural head, is most accurate experiments. This scale has been highly ornamental; and its leaves, varying their generally adopted by the English, but the French hue as the autumn approaches, render it still prefer that of Reaumur. Fahrenheit wrote a more desirable. In point of use the beech fol- dissertation on thermometers. He died in 1736. lows next to the oak and the ash; it is almost See THERMOMETER. as necessary to the cabinet-makers and turners, FAIENCE, imitation porcelain; a kind of as the oak is to the ship-builder, or the ash to the fine pottery, superior to the common pottery in plough and cart-wright. Evelyn, however, ob- its glazing, beauty of form, and richness of serves that, where it lies dry, or wet and dry, painting. It derived its name from the town of it is exceedingly obnoxious to the worm, but Faenza, in Romagna, where it is said to have being put ten days in water, it will resist the been invented in 1299. A fine sort of pottery
The natural soil of the beech is upon was manufactured there at that period, which dry, chalky, or limestone heights. It grows to the Italians called Maiolica, probably from its a great size upon the hills of Surrey and kent; inventor. Some pieces were painted by the upon the declivities of the Cotswold and Stroud. great artists of the period, Raphael, Giulio Rowater hills of Gloucestershire, and upon the bleak mano, Titian, and others, which are highly banks of the Wye, in Hereford and Monmouth valued, as monuments of early art.
The Maioshires; where it is much used in making char- lica reached its highest perfection between 1530 coal. The mast, or seeds, yield a good oil for and 1560. The king of Würtemburg possesses lamps ; and are a very agreeable food to squir- a rich collection of it. The modern Faïence rels, mice, and swine. The fat of swine fed with appears to have been invented, about the middle them, however, is soft, and boils away, unless of the sixteenth century, at Faënza, and obhardened by some other food. The leaves ga- tained its name in France, where a man from thered in autumn, before they are injured by the Faenza, having discovered a similar kind of frosts, make much better mattrasses than straw or clay at Nevers, had introduced the manufacture chaff; and last for seven or eight years. The of it. Towards the end of the seventeenth cennuts occasion giddiness and headache; but when tury, the city of Delft in Holland, became well dried and powdered, they make wholesome famous for the manufacture of Faïence, which bread. They are sometimes roasted and substi- was called also Delft-ware. It does not, howtuted for coffee. The poor in Silesia use the ex- ever, resist fire well. The English stone ware, pressed oil instead of butter. “The purple beech, made of powdered flint, has some resemblance to says Mr. Nicholls, 'is a fine ornamental variety, the Faïence, but is, in reality, entirely different. and even premises to become fit for the decora- FAIFO, or Haifo, an old town of Cochin tion of the park, although it has hitherto been China, situated on a navigable river falling into chiefly confined to the pleasure-ground. A tree the bay of Turon, about ten miles from the sea. of the purple variety in the gardens of Messrs. Tel. It was formerly of considerable size, the streets fords, within the walls of the city of York, and were regular, and the houses built of brick; but another in the pleasure-ground at Enville, have it was destroyed during the late wars, and is now assumed such tree-like forms, each being fully but slowly regaining its importance. thirty feet high, that such an expectation may FAIL, v. n., v. a. & n. 8. Fr. faillir; Teut. reasonably be entertained; and the more espe
FALL'ING, n. s.
fehlen ; Wel.faeln; cially, as we know of several even in Scotland FAIL'ure.
Belg. faalen, from
Goth. fela; Lat. fallo; Gr.ondéw, to deceive. To and the adverbial use has followed these signifi-
Psalm lxxi. appoint; deceive. As a substantive it signifies,
Alas alas howe dull and deffe he the cares of cruel miscarriage; non-success; omission; want : and
death ynto men in misery that would fayne dye : and 2 failing and failure are used in these last senses.
yet refusythe to come and shutte vp the yr carefull In difficu.ties of state, the true reason of failing
Colcile. proceeds from failings in the administration, Id.
With hym truly,
Fayne speake would I,
Sir quod she by my fay,
He is so sike, him at time of need, and so thinks it superfluous la
Ye be not lyke, bour to make any provision before-hand. Id.
To speake with hym to day.
Sir T, More. He, that being subject to an apoplexy, used still to
And in her hand she held a mirrour bright, carry his remedy about him ; but upon a time shifting
Wherein her face she often viewed fain. his clothes, and not taking that with him, chanced
Every weight to shroud it did constrain,
And this fair couple eke to shroud themselves were
Fairer than fairest, in his faining eye,
Whose sole aspect he counts felicity.
Id. on Love.
Whosoever will hear, he shall find God; whosoever Men who have been busied in the pursuit of the
will study to know, shall be also fuin to believe. philosopher's stone, have failed in their design. Id.
I was fain to forswear it; they would else have
married me to the rotten inedlar. Shakspeare. Endeavour to fulal God's commands, to repent as
When Hildebrand had accursed Henry IV. there
were none so hardy as to defend their lord ; whereoften as you fail of it, and to hope for pardon of him.
fore he was fain to humble himself before Hildebrand. Even good men have many temptations to subdue,
Raleigh's Essays. many conticts with those enemies
whicho lan can and emulation, than this principality of Israel; 2 people
There cannot be conceived an honour less worth the soul, and many failings and lapses to lament and
that could give nothing ;-a people whom their leader He does not remember whether every grain came
was fain to feed with bread and water.
Bp. Hall's Contemplations. up or not; but he thinks that very few failed. Mortimer's Husbandry.
The learned Castaliu was fain to make trenchers at
Baste, to keep himself from starving. Locke.
Why wouldest thou urge me to confess a fame
I long have stifled, and would fain conceal.
Addison. blant edge to divide a sheet of paper, which never
The plebeians would fain have a law enacted to lay failed to cut it even, only requiring a steady hand.
all men's rights and privileges upou the same level. Swift.
Teach me too early taught by thee!
To bear, forgiving and forgiven :
On earth thy love was such to me;
It fain would form my hope in Heaven.
FAINT, v.1., v.u.& adj. 1. From Fr. faner lic) than to try it, and fail, as it is more disgraceful
to fade, says Dr.
Johnson; but Mr.
Horne Tooke says of that day? And art thou sure that the props which
FAINTING, support thee now will not fail thee then ?
it is the past parti
ciple of the Saxon
FAINT'ISHNESS, 9. s. failings; the one occasioned by his natural constitu
fynizean, to grow
FAINT'LING, adj. tion, and the other arising from a consciousness that
musty; to spoil. his abilities were not equal to his station,
To decay; waste Robertson's History of Scotland,
FAINT'NESS, n. 8.
or wear away; lose They never fail who die
vigor, or muscular In a great cause : the block may soak their gore; strength; grow feeble or dejected. Shakspeare Their heads may sodden in the sun; their limbs
only (as we find) uses it in an active sense for to Be strung to city gates, and castle walls
enfeeble: faint, as an adjective, means weak in But still their spirit walks abroad.
any sense, and is applied to light, color, sound, FAIN, v. N., adv. & adj. 7 Sax. fagn; Goth. objects of taste, &c. : faintly follows this variety FA'ınly, adv.
faginon, or fagn; of acceptation : faintish is slightly, or beginning Swed. fagna; Icel. Feigin, to be glad. Po de- to grow, faint : fainty is an obsolete and poetical sire; wish. As an adjective, the old sense is synonyme of faint : faintling, timorous, feeblefond ; glad; desirous; afterwards it was used minded. The other compounds seeni not to refo: desirous of one evil in preference to a greater: quire explanation.