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seem to be abundantly proclaimed in the general looks of the inhabitants, among whom, if the Newar peasantry take the lead in point of robustness, it is to be attributed to their laborious, but invigorating occupation.
The exceeding jealousy with which, in imitation of their Chinese neighbours, the Nepaulese have regarded the visits of intelligent and enquiring Europeans to the interior of the country has made it difficult to obtain accurate information respecting the wealth of the vegetable and mineral kingdoms; and but for the advantages enjoyed by Mr. B. Hodgson, when British resident at Khatmandoo, in indulging his passion for Natural History, we might have remained in ignorance of the extent of the animal kingdom. Father Giuseppe, who published an account of Nepaul, in the Asiatic Researches, is nearly silent on this topic, and Colonel Kirkpatrick's investigations, during his journey to the capital, are somewhat limited. From such sources, however, as are available to us we gather the following facts.
TREES AND VEGETATION.
In a previous page, mention has been made of the enormous fruit trees which are to be found in the Terai. In addition to the Saul, and the Bechiaconri pine, are to be found the Sissoo, the Setti-saul, the Phullamikal, (an iron wood) the Kalikset, (a sort of black wood), the Sajk, the Burra, the Sunni, and the Moolta. Besides this, there is a small quantity of ebony. These woods constitute in a great measure the commercial wealth of Nepaul. Wood merchants congregate at the southernmost point of the forest near the river Gunduck because of the facility presented by that river of floating the timber to Calcutta. Some of the woods, the Dubdubea, for example, a sort of ash, abounding in the Terai which is a powerful astringent, and constitutes an article of trade. The Bechiacori, called in Nepaul, Sulla and Surrendhool, or Dhoobkee (on account of its resinous quality) is chiefly consumed at home. Its branches are used as torches : the fragrant turpentine which it yields is employed in sacrifices, and in medicated salves, and its wood is converted into
rafts for houses. A great quantity of grass, brush and underwood intersect the trees of the Terai, and among the wild plants and fruits are to be found the nettle, wormwood, raspberries and mulberries. Here is likewise a curious shrub called the Khaksi, the leaf of which answers the purpose of emery or sand paper,
, giving a fine polish to the harder woods.
Leaving the level forest, and ascending the chain of hills which skirt the southern part of the valley of Nepaul, we find the highlands covered with wood of various kinds. There is the Phullaced, the Kâhôlô, the Sing Rowla, the Timmûe, the Chellownea, and the Seidburrooa. The first of these is a kind of oak, the wood of which is in high repute for its strength and durability; the acorns are used medicinally, and also serves as food for the pigs. Of the pith of the Kâhôlô, the poorer classes of the people, in time of scarcity, prepare a nutritious bread, which is sometimes mixed with flour. Of the Sing Rowla (the Lignea Cassia) mention has already been made. The Timmûe,
TREES AND VEGETATION.
called also Taizbul (of which there are two species), is a curious plant, yielding a berry resembling black pepper in shape and size. The berry consists of a black or bicolor seed, contained in a thin shell or pod, which spontaneously opens when the fruit is ripe. The shell is a strong, pleasant spice, used for various culinary purposes, and likewise possesses great medicinal virtues. The Chillounea is also a singular tree. Its
upper coat is entirely composed of innumerable needle-form fibres tolerably united by a kind of gelatinous sap. The wood makes good beams and rafters, and is held in such superstitious veneration by the natives, that no house is considered secure in which more or less of the timber has not been employed. The bark of the Seidburrooa is manufactured into a strong useful paper ; it is also made into rope and black thread, but neither of them resist moisture well. Besides these trees, there are the Jumnomundroo, the Gûrras, the Puddiem or Payah, the Chootraphul, the Mahul and the Puhuttoli. The first of these bears yellow, sweet-smelling flowers
in branches; its leaves resemble those of the holly, and the wood is, both in closeness of texture and colour, very like box. The Gûrras is a tree that affects the highest situations ; its flowers are large and of a deep red; and yield by decoction a purplish colour, which are converted by acids into a tolerable pink. The Puddiem or Payah resembles, in its leaf and wood, the English cherry, the latter (the wood) being held in sanctity by the natives. The Chootraphul is not unlike the barberry in appearance ; the wood is of a strong yellow colour, but does not afford a permanent dye; the women of Nepaul use it instead of sandal for tracing the tillah on their forehead. The Mahail and Dhuttola are both species of plums; the former bears abundance of beautiful flowers. The Ukroat or walnut, of Chittong is reckoned the best of any produced in the Nepaul territories ; but those of Tibet are esteemed superior. The shell of the Chittong, and indeed of most of the Nepaul walnuts, is remarkably hard. The wood is employed in the manufacture of gun stocks. The best