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The Terai, or Turry, or Turyanee, is a long strip or belt of low level-land. The word, probably, signifies low or marshy lands, but it is sometimes applied to the flats lying below the hills in the interior of Nepaul, as well as to the level tract bordering immediately on the British frontier. It abounds with large and lofty foresttrees, the chief of which are the Saul and the Bechiacori pine. Some of the Saul spars reach the length of seventy to eighty feet, and are generally considered unequalled for strength and durability. In this respect, however, they must yield to the teak, for there is this peculiarity in Saul, that it is seen to warp soon after having been employed, in bulk for many years, rising into large fissures longitudinally, and falling a prey to the white ants.
Small quantities of gold-dust are found in the Gunduck, which runs through the Terai, and Lignea Cassia is likewise produced in the jungle. The latter, under the name of Sing Rowla, is much used in Hindostan in spicery: the bark of the root does not differ widely from cinnamon, for which
it has often been mistaken, but the bark of the trunk and branches possess little of the cinnamon flavour.
Beyond the Terai, and still bearing its name, is a range of hills of about the same width, at the northern base of which commences the valley of Nepaul. This valley, which is nearly oval in shape, is about twelve miles from north to south, and nine miles from east to west. Its circuit has been roughly estimated by the inhabitants at twenty-five coss, or from forty to fifty miles. The range of mountains to the north of the valley is stupendous ; the ranges to the east and west are much less lofty, the immediate head of the valley to the westward being defined principally by a low, steep ridge covered with brushwood.
At the foot of the northern range, situated upon the eastern bank of a small river called the Bishenmuttee, in latitude 27° 42' N. ; longitude 85° E., stands the city of Khatmandoo, the capital of Nepaul. It is not the largest of the towns in the valley, but enjoys the eminence
of a metropolis, because it is the residence of the Rajah, or king, of Nepaul. In length, Khatmandoo may measure about a mile ; its breadth is inconsiderable, nowhere exceeding half and seldom extending beyond a quarter of a mile. The name, says Colonel Kirkpatrick, by which the town is distinguished in ancient books, is Gorgoolputten: the Newars call it Yindaisé, whilst among the Parbuttias, or mountaineers, it is styled Kultipoor, an appellation which seems to proceed from the same source with Khatmandoo, and derived, it is believed, from its numerous wooden temples, which are among the most striking objects in the city. These edifices are not confined to the body of the town, but are scattered over its environs, particularly along the sides of a quadrangular tank, or reservoir of water. The houses are of brick and tile, with pitched or painted roofs. On the street-side they have frequently enclosed wooden balconies of open carved-work, and of a singular fashion; the front piece, instead of rising perpendicularly, projecting in a sloping
direction towards the eaves of the roof. They are of two, three, and four stories, and almost without a single exception are of a mean and poor appearance.
The streets are excedingly narrow, and very filthy.
The city of Patun is of the next importance. It occupies a rising spot of ground, situated about two miles S. by E. of Khatmandoo, and close to the confluence of the Munnohra, Tookcha, and Bhagurutty rivers. The figure ascribed to it, is that of the Chucro, or wheel of Narain. Patun is called Yellodaise by the Newars ; and it is likewise occasionally distinguished from Deo Patun, by the appellations of Lallit-Patun and Lall-Patun. It is a neater town than Khatmandoo.
Bhatgong is perhaps still more superior to Khatmandoo, for though the least considerable of the three towns in point of size, yet its buildings in general have a more striking appearance; and its streets, if not much wider, are at all events much cleaner than those of the metropolis, a distinction which it owes to its admirable brick
pavement. Bhatgong lies E. by S. of Khatmandoo, at a distance of nearly eight road miles. Its ancient name was Dhurmapatun, and it is called by the Newars, Khopodaire ; by whom it is also described to resemble in figure the Dumbroo, or guitar, of Mahadeo. It is the favourite residence of the Brahmins of Nepaul, containing many more families of that order, than Khatmandoo and Patun together.
Kirthipoor occupies the summit of a low hill, about three miles west of Patun. It was at one time the seat of an independent prince ; and its reduction cost the Goorkhali prince so much trouble, that in resentment of the resistance made by the inhabitants, he barbarously caused all the males, whom he captured in it, to be deprived of their noses. Chobar is also situated on an eminence, which with that of Kirthipoor, forms a kind of saddle hill.
Nepaul contains, from its locality, every variety of climate. The fourth of it lies in the hot plains of the Ganges, and the remaining