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dissensions of the rajas, which successively came to form the Goorkha frontier, never failed to produce the invitation.

Prithee Nurayun Sah a Goorkha, has the merit of establishing the system which raised the Nepaul nation to power. Taught by the example of our early victories in Bengal, he armed and disciplined a body of troops after the English fashion ; and after a struggle of more than ten years, finally subjugated the valley of Nepaul by their means in 1768. The Moorshedabad Nuwab (Kasim Ulee Khan) attempted to interfere in 1762-63, but sustained a signal defeat under the walls of Muckwanpore; and the British Government was not more successful in an effort made some years after to succour the last of the Sooruj Bunsee dynasty, who reigned at Khatmandhoo.

* The expedition was undertaken at the recommendation of Mr. Golding, the Commercial Agent at Betia, who feared that the success of the Goorkhas would ruin the trade he before carried on with Nepaul: it had been interrupted for three or four years in consequence

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Prithee Nurayun dying in 1771, his son Singh Purtab, and, in 1775, his grandson, Run Bahadur came successively to the throne; the latter, however, being an infant, Buhadur Sah, another son of Prithee Nurayun, struggled long with his brother's widow for the Regency. Her death at last gave him the ascendancy.

During the regency of Buhadur Sah, Mr. Jonathan Duncan of the Bengal Civil Service, then Resident at Benares, (afterwards a dis

of the subjugation of Muckwanpore. Major Kinloch commanded the party destined for the relief of the Nepaul rajah. He was a good officer ; but advanced into the hills a month at least too early in October, 1767), and had not strength enough to establish a chain of depôts to secure his communication with the plains ; consequently, having penetrated to Hureehurpoor, he was detained there by a nulla, not fordable, and the bridge and raft he constructed were carried away after a fall of rain, which swelled the torrent unnaturally. The delay thus experienced exhausted his supplies, and produced sickness; so that, finally, he was obliged to return early in December—the time when, properly, he should have set out.

tinguished Governor of Bombay) entered into a commercial treaty with the Nepaulese, which secured certain advantages to the merchants of Hindostan and was by no means unprofitable to the former. The arrangement, however, though warmly supported by the GovernorGeneral, the able Marquis of Cornwallis, and most cordially, conscientiously and scrupulously fulfilled on the part of the British, did not endure. The habitual jealousy of the Goorkhas, fostered if not influenced by the insidious representations of individuals desirous of

preserving the exclusive influence and profitable monopoly which that jealousy had enabled them to acquire, and which they saw endangered by the closer approach of the two governments, either wholly prevented the removal, or soon led to the revival, of many of those impediments to a secure and active trade which it had been the express purpose of the recent treaty to obviate.

Accordingly, little or no progress had been made in effectuating the enlightened views of the framer of the treaty,



when the course of events seemed, on a sudden, to furnish a peculiarly favourable occasion for accomplishing their complete realisation.

The court of Pekin, resenting certain encroachments which had been made by the government of Nepaul upon the rights of the Lama of Tibet, whom the Emperor of China had, for some time past, taken under his protection, or in other words, had subjected to the Chinese yoke, ceme to the resolution of chastising the aggressor, or, the Robber, as the Rajah of Nepaul was contemptuously styled in the Chinese dispatches to Lord Cornwallis on the occasion. For this purpose, a considerable army was detached. (under the command of a kinsman of the Emperor), which after traversing the dreary and elevated regions of Tibet, had penetrated, with little other opposition besides what was presented by the nature of the intervening countries, within a short distance of the city of Khatmandoo. It was then that the ruling power of Nepaul, which, in consequence of the minority of the

reigning rajah, was at this period vested in a regency, alarmed at the danger with which it saw the kingdom menaced, earnestly implored the assistance of the Bengal government.

This government now beheld for the first time, the extraordinary spectacle of a numerous Chinese force occupying a position which probably afforded a distant view of the valley of the Ganges, and of the richest of the East India Company's possessions. It is true, that the military character of that people was not of a stamp to excite, under any circumstances, much fear for the safety of those possessions from their future enterprises. Least of all had we anything to apprehend from this quarter at the period in question, when we had just signally humbled our most formidable enemy and were at complete peace throughout India. Still, however, if, by subduing Nepaul, the Chinese were to establish themselves permanently in our neighbourhood, the border disputes always incident to such a situation would be but too liable to disturb more or less, the commercial

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