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out appeal. Ordinarily Punchayats are chosen purely by the parties, and half the judicial business of the kingdom is performed by them to the satisfaction alike of the parties, the public, and the government.

The function of the Punchmen appears to be essentially that of jurors: they find the verdict, and the court, out of which they issue, and in which they assemble, merely enforces their finding. When needless delay occurs, the matter is taken out of the hands of the Punchayat, and decided by the court. The Punchayat has no power of its own to summon or enforce the attendance of any person, or to make an unwilling witness depose, or to secure the production of necessary papers; all such executive aid being afforded by the court appointing it. The assumption of any power of their own by the Punchayat would be a grave offence. The Punch are required to be unanimous : such, at least, is the rule ; but a very large majority will suffice in certain cases. They receive no compensation for travelling expenses, or loss of time, on any account what

ever: indeed, the very idea of compensating them is abhorred.

The popular religion of Nepaul differs in nothing from the Hindooism of Bengal and other parts of India, except so far as the secluded nature of the country might have preserved it in a state of superior orthodoxy and purity.

There are in all twenty temples, viz., Pusputnath, Chauko Nerain, Bhujjerjoagni or Bhudderjoagni, Tillyejoo or Tullejoo, Dukheen Kali, Jagaisher, Seeker Nerain, Mutchendernath, Toolaja Bhuwani, Bishenath, Gooshja Kali, Gorukhnath, Chundaisseri, Bhugowty, Sheepadhol, Bheem Sein, Bhauda, Dhoomja, Koossaisur, and Goorkha Munkamana.

The following is a list of the principal festivals :

Chownsuthi jatra.
Koond jatra
Bhagmutty jatra.
Bishenmatty jatra:
Munmutty jatra.

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Roodemutty jatra.
Sunnaish jatra.
Bhogowty jatra.
Jakhri jatra.
Indra jatra.
Sersutty jatra.
Mutchender jatra.
Bhoagnath jatra.
Bhyroo jatra.

In addition to these, and some others not named, there is a grand festival occasionally observed, which lasts four months. It consists in visiting the shrines of all the gods in Nepaul, said to be in number 2,733.

Proselytism has not made much way within the Nepaulese dominions, but the Newar families, who have permanently settled in Thibet as traders, have embraced Christianity, as practised among the Thibetans. Catholicism is the form of their Christianity. Near Digarchee and Lassa, or Thibet, there are

several very old Catholic churches, but the date of their establishment has not been very clearly ascertained.

The trade of Nepaul is by no means so extensive or consequently so beneficial to its government and inhabitants as under proper regulations it would become. The channel of Nepaul offers inducements for an extensive trade between Thibet and the Company's dominions, highly beneficial both to the government of Nepaul and to the commercial interest of the English nation. The following are the principal exports: elephants, elephants' teeth, rice, timber, hides, ginger, kuth or terra Japonica, turmeric, wax, honey, behrozeh or pure resin, walnuts, oranges, long pepper, long pepper root, gheei tugh, tajpat, large cardamums, raal or dammer, lamp oil, cotton, Tangans and small Turk horses of Laddakh, and other northern parts of Thibet, sheep, shawl goats, Chowri bullocks, musk-deer, dogs, falcons, pheasants, chuckoars or fire-eaters ; gold in dust, grains, and small lumps; borax, salt, sulphur, antimony, arsenic,

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orpiment, musk, chownries or cowtails, rugs or coarse blankets, munjheet, cheraita, raw lac, cherries, bikma, jaithamasi, and various other medicinal drugs. The imports comprise doputtahs, saries, dhoties, kim khaub, gool budduns, phoolams, mushroos, oornies, taffetas, buftas, cossahs, dooreas, chintz, mulmuls, broad cloth, shawls, jemawar shawl pieces, shawl ruzzies, raw silk, gold and silver laces, carpets, English cutlery of sorts, saffron, cloves, pace, nutmegs, Guzerat cardamums, black pepper, betle-nuts, red sandal wood, white sandal wood, alum, vermilion, quicksilver, shell lac, red wood, krypas, tin, zinc, lead, soap, camphire, red pepper or chilly, conch shells, Oude billah, tobacco and coral.

The manufactures consist principally of coarse cloth, iron, copper, and brass utensils and ornaments, cutlery, bells, spirituous liquors, salt, and saltpetre.

The currency of Nepaul consists principally of silver pieces of eight annas. There are also some of sixteen annas struck, called siccas, but

VOL. I..


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