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CONDITION OF THE MISSION HERDS.

Wales (Congregational mission) received herd of 118 reindeer from Teller 1894; regarded as a gift after the relief expedition of 1898 to Barrow and never returned.

In 1904, July 1, it had 402 adult males, 717 adult females, 369 fawns, making a total of 1,488. Two colonies of reindeer were established from Wales during the summer of 1904; in August, 1904, at Shishmaref, 389 deer, and the last of December, 1904, 365 at Deering. Counting in the two colonies with the Wales herd, the aggregate is 1,389 adult deer and 560 fawns, making a total of 1,949 deer for Wales with its two colonies, of which Wales retains 669 adult deer and 273 fawns, making a total of 942. Shishmaref and Deering, the two colonies, are also presented separately below.

Number of deer belonging to the station in 1904, 360; in 1905, 216; number of deer owned by 9 apprentices in 1904, 389; in 1905, 537; number of deer owned by the Government in 1905, 189.

Cost to the Government for supplies: 1904, nothing; 1905, nothing; 1906, nothing.

Cost to the Government for superintending herds: 1904, nothing; 1905, nothing; 1906, nothing.

Shish maref (colony of Congregational Mission).-In August, 1904, 389 reindeer driven from Wales to establish a new herd at Shishmaref.

In 1905, July 1, it had 321 adult deer and 139 fawns, making a total of 460. The Wales Mission owns 166 deer; 7 native apprentices transferred from Wales own 294 deer; Government owns none.

Cost to the Government for supplies: 1904, nothing; 1905, nothing; 1906, nothing.

Cost to the Government for superintending herds: 1904, nothing; 1905, nothing

Deering (Society of Friends).-One hundred head of reindeer loaned to the station January 18, 1905, for five years. Two Eskimo herders, acting as teachers, colonized from Wales (see Wales above) with 265 deer; total at station, 365 deer.

In 1905, July 1, 106 adult males, 225 adult females, 148 fawns, making a total of 479 deer.

The station has 128 deer, of which 100 are borrowed and returnable on January 18, 1910; 3 Eskimo apprentices own 351 deer.

Number of apprentices, 3.
Cost to the Government for supplies: 1905, nothing.

Cost to the Government for transfer of deer and superintending herds: 1905, $558.38.

Golofnin Bay (Swedish Lutheran Mission).-Fifty deer loaned to station January 16, 1896, and 50 deer returned to Government three years later, 1899.

In 1904, July 1, it had 257 adult males, 382 adult females, 285 fawns, making a total of 924. In 1905 it had 297 males, 511 females, 356 fawns, making a total of 1,164.

Number of deer belonging to the station in 1905, 462; number of deer belonging to 12 Eskimo apprentices, 383; number of deer held by the Lapp herder superintendent, Nils Klemetsen, 287, 100 of these being returnable to the Government July 1, 1907. Number of deer belonging to the Government in 1905, 32.

Where a herd of 100 is loaned to a Lapp teacher, its cash value per annum is estimated at $600, equivalent to an annual increment of 30 fawns at $20 each.

Cost to the Government for supplies: 1904, nothing; 1905, nothing

Cost to the Government for superintending herds: 1904, $600 (as above explained); 1905, $600, rental value of herd.

Teller (Norwegian Lutheran Evangelical).-A Government station pure and simple from 1892 to 1900; a Norwegian Lutheran Evangelical Mission established there September 1, 1900; 100 deer loaned to mission for five years (the same number were returned September 1, 1905, and were marked for the Government although retained in the herd). At the time of this loan, in addition to the 100 loaned to the Norwegian Lutheran Mission there were 221 deer belonging to the Government and 339 belonging to 5 Eskimo apprentices, making, with the 100 loaned to the mission, a total of 660 deer. In 1901, November 11, 194 of the Government deer were transferred to Kotzebue to form a new station, furnishing a loan of 95 deer to the Friends mission and 99 deer to the Lapp teacher Nilima, each for five years (see Kotzebue below).

In 1904 it had 225 adult males, 469 females, and 379 fawns, making a total of 1,073. In 1905 it had 223 adult males, 426 adult females, 292 fawns, making a total of 941.

Number of deer belonging to the station in 1904, 314; in 1905, 270); number of deer owned by 5 apprentices in 1904, 351; in 1905, 434; number of deer owned by the Government in 1904, 408; in 1905, 215.

Cost to the Government for supplies: 1904, nothing; 1905, nothing; 1906, nothing.

Cost to the Government for superintending herds: 1904, $500 (Bango, herder); $900 (Brevig, superintendent of station); 1905, $250 (Bango, herder).

Unalakleet (Swedish Evangelical Union).--One hundred reindeer loaned July 1, 1903; return due July 1, 1908. Ole Bahr, a Lapp, had received a loan in 1901 of 100 deer for five years, securing his services as superintendent of the herd; he brought with him to this station 197 deer, making a total of 297 deer. Parts of herds were

transferred to this herd from Eaton, Teller, and Golofnin Bay stations, increasing the herd to more than 1,500 before the year 1904.

In 1904, July 1, it had 546 adult males, 791 adult females, and 581 fawns, making a total of 1,918. In 1905 it had 678 adult males, 850 adult females, and 500 fawns, making a total of 2,028.

Number of deer belonging to the station July 1, 1905, 289; to the Government herder, Ole Bahr, 333; to 17. Eskimo apprentices, 913; number of deer belonging to the Government, 492.

Cost to the Government for supplies: 1904, nothing; 1905, nothing.

Cost to the Government for superintending herds: 1904, the rental value of Bahr's herd, $600; salary of Bals (herder), $500; total, $1,100; 1905, rental value of Bahr's herd, $600.

Bethel (Kuskokwim River; Moravian).-February 26, 1901, 176 deer were loaned to the Moravian Missionary Society, Bethel, for five years. July 1, 1901, a herd of 100 deer was loaned to Nils Persen Sara, Lapland herder, for five years' services, the same number of deer to be returned July 1, 1906. Another herd of 100 deer was loaned to Per M. Spein, Lapland herder, for five years' services, the same number to be returned July 1, 1906. Total number of deer at the station, 376.

In 1904, July 1, it had 280 adult males, 459 adult females, 307 fawns, making a total of 1,046. In 1905, July 1, it had 280 adult males, 613 adult females, and 436 fawns, making a total of 1,329 deer.

Number of deer belonging to the station in 1904, 458; to the two Lapp herders, Sara and Spein, 525; to 4 Eskimo apprentices 41; to the Government 22. Number of deer belonging to the station in 1905, July 1, 567; to the two Lapp herders, 698; to the 4 Eskimo apprentices, 64. In 1906 there will be 376 reindeer due the Government for the loans to the mission and Laplanders.

Cost to the Government for supplies: 1904, nothing; 1905, nothing; 1906, nothing.

Cost to the Government for superintending herds: 1904, $1,200, the same being the estimated rental value of $600 for each of the herds owned by the Lapp herders; in 1905, $1,200 (rental value.)

Kotzebue (Society of Friends).-Ninety-five reindeer loaned September 2, 1901, for five years, the same number to be returned September 2; 1906. July 1, 1901, Alfred S. Nilima, a Lapp herder, was loaned 99 deer for five years, the same to be returned July 1, 1906, for services as herder. Total number of deer at the station, 194.

In 1904, July 1, it had 482 adult deer with 232 fawns, making a total of 714 deer. In 1905, July 1, it had 181 adult males, 315 adult females, 236 fawns, making a total of 732 deer. Two Eskimo herders, with 220 deer, had been transferred to a new station at Kivalina during the winter of 1904-5 (see Kivalina). Counting the number

transferred with the 732 deer the total without transfer would have been 952.

Number of deer belonging to the station July 1, 1904, 239; to the Lapp herder, 245; to 6 Eskimo apprentices, 230. (Due from the station and from the herder, 194 deer in 1906.) Number of deer belonging to the station in 1905, July 1, 310; to the Lapp herder, 370; to 4 Eskimo apprentices, 40; belonging to white men, 12 male deer, trained to harness and kept with the herd. (Due the Government from the station and from the herder, 194 deer in 1906.)

Cost to the Government for supplies: 1904, nothing; 1905, nothing.

Cost to the Government for superintending herds: 1904, $600 (estimated rental value of herd); 1905, $600, rental value of herd.

kivalina.- In the winter of 1904-5 two native herders, Electoona with a herd of 172 deer, and Otpelle with a herd of 48 deer, making a total of 220 deer, were transferred to Kivalina, an important place on the Arctic Ocean southeast of Point Hope.

Number of deer belonging to the Government in 1905, none; belonging to the station, none; belonging to the two Eskimo apprentices, 220.

Cost to the Government for transferring herd in 1905, $110.60. Cost to the Government for superintending herds, nothing.

Nulato (Roman Catholic).-One hundred reindeer loaned to station March, 1901, to be returned March, 1906.

In 1904 it had 150 adults and 66 fawns, making a total of 216 deer. In 1905 it had 194 adults, 96 fawns, making a total of 290.

Cost to the Government for supplies: 1904, nothing; 1905, nothing.

Cost to the Government for superintending herds: 1904, $500; 1905, $500.

SUMMARY.

The present status of the mission herds is summed up in the three tables following:

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Total..

2, 178

3,711

6,042

2,543

8,585

Cost to the Government for reindeer herds at mission stations, 1905.

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a For one year an allowance for supplies was made to the herders on account of driving the herd from Wales to Deering.

o For transferring herd to colony.

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Gambell (St. Lawrence Island).-During the summer of 1900, 70 reindeer from Siberia were landed at St. Lawrence Island.

Mr. Sheldon Jackson, the general agent of education in Alaska, before employment by the Bureau of Education in 1885 had labored to establish Presbyterian missions for natives in southeast Alaska.

When the reindeer experiment began he selected St. Lawrence Island and Point Barrow, and at his suggestion he was authorized by the Commissioner to offer reindeer herds to the Presbyterian missions at these two places. The Presbyterian Board of Home Missions in New York, however, found it impossible to accept the loan in either

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