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necessity, are, however, so great and varied that, as has been repeatedly emphasized, it is possible to pension primarily only widows and minor orphans, and to consider only exceptionally the needs of surviving sons and daughters over 21 years of age as well as other relicts of university teachers.

"If by the provision of $12 of the statutes and by the regulations approved above the widows and minor orphans are extraordinarily favored at Goettingen, and if, on the other hand, as has been previously emphasized by you, there are numerous other needy relicts, it seems preferable that in such cases relief should be given, not from the central fund, but from the auxiliary fund.

"There is at present no occasion for pension increase of actual widows without regard to actual necessity, inasmuch as these have just been essentially favored by an increase in the widows' allowance from 1,240 to 1,400 marks and the addition of sufficient allowance for orphans.

"Accordingly I desire that the revenue of the auxiliary fund, waiving the above-mentioned increases, be used primarily and without further limitation for the relief of needy relicts of university teachers of Goettingen. To the extent in which this revenue shall not be exhausted by this, I am inclined, upon motion to this effect, to grant its use for the increase of pensions. On the other hand, I am quite ready to take under consideration the granting of additional relief from chapter 119, section 15a, should the revenues of the auxiliary fund prove insufficient to grant the necessary relief without reference to the continuance of relief heretofore granted from the central (diesseitigen) fund.

"I have no criticism against the proposition that the granting of relief from the revenues of the auxiliary fund by the executive committee shall be made with your approval."

5. THE ROYAL UNIVERSITY OF GREIFSWALD.

At Greifswald a widows' fund has existed for the professors since 1734. The first statutes of the new institution for the care of widows and orphans at Greifswald, of October 26, 1847, bearing Government approval, were supplanted by new statutes on December 4, 1878. In accordance with these, all ordinary and extraordinary professors were officially held to become members of the institute. However, membership of the institution was also granted to the academic prefect, the judge of the university, the academic forester, the academic purser, and the secretary of the university. Moreover, limited participation in the institution was permitted to the clerk of the university and to the bedels. In accordance with the ministerial decree of January 15, 1885, the further admission of officials of the university was to exclude all allowances of relief from funds of the state. The annual fee of regular members was 72 marks. The widows were allowed annual pensions of 1,200 marks, and the orphans (full and half orphans) stipends of 300 to 1,200 marks.

The statutes now in force and approved by the minister of religious, educational, and medical affairs under date of September 19, 1889, are as follows:

Statutes of the Professors' Widows and Orphans' Pension Institute of the Royal University of Griefswald.

I. MEMBERSHIP.

§1. The following provisions shall apply to the membership of the Professors' Widows and Orphans' Pension Institute of the University of Greifswald: Nos. 1, 2, and 3. As above, page 135 (Berlin).

IL ALLOWANCES OF THE RELICTS OF MEMBERS.

§§2 to 8. As above, page 135 (Berlin).

III. DISCONTINUANCE OF FEES.

$9. As above, page 140 (Bonn).

a These pension amounts were not statutory, but rested upon special temporary approval of the ministry. Compare the ministerial decree of March 15, 1889, under note 12, p. 38.

Paragraphs not printed agree literally with the corresponding paragraphs of the statutes of the University of Berlin.

IV. TRANSITION REGULATIONS.

§10. The regulations of §§ 2, 3, and 5 to 8, clause 1, apply also to the relicts of those who may be members at the time of the adoption of these statutes if these members in a written declaration, to be handed to the executive committee on or before the 1st of January, 1890, renounce for their prospective relicts all claims that might accrue to them under the statutes heretofore in force. In this case the now pensioned academic prefect and the chief forester, taking the place of the former academic forester, shall hold the rank of ordinary professors; the university purser, the secretary of the university, and the former secretary of the university, now occupying the position of questor, shall hold the rank of extraordinary professors, and the one-third part of the statutory benefits assigned to the clerk of the university and to the bedels shall be fixed on the basis of amounts due to ordinary professors.

Otherwise the provisions of the statutes heretofore in force shall apply to these relicts."

§ 11. As above, page 140 (Bonn).

§ 12. As above, page 140 (Berlin).

V. PRIVILEGES OF THE INSTITUTION.

§13. As above, page 136 (Berlin).

VI. PROPERTY OF THE INSTITUTION.

§14. The property of the institution heretofore in its possession, as well as the statutory annual allowance of 5,181 marks from the funds of the university, shall continue under its control.

The remaining divisions of this section as given above, with the following addition to the last division: In future the shares of the institution from promotion and other fees shall be transferred to the exchequer of the university. § 15. As above, page 141 (Bonn).

VII. ADMINISTRATION OF THE INSTITUTION.

§§ 16 and 17. As above, page 136.

§ 18. As above, page 136, except that the report is transmitted for inspection. etc., to the curator of the university instead of the minister of religious, etc., affairs.

§§ 19 and 20. As above, page 136 (Berlin).

VIII. MEETINGS OF MEMBERS.

§§ 21 to 23. As above, page 137 (Berlin).

IX. AMENDMENTS OF STATUTES.

$24. As above, page 137 (Berlin).

X. CONCLUSION.

$25. These statutes shall take effect on April 1, 1889.

On the day designated above the statutes of December 14, 1878, cease to have effect, in so far as they are not kept in force by §§ 10 to 20.

6. ROYAL COMBINED FREDERICK UNIVERSITY OF HALLE-WITTENBERG.

Under the statute of March 23, 1824, approved by the Government, a new institution for the care of widows and orphans was organized for the University

Compare the decree of the minister of religions, etc., affairs of the 15th of March, 1889, directed to the curator of the university (II. I. No. 9478 II): "In reply to the report of the 28th of November of last year, I approve the resolution of the general assembly of the members of the institution for the care of widows and orphans at Greifswald granting that the increase of widows' pensions to 1,200, respectively, 400 marks, which expires on the 1st of April of the current year, be extended to the 1st of April, 1890. In order to cover possible deficiencies, the 2,000 marks provided in Section II under expenses of the former professors' widows fund for the current year are to be used first. The interest-bearing investment of this sum, which would prevent the immediate availability of the same, is therefore for the present to be postponed."

at Halle. The old widows' fund of Halle of the year 1777, as well as the widows' fund of Wittenberg, was combined with the new fund. In accordance with the statutes, supplemented in the meanwhile by amendments on April 12, 1869, and on June 20, 1871, all ordinary and extraordinary professors, as well as the librarians of the university and the prosector, in so far as they held equal rank with the extraordinary professors, were ex officio members of the institution. Only those teachers of the university that held their professorship as a secondary office and the nonsalaried extraordinaries were excluded. The annual membership fee was 72 marks, for which an annual pension of 1,080 marks was granted to widows and stipends of 270 to 1,080 marks to orphans (full and half orphans).

With April 1, 1889, the following statutes, approved by the minister of religious, educational, and medical affairs, under date of December 17, 1889, went into effect:

Statutes of the professors' widows and orphans' pension institute of the royal combined Frederick University of Halle-Wittenberg.

I. MEMBERSHIP.

§1. The following provisions shall apply to the membership of the professors' widows and orphans' pension institute for the University of Halle-Wittenberg: Remainder of this paragraph as above (Berlin).

II. ALLOWANCES OF THE RELICTS OF MEMBERS.

§§ 2 to 8. As above, page 135 (Berlin).

III. DISCONTINUANCE OF FEES.

89. Persons who shall obtain membership after the adoption of these statutes shall not be required to issue drafts therefor.

IV. TRANSITION REGULATIONS.

§§ 10 and 11. As above, page 140 (Bonn), except the proviso of the first subdivision of §10, which reads as follows: "Provided, however, That the director of the library shall hold rank with the ordinary professors and the questor and secretary of the university with the extraordinary professors." a

§ 12. As above, page 136 (Berlin).

V. PRIVILEGES OF THE INSTITUTION.

§13. The institution is a public institution and enjoys the privileges of a corporation.

Particularly, shall be competent to acquire gifts and legacies in accordance with statutory requirements.

V. PROPERTY OF THE INSTITUTION.

$14. The property of the institution heretofore in its possession shall continue under its control, as well as the statutory allowance of 3,000 marks by the State.

The remaining two subdivisions of this paragraph as given above, with the following addition at the lose: The shares of the institution from fees for certificates of graduation, etc., shall hereafter be turned over to the exchequer of the university.

§ 15. As above, page 141 (Bonn).

a The provision contained in the second subdivision of $10 has been amended as follows with regard to those members who may have failed to make the renunciatory declaration indicated in the first subdivision of $10:

"The widows of these members shall draw an annual pension of 1,200 marks in quarterly installments in advance, beginning on the day when they shall cease to enjoy the salary or the pension of their husbands. Furthermore, there shall be allowed to a half orphan 300 marks; to two half orphans, 500 marks; to three or more half orphans, 600 marks; to full orphans, double these amounts, payable quarterly in advance until the completed twenty-first year of life, respectively, until the male orphan shall be provided for or the female orphan married."

VII. ADMINISTRATION OF THE INSTITUTION.

§§ 16 to 20. As above, page 141 (Bonn).

VIII. MEETINGS.

(§§ 21 to 23. As above, page 137 (Berlin).

IX. AMENDMENTS OF STATUTES.

$24. As above, page 137 (Berlin).

X. CONCLUSION.

$25. These statutes shall take effect on April 1, 1889.

On the day designated in the above subdivision, the revised statutes of March 23, 1824, together with all amendments thereof, shall cease to have effect in so far as it is not kept in force by §§10 to 12.

In addition to this public provision there exists for needy relicts of professors of the University of Halle-Wittenberg the William and Augusta fund, which amounts at present to a little over 10,000 marks, having resulted, with the exception of the initial capital, from annual contributions by the instructors of the university.

On the occasion of the celebration of the golden wedding of Their Majesties the Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia William I and the Empress and Queen Augusta, on June 1, 1879, a collection was made among the professors of the university for the establishment of a fund which, under the name of the William and Augusta fund, should permanently serve the purpose of furnishing support to needy relicts of ordinary and extraordinary professors of the university.

દે The proceeds of this collection, amounting to 3,345 marks, were transferred by the donors as a gift to university institution for the care of widows and orphans under the following conditions:

$1. The university institution for the care of widows and orphans assumes the obligation of administering the fund of 3,345 marks, as well as all subsequent additions to the fund, together with its other assets and in accordance with the same principles but as an independent auxiliary fund, for the purposes indicated in the following provisions.

§2. Allowances shall be granted only for one year each and only from the interest of the current year.

§3. Until the assets of the fund shall have reached the amount of 10,000 marks, allowances shall be admissible only in cases of most urgent necessity.

§4. Allowances shall be made by the unanimous vote of a committee, consisting of the rector, as chairman, and four members. The latter shall be chosen at first by all the founders. Eventual vacancies shall be filled by the committee, by relative majority of votes. In case of a tie vote the decision shall be made by lot.

§5. Amendments of the statutes, with the reservation of ministerial approval, shall be subject to all the ordinary and extraordinary professors of the university; two-thirds of these shall constitute a quorum, and a majority of twothirds of these shall decide.

7. THE ROYAL CHRISTIAN-ALBRECHT UNIVERSITY OF KIEL.

A fund for professors' widows had been established at the University of Kiel by the confirmation of the plan for its creation by Christian VII, King of Denmark, on November 11, 1785. This confirmation received an appendix on July 29, 1796.

All actual salaried, ordinary, and extraordinary professors were under obligation to become members of this fund. These had to contribute a yearly fee of two-thirds of one per cent of their salaries. For this the widows received an annual pension of 180 marks and annually a variable additional allowance, which in the year 1888 amounted to 352 marks, from the surplus. In addition to this each widow drew an annual pension of 288 marks from the grand ducal widows' fund.

With the 1st of April, 1889, the following statutes, approved in a decree of the minister of religious, etc., affairs under date of November 20, 1889, went into effect.

Statutes of the professors' widows and orphans' pension institute of the Royal Christian-Albrecht University of Kiel.

I. MEMBERSHIP.

§1. The following provisions shall determine the membership of the fund for professors' widows established at Kiel since November 11, 1785, and which hereafter shall be known as the professors' widows and orphans' pension institute.

The remainder of this paragraph as above, page 135 (Berlin).

IL ALLOWANCES OF RELICTS.

§§2 to 3. As above, page 135 (Berlin).

IIL DISCONTINUANCE OF FEES.

$9. Persons who may have become members after the adoption of these statutes shall pay no entrance or other fees.

IV. TRANSITION PROVISIONS.

$10. The provisions of §§2, 3, and 5 to clause 1 of §8 shall apply also to the relicts of those who may be members at the time of the adoption of these statutes, if these members, in a written declaration, to be handed in to the executive committee of the institute on or before December 1, 1889, shall renounce for their prospective relicts all claims that might accrue to them in accordance with the statutes heretofore in effect.

§ 11. As above, page 136 (Berlin).

$12. The claims of the relicts of members deceased before the adoption of these statutes shall be adjudged according to the statutes heretofore operative and in accordance with the provisions of $10, subparagraph 2.

V. PRIVILEGES OF THE INSTITUTION.

§ 13. As above, page 136 (Berlin).

VI. PROPERTY OF THE INSTITUTION.

§§ 14 and 15. As above, page 136 (Berlin), except that § 15 prescribes the approval of the curator of the university instead of the minister of religious, etc., affairs.

VII. ADMINISTRATION OF THE INSTITUTION.

§§16 to 20. As above, page 136 (Berlin), except that §18 designates the curator of the university instead of the minister of religious, etc., affairs as the person to whom report is to be made.

VIII. MEETINGS OF MEMBERS.

§§ 21 to 23. As above, page 137 (Berlin).

IX. AMENDMENT OF STATUTES.

§24. As above, page 137 (Berlin).

X. CONCLUSION.

$25. These statutes shall take effect on April 1, 1889.

On this day the statutes heretofore in force (confirmation of the plan for the establishment of a distinct fund for professors' widows at the University of Kiel, dated November 11, 1785, with appendix of July 29, 1796), cease to have effect in so far as they are not sustained by $$10 to 12.

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