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pheth; and to them we un- father or leader of the Leleges, doubtedly owe the rudiments came froin Egypt. The Peof all the fine arts. As for loponnesus was for the most the four great empires, the part peopled by Dorians; and first, or Babylonian, was clearly the Leleges established them. founded by Nimrod, after he selves in Megara. In short, had expelled or reduced to the most celebrated leaders of slavery the sons of Shem, who the Grecian colonies, such as were originally settled in that Danaus, Erectheus, Cecrops, country. The second may pos- Cadmus, and Phoenix, all came şibly have been vested in the from Egypt. Hence it is manline of Shem, though even that ifest, that the Greeks were, point is far from being satis. strictly speaking, an Egyptian factorily established: but the nation, and consequently not third, or the Grecian, if any the descendants of Japheth, but credit be due to history, was of Ham. Horæ Mosaice of erected not by the descendants Faber. of Japheth, but by those of THISBE, the country of Ham. Greece might probably Tobit, i, 2. It was to the right have been first peopled by Ja- hand, that is, to the south of the pheth; but those aborigines were city of Kadesh, the capital of soon conquered, and either ex- Naphtali. Some have thought tirpated, or incorporated with that Elijah the Tishbite was a a totally different race. It is native of the city of Thisbe in impossible to derive the latter, Galilee: but that he had been Greeks, so celebrated to this for a long time an inhabitant day for their proficiency in the of the country of Gilead: “E. arts and sciences, from the line lijah, the Tishbite, who was of of Japheth, unless we contradict the inhabitants of Gilead," 1 the whole tenor of history. Di. Kings xvii, 1. odorus Siculus asserts, that THREE TAVERNS, a some of the original leaders of place thirty-three_miles south the Athenians were Egyptians; from the city of Rome, where and that the Athenians them. probably there

three selves, were a' colony from houses of entertainment. Acts Sais in Egypt. Herodotus xxviii, 15. Lat. 41, 30. speaks in a similar manner of THYATIRA, a city, which the Dorians, and Pausanias some ascribe to Mysia, and gives the same account of the others to Lydia, or to Asia Megareans. Lelex also, the Minor, because it is upon the


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frontiers of these three provin. Thyatira was, to whom these ces. This is what St. John words are directed. But the says in his revelation, ch. ii, following account from one 18, 19, &c. “To the bishop or who has visited the place, may angel of Thyatira: "I know be interesting to the Christian thy works, and charity, and reader, We passed on, says service, and faith, and thy pa. he, south-east from Pergamus, tience, and thy works, and the through the plains, with hopes last to be more than the first: to find some ruins on the north notwithstanding, I have a few side of the Phrygian river, (the things against thee, because Hermus) and being guided by thou sufferest that woman Jez. Ferrarius, who placed Thyatira ebel, who calleth herself a between Sardis and Pergamus, prophetess, to teach and se- viz. thirty miles from Sardis, duce my servants to commit and eighteen from Pergamus. fornication, and to eat things Toward the south is a ridge of sacrificed unto idols: and I hills; on the other side of which, gave her space to repent of her in the way to Sardis, stands fornication, and she repented the city Thyatira, a colony of not. Behold I will cast her the Macedonians. When we into a bed, and them that com- supposed ourselves near to the mit adultery with her into great place, which they called Mor. tribulation, except they repent mor, or marble, from the large of their deeds: and I will kill quarries, which exist there, and her children with death; and are the finest and whitest veins all the churches shall know, I ever beheld; of which there that I am he that searches the remained certain ruined houses; reins and the hearts: and I will evidently modern, as we undergive unto every one of you ac- stood afterwards, they had been cording to your works. But deserted by the inhabitants, unto you I say, and unto the who removed thence to a more rest in Thyatira, as many as commodious situation, not far bave not this doctrine, and distant, which they denominatwhich have not known the ed from the white marble rocks depths of Satan, as they speak, of their old habitation Akhisar, I will put upon you none oth- or white castle. To that place, er burden, but ihat which ye being about five English miles, have already; hold fast till I we bent our course, and found come, &c."

It is not known a city well inhabited, and conwho the angel or bishop of siderable for the trade of cot


At our entrance, casting The town itself receives so full our eyes on pillars and broken a stream from a neighboring stones, with rare sculptures, hill, as is divided according to and on inscriptions, which the report of the inhabitants, inat a distance were so fair, that to 3700 rivulets, so that every they seemed almost legible; house flows, and every street is we immediately apprehended, supplied, with full channels of that this must have been the delightful waters. The air is ancient Thyatira, which was wholesome, and the country more assuredly confirmed, so round rich and delightful, and soon as we read an inscription, agreeable to the foundation of on what we took for a pedestal so renowned a cicy, which, as it of a pillar, in the midst of the flourishes with trade, is more market place, which served to happy, than her desolate and support the new buildings. The comfortless sisters. Thyatira inscription in English begins is 48 miles south-east Pergathus; "The most potent coun- mo, on a beautiful plain, 17 cils of the Thyatireans, &c.” miles in extent, sown with corn Proceeding forwards we found and cotton. It is inhabited by the stone of a sepulchre, of about 5000 Turks, who have which a tanner made use, filled eight mosques. Amid so many with hides and lime, and on inhabitants, so many mosques, which there was an inscription so many mighty ruins of formentioning likewise, the “most mer magnificence, not a single potent and most great city of church of Christ remains, not the Thyatireans." We found a single person, unless it be a also on a large sepulchre, plac- few slaves, pretends to the ed in an open court, belong- Christian name.

So fatally, so ing to a Turk of quality, in literally is the Divine threatenanother inscription, mention of ing executed, “I will kill her the “most excellent city of children; I will give unto evethe Thyatireans;” with others ry one according to their to the same purpose.

works.” Long. 28, 30, east, The city Akhisar, or Thya- lat. 38, 48, north. Seally. tira, is situated near to that riv. The present state of the seven er, which Pliny calls the Ly- churches addressed in the rev. cas; which though it waters elation of St. John, is as seven not the town, yet it improves pillars to support the Divine auand fertilizes those pleasant thority of scripture prophecy. plains, through which it runs. Concerning these places, a

traveller, Thomas Smith, B.D. shall not here lament the sad who had visited them himself, reverses and vicissitudes of makes the following serious things, and the usual changes and sensible observations. “By and chances of mortal life, nor this short and imperfect sur- upbraid the Grecks of luxvey, the curious reader may be ury and stupidity, which have sadly convinced, in what a de. brought these horrid desolaplorable condition, these once tions upon their country; these famous and glorious churches are very useful, but very ordi. of Asia are at this day; churches nary speculations. That which which had the apostles for their affected me with the deepest founders, and which yielded so anguish, and most sorrowful many martyrs, and which a- resentinent, when I was upon bounded with so many myriads the place, and does still, was and of Christians, whose patience is a reflection upon the threatand valor triumphed over the ening made against Ephesus, in tyranny, the malice, and the the second chapter of the Revehatred of their heathen perse- lations of St. John, who made cutors, and which afterward, his abode in that ciry, and died when the empire became Chris- there. Remember from whence tian, and the civil power sub- thou art fallen, and do the first mitted itself to the law and dis. works, or else I will come unto cipline of Christ, and when the thee quichly, and will remove cross, which before was had in thy candlestick out of its place, such execration, was held the except thou repent. And upon highest ornament of the crown, a farther and more serious conadvanced in splendor and glory sideration, as I sorrowfully above what they had enjoyed in walked through the ruins of that the times of heathenism, and city, especially, I concluded which upon a due considera- most agreeably, not only to my tion of the circumstances, one function, but to the nature of might trulyenoughjudge should the thing, and I am confident have been eternal, and placed that no wise or good man, who almost out of all possibility of shall cast his eyes upon these of danger and ruin, now turned loose and hasty observations, into heaps of rubbish; scarce will deny the conclusion to be one stone left upon another, just and true, that the sild and some of them utterly uninhab- direful calamities, whi h have ited, and the remains of all hor- involved these Asian churches, ribly frightful and amazing. I ought to proclaim to the pres.

ent flourishing churches of sea of Tiberias. It is thought Christendom, as much as if that its old name was Cinnean angel were, sent express reth, or Hamath, or Emath, or from heaven to denounce the Rakkath,or Reccath. ButReland judgment, what they are to ex- shows, that this is very doubtpect, and what may be their ful, and is only founded

upon case one day, if they follow this, that the sea of Cinnereth, their evil example, that their was afterwards called the sea of candlestick may be removed too, Tiberias; which by no means

except they repent and do their proves that Cinnereth and Ti. · first works; and that their se- berias were the same. Be

curity lies not so much in the sides, he observes, that the por. strength of their frontiers, and tion of Naphtali did not begin the greatness of their armies, towards the south, but at Ca. for neither of these could de- pernaum, which is more to the fend the Eastern Christians north than Tiberias, and yet from the invasion and fury of Cinnereth, Hamath, or Rák. the Saracens and Turks, as in kath, belong to the portion of their mutual agreements, and Naphtali, Joshua xix, 35, Tiin the virtues of a Christian berias therefore, could not, life.” At present this place is since it is known that it was a miserable village, the houses quite to the south of the lake are of mud and turf, low and of Tiberias. See Cinnereth.

The Turks here are Josephus acquaints us, that about five thousand, who have this city was built by Herod six or seven mosques; but here Agrippa, in honor of the emstill are no Christians, except. peror Tiberias. Its convenient ing a few slaves, and inferior situation soon rendered it a workmen, employed in the cot- considerable city, so that in a ton factory, which furnishes the short time it became the capprincipal employment of the ital of all Galilee. In the time place. It stands 26 miles N. of the Jewish wars, Josephus of Sardis, 56 N. E. from Smyr- took possession of this city,

Lat. 38, 48. Long. 28, 6. and defended it bravely for

Rycaut, Spon, &c. some time: but being taken TIBERIAS, a famous city by Vespasian, part of its walls of Galilee, situated at the south- was beat down, and the city ern extremity, and upon the otherwise greatly demolished. western shore of the lake of Ge. In the days of its prosperity nesareth, otherwise called the this city had thirteen syna



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