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consequences flowing from it! We would fain have introduced our readers to the Hamilton family, in which is realised the beneficial effects of a judiciously-regulated home; but we must forbear. There is the less cause for regret since the work is within the reach of all, and, indeed, ought to be in the hands of all who are interested in the proper training of the youthful mind.

Daily BIBLE ILLUSTRATIONS. By John Kitto, D.D. Vols. I. and II.

Edinburgh: William Oliphant & Sons. There is certainly no lack of helps to the understanding of the Bible. There are “notes” and “commentaries” of all degrees of excellence, whose object is to unfold the doctrines of the book, expatiate upon its promises, and enforce its preceptive parts. There are, besides, several works constructed on different principles, but, though by a different course, they seek to guide the reader to the same goal—the better understanding, and the higher appreciation of the Book of God. These last arrange certain portions of Holy Scripture to be used daily in the closet or in the family; or they contain devout reflections on certain portions or events to strengthen the faith, stimulate the zeal, and excite the hope of the reader. To this class belong the volumes under notice; and it would be but scanty praise to say that they are the best of their kind, for, in truth, this class of religious works do not occupy a high place.

Of this class generally, there may be little ground to affirm that they are unsound in doctrine, or devoid of devout earnestness; but there can be no question that they are but sparingly imbued with other qualities, which are quite essential to the growth of the Christian mind, and the fitting of the Christian man to occupy his place, and to do his part in the day in which we live. The writers seem to have had but little anxiety, perhaps none at all, if we may judge from their productions, about the cultivation and development of the intellect; and hence all those questions that have a bearing on other departments of truth, that require profound and prolonged thought, the consideration of which might lead to the merest divergence from the beaten path of a cold, inflexible formalism, are ignored. We are aware that the seat of religion is the heart; but a heart excited and heated by the presence and operation of a strong religious feeling, dissociated from a mind well-informed, and an intellect well-cultivated, may make a restless enthusiast and helpless fanatic, but it will furnish a Christian man, far below the stature, to which he should, surrounded as he is by so many advantages, have attained. He is neither a proper representative of the Christian character, nor is he likely to do the necessary Christian work. Dr Kitto entertains a high idea of the Christian character, and perceives the importance and peculiar difficulties of the Christian's work. This undertaking—the Daily Bible Illustrations—has been conceived, planned, and is, so far as yet published, executed under a deep conviction, that food of a stronger and more substantial kind must be provided, that this character may be fully developed, and that the friends of the Bible may be better fitted to serve their day. The conception of the idea is beautiful, appropriate, and timeous; the execution of it is, to our judgment and taste, felicitous, able, and satisfactory.sion of municipal rights, for civil equality, and for seeurity to credit and property, treated with all the insolence of despotic power, and exposed to all the horrors of civilised savageism. The heart of humanity bleeds in beholding such a scene; and, as sure as God is just, Austrian treachery and atrocity shall yet meet their desert.

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Hungarian grievances have been long felt, and long and deeply working in the national mind. A combination of circumstances—some existing within, and others coming from without-brought matters to a crisis. Just at this time the author of this work arrived in the country. All was bustle and excitement for the present; they were strong in the national unity and loyalty of the past; hope brightened the future. No time could have been more propitious, no circumstances more favourable than these, to enable an intelligent on-looker to form an accurate idea of this noble people and the preparations being made to meet the coming conflict.

In the first Lecture, Mr Clarke, after giving an account of the journey to his place of destination, furnishes a spirited epitome of Hungarian history. The second is devoted to the Diet of 1847-8; while the third is entitled the Conflict, and describes the animated scene when the Magyars took to arms. In forming an opinion of this work, it must be remembered that the Lectures have been printed as delivered, and that the space at the author's disposal was very limited. Notwithstanding these drawbacks, he has produced a work of considerable interest. It breathes a strong, but not a blind sympathy with the high-minded and chivalrous Magyars: it gives a just representation of their character, their complaints, and their claims; it gathers up, with ability, the scattered elements of indignant resistance, and presents them, arrayed in firm phalanx, against the power of the oppressor. The author left Hungary just when the conflict had begun; and, consequently, his work does not contain an account of the war, and its disastrous termination; it only brings the reader up to the conflict. The author appears to us to have done himself great injustice by casting his lectures into such a mould. In taking the reader, if we may so say, into his confidence, and making the scene pass pictorially before him, two evils have been produced: Description, in itself admirable, passes too much into detail, giving to the work the character of daintiness, rather than of strength; and an air of egotism is thrown over the whole, foreign to the modesty of the amiable author, and not a little injurious to the character of the work. To those, however, who wish to have a brief, accurate, and interesting view of Hungarian affairs, up to the time when the patriotic feeling became thoroughly roused, and the rush to arms became universal, this work will be a great acquisition.

VIEWS OF NATURE: or Contemplations on the Sublime Phenomena of

Creation; with Scientific Illustrations. By ALEXANDER Von HumBOLDT. London: H. G. Bohn.

This is a beautiful edition of Baron Humboldt's valuable work. It was originally composed when the distinguished author had more of the elasticity of youth than he has now; he carries his enthusiasm with him into extreme age. But it has undergone careful revisal, and received in the process all the advantages of greatly enlarged experience and matured consideration. Here are found the principles on which his great work, the “ Cosmos," is based, though not arranged into system. It is interesting thus to have the opportunity of tracing the working, and growth, and expanding of a great mind; and though the exercise may lead us to feel how dwarfish most minds are in comparison, yet it is wholesome and stimulating. The volume is enriched with most valuable notes, embodying the results of the more recent researches and discoveries of the author. The present translation is admirably done, and the work is altogether a fine specimen of the very useful series which Mr Bohn is at present presenting to the public, at a price so uncommonly low. Every one interested in the progress of human enlightenment, must wish the great undertaking a large measure of success, even though occasionally compelled to take exception to some of its parts.

THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND: from the Earliest Period to the Present

Time. Adapted for Youth, Schools, and Families. By Miss JULIA CORNER. London: Thomas Dean & Son.

Miss Corner's Histories are well known and highly appreciated by many. The present volume, as appears from the title-page, has reached the sixteenth thousand. It has undergone a rigid process of correction, and has added to it a full and accurate Chronological Table. This is a feature of great importance in such a work as this. Were we to criticise, however, we fear that what we might endite would not be unmingled approbation. The work we believe to be executed with ability and no small degree of tact. There is a charm thrown around the succession of subjects that arise in the course of the narrative; and what, in other hands, might have been nothing more than dry and fatiguing detail, in those of Miss Corner assumes the freshness and interest of fiction. But on certain points we are inclined, even in this brief notice, to enter our protest. At page 17, the account given of the introduction of Christianity into England leads the authoress to announce a general principle. Now, we demur to the principle there announced as that in accordance with which Christianity has found its way into and obtained a footing in every country. This may appear a small matter; but it must be remembered that nothing is unimportant that produces first impressions on the minds of youth. On the knotty question of Cromwell and the Commonwealth, Miss Corner is not sound, to our thinking. We admit that she uses not many hard words, but she does what is quite as badwithholds a frank and full acknowledgment of the Protector's merits (as in the case of England's relations with foreign powers), and ascribes to him unmingled motives of ambition. That Cromwell was not ambitious we shall not say; but of this we are sure, that the position which he latterly occupied was reached fully as much by the flow of circumstances as by the development of his ambitious plans.

J, HOGG, PRINTER, NICOLSON STREET, EDINBURGA

THE PALLADIUM.

AUGUST, 1850.

AGRICULTURE AND FREE TRADE. We presume that the great proportion of our readers are satisfied with the general soundness of that axiom of political economy, which states it to be for the individual interest of all, to buy in the cheapest market and to sell in the dearest. Some, however, may have doubts regarding the successful application of this principle to the agricultural productions of the kingdom. Were we to judge solely from the outcry that has been raised, by a portion of the agricultural body, against the liberty lately bestowed as a favour, but received as an inalienable right by manufacturers, who export the produce of their labour and skill, to obtain in exchange for it (if it so please them) the bullocks of Holstein, the flour of France, the wheat of Poland, or the Indian corn from the vale of the Missisippi, we might naturally, if not rationally, suppose that there really was something in the business of growing corn, and in the manufacture of beef and mutton in the rich, fertile, and temperate realms of Queen Victoria, which annihilates that beneficial influence which free trade, or unrestricted competition, has been found to exercise on all other professions. We certainly anticipate that this country will now receive larger and more regular supplies of foreign corn than it has hitherto done, and that the evils attendant on a scarcity of the necessaries of life will be materially diminished, though it is too much to expect that they will ever here or elsewhere be wholly abolished. From our known readiness to receive the surplus produce of the world, we may reasonably calculate on prices being more steadily moderate than we have had any experience of since the beginning of the century; at the same time we are unable to learn from what countries or country we are to obtain those overwhelming supplies that are to drive our own agriculturists from the field.

When we contrast with their opposites in other nations, the amount of capital and scientific skill possessed by our practical farmers—the honesty, activity, and intelligence of our farm-labourers—the genial and temperate climate of Britain, which permits the labours of the field to proceed almost unceasingly every day in the year—we must speedily become sensible of our natural superiority. If industry, intelligence, capital, and climate are worth anything, the prime cost of agricultural produce in Britain must be less than in any country in Europe, or even

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