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quire a knowledge of these works is an essential portion of the great duty of nan. 'Truth secular cannot be separated from truth divine; and if a priesthood has in all ages been ordained to teach and exemplify the one, and to maintain, in ages of darkness and corruption, the vestal fire upon the sacred altar, shall not an intellectual priesthood be organised to develop the glorious truths which time and space embosom—to cast the glance of reason into the dark interior of our globe, teeming with what was once life—to make the dull eye of man sensitive to the planet which twinkles from afar, as well as to the luminary which shines from above--and to incorporate with our inner life those wonders of the external world which appeal with equal power to the affections and to the reason of immortal natures. If the God of Love is most appropriately worshipped in the Christian Temple, the God of Nature may be equally honoured in the Temple of science. Even from its lofty minarets the philosopher may summon the faithful to prayer; and the priest and the sage may exchange altars without the compromise of faith or of knowledge.

Influenced, no doubt, by views like these, Mr Harcourt has cited, in support of this object of the Association, the opinion of a philosopher, whose memory is dear to Scotland, and whose judgment on any great question will be everywhere received with respect and attention:-1 refer to Professor Playfair, the distinguished successor, in our Metropolitan University, of the Gregorys, the Maelaurins, and the Stewarts of former days, who, in his able dissertation “ On the Progress of the Mathematical and Physical Sciences,” thus speaks of the National Institute of France:

“This institution has been of considerable advantage to scienee. To detach a number of ingenions men from everything but scientific pursuits—to deliver them alike from the embarrassments of poverty or the temptations of wealth-to give them a place and station in society the most respectable and independent-is to remove every impediment, and to add erery stimulus to exertion. To this institution, accordingly, operating upon a people of great genius and indefatigable activity of mind, we are to ascribe that superiority in the mathemnatical seienees which, in the last seventy years, has been so conspicuous.”*

This just eulogy on the National Institute of France, in reference to abstract mathematics, may be safely extended to every branch of theoretical and practical science; and I have no hesitation in saying, after having recently seen the Academy of Sciences at its weekly labours, that it is the noblest and most effeetive institution that ever was organised for the promotion of science. Owing to the prevalence of scientific knowledge among all classes of the Freneh population, and to their admirable system of elementary instruction, the advancement of seienee, the diffusion of knowledge, and the extension of education,

are objects dear to every class of the people. The soldier as well as the citizen—the Socialist, the Republican, the Royalist-all look up to the National Institute as a mighty obelisk erected to seienee, to be respected, and loved, and defended by al} We have seen it standing, unshaken and active, amid all the re. volutious and convulsions which have so long agitated that noble but distraeted coun: try-a common centre of affection, to which antagonist opinions, and rival interests, and dissevered hearts, have peacefully converged. It thus becomes an institution of order, calculated to send baek to its contending friends a message of union and peace, and to replace in stable equilibrium the tottering institutions of the state.

It was, doubtless, with views like these that the great Colbert established the Academy of Sciences in Paris, and that the powerful and sagacious monarchs on the Continent of Europe have imitated his example. They have established in their respective capitals similar institutions they have sustained them with liberal endowments—they have conferred rank and honours on their more eminent members; and there are now in this assembly distinguished foreigners who have well earned the rewards and distinctions they have received. It is, therefore, gentlemen, no extravagant opinion, that institutions which have thus thriven in other countries should thrive in ours

that insulated soeieties, which elsewhere flourish in combination, should, when combined, flourish among us--and that men, ordained by the state to the undivided functions of science, should do more and better work than those who snatch an hour or two from their daily toil, or from their nightly rest.

In a great nation like ours, where the higher interests and objects of the state are necessarily organised, it is a singular anomaly that the intelleetual interests of the country should, in a great measure, be left to voluntary support and individual zeal

* Encyclopædia Britannica, Diss. 3d, sec. 5, p. 500.

-an anomaly that could have arisen only from the ignorance or supineness of everchanging administrations, and from the intelligence and liberality of a commercial people—an anomaly, too, that could have been continued only by the excellence of the institutions they had founded. In the history of no eivilised people can we find private establishments so generously fostered, so energetically conducted, and so successful in their objects, as the Royal Societies of London, Edinburgh, and Dublin, and the Astronomical, Geologieal, Zoological, and Linnean Societies of the metropolis. They are institutions that do honour to the nation, and they will ever be gratefully remembered in the history of science. But they are nevertheless defective in their constitution, limited in their operation, and incapable, from their very nature, of developing, and directing, and rewarding the indigenous talent of the country. They are simply subscription societies, which pay for the publication of their own transactions, and adjudieate medals entrusted to them by the beneficence of others. They are not bound to the exercise of any other function, and they are under no obligation to do the scientific work of the state, or to promote any of those national objects which are entrusted to the organised institutions of other lands. Their president and council are necessarily resident in London; and the talent and genius of the provinces are excluded from their administration. From this remark we must except the distinguished philosophers of Cambridge and Oxford, who, from their proximity to the capital, have been the brightest ornaments of our metropolitan institutions, and without whose aid they never could have attained their present pre-eminence.

It is, therefore, in the more remote parts of the empire that the influence of a national institution would be more immediately felt, and nowhere more powerfully than in this its northern portion. Our English friends are, we believe, little aware of the obstructions which oppose the progress of science in Scotland. In our five universities, there is not a single fellowship to stimulate the genius and rouse the ambition of the student. The ehureh, the law, and the medical profession hold out no rewards to the cultivators of mathematical and physical science; and were a youthful Newton or Laplace to issue from any of our universities, his best friends would advise him to renounce the divine gift, and to seek in professional toil the well-earned competency whieh ean alope secure him a just position in the social scale, and an enviable felicity in the domestic circle. Did this truth require any evidence in its support, we find it in the notorious fact, that our colleges cannot furnish professors to fill iheir own important offices; and the time is not distant when all our chairs in mathematics, natural philosophy, and even natural history, will be occupied by professors educated in the English universities. But were a Royal Academy or Institute, like that of France, established on the basis of our existing institutions, and a class of resident members enabled to devote themselves wholly to science, the youth of Seotland would instantly start for the prize, and would speedily achieve their full share in the liberality of the State. Our universities would then breathe a more vital air. Our science would put forth new energies, and our literature might rise to the high level at which it stands in our sister land.

But it is to the nation that the greatest advantages would aecrue. With gigantic manufacturing establishments, depending for their perfection and success on mechanics and chemistry--with a royal and commercial marine almost covering the ocean—with steam-ships on every sea- with a system of agriculture leaning upon science as its mainstay--with a net-work of railways, demanding for their improvement, and for the safety of the traveller, and for the remuneration of their publie-spirited projectors, the highest efforts of mechanical skill—the time has now arrived for summoning to the service of the State all the theoretical and practical wisdom of the country—for rousing what is dormant, combining what is insulated, and uniting in one great institution the living talent which is in active but undirected and unbefriended exercise around us.

In thus pleading for the most important of the objects of the British Association, I feel that I am not pleading for a cause that is hopeless. The change has not only commenced, but has made considerable progress. Our scientific institutions have already, to a certain extent, become national ones. Apartments belonging to the nation have been liberally granted to them. Royal medals have been founded, and large sums from the public purse devoted to the objects which they contemplate. The Museum of Economic Geology, indeed, is itself a complete section of a Royal Institute, giving a scientific position to six eminent philosophers, all of whom are distinguished members of the British Association:—and in every branch of science and literature, the liberality of the Crown has been extended to numerous individuals, whose names would have been enrolled among the members of a National Institution. The cause, therefore, is so far advanced; and every act of liberality to eminent men, and every grant of money for scientific and literary purposes, is a distinct step towards its triumph. Our private institutions have in reality assumed the transition phase, and it requires only an electric spark from some sagacious and patriotic statesman to combine in one noble phalanx the scattered elements of our intellectual greatness, and guide to lofty achievements and glorious triumphs, the talent and genius of the nation.

But when such an institution has been completed, the duties of the State to science are not exhausted. It has appreciated knowledge but in its abstract and utilitarian phase. For the peace and happiness of society, it would be of little avail were the great truths of the material world confined to the educated and the wise. The organisation of science, thus limited, would cease to be a blessing. Knowledge, secular and divine, the double current of the intellectual life-blood of man, must not merely descend through the great arteries of the social frame: It must be taken up by the minutest capillaries before it can nourish and purify society. Knowledge is at once the manna and the medicine of our moral being. When crime is the bane, knowledge is the antidote. Society may escape from the pestilence, and survive the famine, but the demon of ignorance, with his grim adjutants of vice and riot, will pursue her into her most peaceful haunts, destroying her institutions, and converting into a wilderness the paradise of social and domestic life. The State has, therefore, a solemn duty to perform. As it punishes crime, it is bound to devise means for its prevention. As it subjects us to laws, it must teach us to read them; and while it thus teaches, it must teach also the ennobling truths which display the power and the wisdom of the great Lawgiver_thus diffusing knowledge while it is extending educa. tion, and thus making men contented, and happy, and humble, while it makes them quiet and obedient subjects.

It is a great problem yet to be solved, to determine what will be the state of society when man's physical powers are highly exalted, and his physical condition highly ameliorated, without any corresponding change in his moral habits and position. There is much reason to fear that every great advance in material civilisation requires some moral and compensatory antagonism; but, however this may be, the very indeterminate character of the problem is a warning to the rulers of nations to prepare for the contingency by a system of national instruction, which shall either reconcile or disregard those hostile influences under which the people are now perishing for lack of knowledge. (The address was listened to with the deepest attention, and was at intervals loudly applauded.)

The Association was divided into six sections, each of which had a President, VicePresidents, and Secretaries, with a standing Committee. All the sections met on the first day of August, at the same hour (11 o'clock), and were all accommodated in the different class-rooms in the College.

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MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS

Lord Wrottesley occupied the chair in this section ; and business commenced with Mr Ronald's report on the observations and experiments at the Kew Observatory. The Rev. Professor Powell read a paper on Luminous Meteors, being a continuation of the Report given in at the last meeting at Birmingham; and Mr W.J.

M. Rankine brought forward an able paper on the laws of the elasticity of solids. The Rev. Dr Scoresby next read a most interesting paper on Atlantic waves their magnitude, velocity, and phenomena. These observations were made on board the steamer Cambria, in March, 1848, on her passage between Liverpool and New York. The advantages of a steamer over a sailing vessel for such observations were great. The latter was acted on so as to roll before

the wind, so that her position was not level in the trough of the sea. In a large steamer the paddle-boxes tend to bring back the ship to a level when rolling, so that, in the

Cambria, he was quite sure that a perfect level was maintained for several seconds. He had three places of observation Ist, the ordinary deck ; 23, the top of the saloon or cuddy ; and 3d, the paddle-boxes. The height of the saloon or cuddy was 231 feet above the line of floatation of the ship in calm water, and the height of the observer's eye on the paddle-boxes, above the same line, was so] feet. His observations were made in lat. 51 deg. N. long. 38 deg. 50 min. W., and the wind

W.S.W. Most of the waves were above 24 feet, and at least one-half were up to the level of 30 feet above the trough of the sea. After it had blown hard for 36 hours, and after the storm had subsided a little, he still saw ten waves more than 26 feet above the trough. His mode of measuring depending upon the distance of the wave, and the angle of elevation, could be quite depended upon. He also noted the periods taken by the waves in overtaking the ship, having reckoned 20 waves to have passed in 54 minutes. The average of several was 164, seconds. He also found that the time of a regular wave passing from stem to stern of the ship (which was 220 feet long) was 6 seconds. The height of the highest crest was 45 feet from the trough, and the distance of two crests (that is the length of a wave) was 600 feet. The form and character of secondary waves are modified by the inequality of the power pro. ducing the wave, viz., the action of the wind, for neither the direction nor velocity of the wind ever remain the same. Thus the inequalities are produced, especially in elevation. During the height of the gale, the forms of the waves were less regular than after a little subsidence.

Professor J. Forbes presided the second day.

Mr Follett Osler gave a notice of the working of the new Integrating Anemometer. He had now adopted Dr Robinson's plan for quantity, which he considered superior to his own.

The distance the paper passes over now shows the quantity of air which passes in a given time. For example, one inch of paper represents ten miles of air. A clock strikes off the hour on the paper. By these improvements, we are enabled, by one line, to observe the direction of the wind, the length of the current passing, and the time of passing. It is very desirable to bave observations on larger areas, or over greater ranges. On arriving in Edinburgh, he found different currents indi. cated at the Calton Hill from those at Birmingham on Tuesday last. The great currents of the atmosphere should be first traced all over the earth's surface, and afterwards those more local. John Tyndell, Esq., then read a paper on the Magneto-Optic Properties of Crystals ; and Mr J. A. Broun presented four papers on magnetic forces. Sir D. Brewster gave a short notice on the polarising structure of the eye. He referred to the phenomenon called Haidinger's Brushes. These brushes require three different polarising structures in the eye--in fact that the eye should be a polariscope. It was difficult to see the brushes. Professor Stokes had also a communication on the same subject. He had seen the brushes with great facility; and he described their appearances as seen under various circumstances, and at various positions of the spectrum, having traced them over several of Fraunhofer's lines. Mr Clark Maxwell described some experiments on the same subject, which gave rise to an interesting conversation between himself, Sir D. Brewster, Messrs Airy and Stokes. Sir D. Brewster then communicated a short notice by the Rev. C. J. Lyon on some phenomena of mirage on the east coast of Forfarshire. Mr Roberts detailed some experiments on the expansion of glass, wood, and metals, from changes of temperature He described the ingenious apparatus he used. Some metals do not progress regularly, and are, therefore, unfit for pendulum rods. Some woods also contract with heat. Mr Roberts' results differ considerably from those commonly received.

In this section, on the third day of the sittings, a report from the Committee for the measurement of earthquake waves, was read by Robert Mallet, Esq. Colonel Reid communicated a report prepared by J. C. Hunt, Esq., on the meteorology of the Azores. Dr Martins read a paper in French on the climate of France, and was followed by Professor Nicol on the courses of the winds in the region of Glasgow for the last six years. Dr Lee read two papers——the one on certain meteorological observations made at Alton and Christiana, and the other on the British Meteorological Society. T. S. Wells, Esq., gave some particulars regarding the climate of the Valley of the Nile; and among the other papers read were three by M. Thomas Hopkins, and one by R. Russell, Esqs., on the passage of storms across the British Islands.

After communications had been read, on the fourth day, by Professors Phillips and Forbes, and by the Astronomer-Royal, on important but abstruse questions—Mr Nasmyth read a paper on the lunar surface. The study of the moon is a good school for igneous geology. He had observed its surface for ten years, and had made actual drawings from nature. He first adverted to the general character of the features of the lunar surface. It was crowded with ring-formed appearances. There was a great display of these, which he considered to be the result of volcanic action. He had thought much of the causes which could have led to these. There was always a central cone inside the ring, the result of the expiring action of the volcano. When the action was at its height, the materials were thrown up as from a fountain, and, falling down at some distance, formed the circle. He exhibited most beautiful diagrams of these phenomena. Like causes produced similar effects upon the earth—such as among the extinct volcanoes of Auvergne and South America. One that he spoke of was forty five miles diameter. The size was very great, because the moon was small. The gravitation was not one-fourteenth of that of the earth, and thus the eruptive force dealt with light materials. Again, what was the cause of the multitude of volcanic discharges ? The moon had been in a molten state, like the earth; the outer portion had congealed first, producing a crust, which grasped, like a hide, the Huid interior of the moon, which had contracted by cooling. He had made experiments on glass globes, which confirmed his views. There were also great ranges of hills, which might be explained thus :- When the fluid under the crust had contracted a little, the crust was like a brick arch with the centerings removed. The exterior would then fall down, like the rind of a shrivelled apple, forming the mountain ranges. Ridges of mountains would thus be formed by parts of the surface being placed edge on edge. As in the case of the apple, the skin retains its extension, and the wrinkles get the square surface out of the way. These remarks were illustrated by most beautifully executed drawings. Professor Nichol bore testimony to the beauty and faithfulness of the sketches, and stated that the study of the moon might suggest improvements to the geologists, whose views might become too special if confined to one planet. Mr Hopkins stated that he had predicted the striæ from theory some years ago. One class of geologists have supposed that the circular appearances were produced by soulevement. He could not agree with Me Nasmyth as to the mode in which the moon passed from fluid to solid. Was it certain that this could commence in the surface? It would, if cold alone were the cause. But may not pressure at the centre influence the result? The idea was first given by Poisson in the case of the earth, who supposed that the pressure at the centre had more effect than the cold at the surface.

Sir D. Brewster exhibited Talbotypes by Messrs Ross and Thompson, Edinburgh, and by Mr Buckle of Peterborough, of peculiar excellence. The Rev. G. B. Read showed and explained a new solid eye-piece. Professor W. Thompson gave a paper on the theory of magnetic induction. Professor Nichol read a paper on the winds at Glasgow, and Mr J. A. Broun read two papers on the double diurnal maximum and minimum of the atmospheric pressure. On the fifth and last day, there were various papers submitted, among which was a notice, by Sir David Brewster, on the powerful magnets of M. Logeman of Haerlem, on which Dr Scoresby commented at considerable length. The learned President also read papers on the optical properties of cyanuret on magnesia and platina-on the new membrane investing the crystalline lens, illustrated by a diagram, representing an ox's eye the day after slaughter ---and on some phenomena of the polarisation of the atmosphere.

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