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quial tone Jésus, Máster, which is commonly used in reading the passage, and which expressess nothing of the distress and earnestness which prompted this cry. These examples are distinguished from the vocative case, when it merely calls to attention or denotes affection.
14] RULE IX. Emphatic succession of particulars requires the falling slide.* The reason is, that a distinctive utterance is necessary to fix the attention on each particular. The figure asyndeton, or omission of copulatives, especially when it respects clauses, and not single words, belongs to this class; as,
Go and tell John what things ye have seen and heard ; the blind sèe, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hèar, the dead are raised, to the poor the gospel is preached.--Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself; is not puffed up; doth not behave itself unsèemly: seeketh not her own; is not easily provóked; thinketh no èvil.—Thrice was I beaten with ròds; once was I stoned; thrice I suffered shipwreck ; a night and a day have I been in the deep.
In each of these examples, all the pauscs except the last but one, (for the sake of harmony,) require the downward slide. The polysyndeton, requiring a still more deliberate pronunciation, adopts the same slide; as,
Thou shalt love the Lord thy God, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strèngth, and with all thy mind, and thy neighbor as thyself.
Note 1. When the principle of emphatic series interferes with that of the suspending slide, one or the other prevails, according to the nature of the case. When the structure is hypothetical, and yet the sense is such, and so far formed as to admit emphasis, the falling slide prevails, thus :
* The loose sentence, though it does not strictly belong to this rule, commonly coincides with it; because in the appended member or members, marked by the semicolon or colon, a complete sense, at each of these pauses, is so far expressed as generally to admit the falling slide.
And though I have the gift of pròphecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not chárity, I am nothing. But when the series begins a sentence, and each particular hangs on something still to come, for its sense, there is so little emphasis that the rising slide, denoting suspension, is required; thus,
The pains of getting, the fear of lósing, and the inability of enjoying his wealth, have made the miser a mark of satire, in all ages.
Note 2. The principle of emphatic series, may form an exception to Rule III. as,
We are troubled on every side, yet not distressed; perplexed, but not in despàir; pérsecuted, but not forsaken ; cast down, but not destroyed.*
Note 3. Emphatic succession of particulars grows intensive as it goes on; that is, on each succeeding emphatic word, the slide has more stress, and a higher note, than on the preceding; thus,
* All Walker's rules of inflections as to a series of single words, when unemphatic, are in my opinion, worse than useless. No rule of harmonic inflection, that is independent of sentiment, can be established without too much risk of an artificial habit, unless it be this one, that the voice should rise at the last pause before the cadence; and even this may be superseded by emphasis.
should declare the truth of it, I could not believe
The rising slide, on the contrary, as it occurs in an emphatic series of direct questions, rises higher on each particular, as it proceeds.
15] RULE X. Emphatic repetition requires the falling slide.
Whatever inflection is given to a word, in the first instance, when that word is repeated with stress, it demands the falling slide. Thus in Julius Cæsar, Cassius says;
You wròng me every way, you wròng me, Brutus. The word wrong is slightly emphatic, with the falling slide, in the first clause ; but in the second, it requires a double or triple force of voice, with the same slide on a higher note, to express the meaning strongly. But the principle of this rule is more apparent still, when the repeated word changes its inflection. Thus I ask one at a distance, Are you going to Bóston? If he tells me that he did not hear my question, I repeat it with the other slide, Are you going to Bòston ?*
* In colloquial language, the point I am illustrating is quite familiar to every ear.
The teacher calls a pupil by name in the rising inflection, and not being heard, repeats the call in the falling. The answer to such a call, if it is a mere response, is “Sir;" --if it expresses doubt, it is “ Sir.” A question that is not understood is repeated with a louder voice and a change of slide : “Is this your book ? Is this your bòok ? Little children, with their first elements of speech, make this distinction perfectly.
I cannot forbear to say here, though the remark belongs to style more than to delivery, that while it is the province of dulness to repeat the same thoughts or words, from mere carelessness; there is scarcely a more vivid figure of rhetoric than repetition, when it springs from genius and emotion. But as the finest strains of music derive increase of spirit and effect from repetition, so in delivery, increase of emotion demands a correspondent stress and inflection of voice. For this reason, the common method of reading our Saviour's parable of the wise and the foolish builder, with the rising slide on both parts, is much less impressive than that which adopts the falling slide with increase of stress on the series of particulars as repeated.
Whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man which built his house upon a rock : and the rain descended, and the foods cáme, and the winds bléw, and beat upon that house, and it fell nót,-for it was founded upon a rock. And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, that built his house upon the sand : and the rdin descended, and the foods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house, and it féll ;-and great was the fall of it.
16] Rule XI. The final pause requires the falling slide.
That dropping of the voice which denotes the sense to be finished, is so commonly expected by the ear, that the worst readers make a cadence of some sort at the close of a sentence. In respect to this, some general faults may be guarded against, though it is not possible to tell in absolute terms what a good cadence is; because, in different circumstances, it is modified by different principles of elocution. The most common fault in the cadence of bad speakers, consists in dropping the voice too uniformly to the same note. The next consists in dropping it too much. The next, in dropping it too far from the end of the sentence, or beginning the cadence too soon; and another still consists in that feeble and indistinct manner of closing sentences, which is common to men unskilled in managing the voice. We should take care also to mark the difference between that downward turn of the voice which occurs at the falling slide in the middle of a sentence, and that which occurs at the close. The latter is made on a lower note, and if emphasis is absent, with less spirit than the former ; As, “ This heavenly benefactor claims, not the homage of our lips, but of our heàrts : and who can doubt that he is entitled to the homage of our heàrts.” Here the word hearts has the same slide in the middle of the sentence as at the close. Though it has a much lower note in the latter case than in the former.
It must be observed too that the final pause does not always require a cadence. When the strong emphasis with the falling slide comes near the end of a sentence, it turns the voice upward at the close; as, “ If we have no regard to our own character, we ought to have some regard to the character of others.” “You were paid to fight against Alexander, not to ráil at him.” This is a departure from a general rule of elocution ; but it is only one case among many, in which emphasis asserts its supremacy over any other principle that interferes with its claims. Indeed, any one who has given but little attention to this point, would be surprised to observe accurately,