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ARTS, SCIENCES. LITERATURE, HISTORY, POLITICS AND
CAREY AND LEA.
BY G. & C. & H. CARVILL-IN BOSTON BY
CARTER, HENDEE & BABCOCK.
EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, co wit Be !T REMEMBERED, that on the tenth day of August, in the fifty-fourth year of the Independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1829, Carey, Lea & Carey, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit:
“Encyclopædia Americana. A Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, Politics and Biography, brought
down to the present Time; including a copious Collection of Original Articles in American Biography; on the Basis of the scventh Edition of the German Conversations-Lexicon. Edited by Francis Lieber, assisted by E. Wigglesworth."
In conformity to the act of the Congress of the l'nited States, entitled, “ An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned :" and also to the act, entitled, “ An Act supplementary to an act, entitled, * An Åct for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts and books to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times thercin mentioned ;' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving and etching historical and other prints."
Isduction, in logic; a conclusion from treasure for the church, of which the the particular to the general. Strict con- pope has the keys, and is authorized to clusions are made from the general to distribute as much or little as be pleases, the particular. The general premise be- in exchange for pious gifts. The historing true, the application to the particular ical origin of indulgences is traced to the case which is included in it follows with public penances and the canonical punlogical certainty. Induction gives only ishments, which the old Christian church probability. If, for instance, we conclude, imposed on the community, especially from the earth being habitable, that the on those who did not remain firm unto other planets are so, the conclusion is martyrdom. When ecclesiastic discipline only probable. Induction rests upon the became milder, and the clergy more covbelief that general laws and rules are ex- etous, it was allowed to commute these pressed in the particular case ; but a pos- punishments into fines, for the benefit of sibility always remains, that these general the church. At first, the only source of laws and rules are not perfectly known. indulgences was in Rome, and they could An induction may be perfect or imperfect. be obtained only by going there. At To make it perfect, the premises must in- Rome, this treasure of the church was diclude all the grounds that can affect the vided among many churches, of which result. If this is not the case, it is imper- seven principal ones were gifted the most fect. For instance, every terrestrial ani- largely by the popes. These churches mal lives, every aërial animal lives, every were termed stationes indulgentiarum. aquatic animal lives, every reptile lives; One of the richest was the church in the therefore, every animal lives. If we now Lateran, on which were bestowed, at its allow that there exists no animal not in- renewed consecration, as many days of included in the four enumerated classes, the dulgence as the drops which fall in a rain induction is perfect.
continuing three days and three nights. INDULGENCE, in the Roman Catholic The whole treasure of indulgences of the system ; the remission of sin, which the churches in Rome was accordingly inexchurch has power to grant. (We shall haustible. When the popes were in want first give the Protestant, and then the of money, and the number of pilgrims Catholic views on this subject.) The vis- who resorted to Rome to obtain the reible head of the church, the pope, distrib- mission of their sins began to decrease, utes indulgences in various ways. They indulgences were put into the hands of are divided into temporary and plenary. the foreign archbishops and bishops; and, The principle of indulgences rests on that finally, agents were sent about, who made of good works; for the Catholic theologi- them an object of the meanest traffic. ans prove the authority of the church to During the period of jubilee (see Jubilee), issue indulgences in this way :-many the people were taught to believe that the saints and pious men have done more efficacy of indulgences was doubled, and good works, and suffered more than was the richest harvests were always reaped at required for the remission of their sins, this time. Leo X, famous for his love of and the sum of this surplus constitutes a splendor, commenced his reign in 1513;
and, as the building of St. Peter's church ed labor of piety (the visiting of a church, had exhausted his finances, he began the for instance) at the time of the jubilee, sale of indulgences in Germany, without which was established by Boniface VIII, waiting for the jubilee of 1525, in con- in 1300. This gave the death-blow to the junction with the elector of Mentz, who public penance of the church. Considerwas to receive half the profit; and the lat- able abuses, however, stole into the syster found an excellent agent for the sale in tem of indulgences, and the scandal beTetzel. This flagrant abuse inflamed the came very great. Under pretext of alms zeal of Luther, and the Protestant theo- for the benefit of good works, indulgences logians have always found indulgences were made the means of indirectly taxing one of the most vulnerable points of the the whole of Christendom. It was proRoman Catholic system; and even the posed several times in the diets of the Catholic states of Germany represented to German empire (e. g., at Nuremberg, in the emperor, in 1530, that he ought to 1466), to make use of them for supplying prevail upon the pope, to omit sending the expenses of the war against the Turks. any more letters of indulgence to Germa- The popes, bishops and civil rulers usualny, lest the whole Catholic religion should ly divided the proceeds, though the latter become an object of scorn and mockery. sometimes appropriated them entirely; as, Nevertheless, the right to remit sins was for instance, in 1500, when the governreceived, in the council of Trent, among ment of the empire took possession of the articles of faith. (We shall now pro- the money collected for the pope on the ceed to give the Catholic views, as taken occasion of the jubilee, and allowed only from the article Indulgence, written by a a third part to the legate of the pope, Catholic, in the German Conversations- for his subsistence. Under such circumLericon.) The penances of the ancient stances, when holy institutions were abuschurch (see Penance) were never so strict- ed for vile gain, it was natural that wrong ly binding as to preclude the presbyters notions respecting indulgences and their from relaxing them in some degree, in power, should spring up among the peoparticular instances, where their object ple, and be spread by the preachers emseemed more easily attained in some oth- ployed to distribute them. (See Tetzel.) It er way. But this never was done, except is a well known fact, that the indulgences in single cases, and after the circumstances proclaimed by Leo X, gave the first of the petitioners had been closely ex- spring to the reformation. It was the obamined ; nor was the whole punishment ject of the fathers assembled at Trent, to ever remitted, but merely a part of it, ac- make a public disavowal of the erroneous cording as the case of the individual re- doctrines which had been preached by quired, and his repentance justified it. individuals respecting indulgences, that The council of Nice, in their 12th canon, they might not appear to be sanctioned require, for such a dispensation, proof of by the church. The council first requirtrue repentance. In the 11th century, an- ed (in sess. 24, cap. 8, De Reformatione), other kind of indulgences was introduced, the restoration of public penance, in the -absolution. This was granted to those following words : “The holy, apostle who undertook some difficult enterprise (Paul to Timothy) ordains, that those who for the benefit of the church. This was sin publicly, should be publicly rebuked. usually bearing arms in her cause, of If, therefore, a crime has been committed which the crusades are the most fa- publicly, and in the sight of many, so as mous example. In the council of Cler- not to leave any doubt of its giving a bad mont (1095—1096), it was decreed (canon example to others, a public penance is to 12), that every one, who, actuated solely be imposed on the guilty person, suited to by devout zeal
, and not by love of glory the crime, that the sight of his repentunce or by avarice, went on the expedition to may recall those to the right way, whom Jerusalem for the deliverance of the holy his example has led astray. The bishop sepulchre, should receive a full remission may, however, substitute a private for the of his sins. In later times, this indulgence public penance, if he thinks it more suita was extended to those who were not able ble.” Respecting absolution itself, the to go themselves, and sent a champion in church has established no dogma, because their stead. By degrees, the exemption such dogmas are expressed only in the was extended still farther, and soon ple- canones, of which there exist none on this nary and partial indulgences were grant- subject. She has given only a decree, ed to those who gave alms for effecting and this in her last session, which literally some good work (e. g., the restoration of a says : Since the power of conferring inchurch, &c.), or performed some prescrib- dulgences has been given to the church
by Christ, and she has exercised it from penance remitted. The labor itself should the earliest times, the holy council teaches be in proportion to its aim. We have and ordains, that this usage, so beneficial seen that there exists no dogma on absoto Christians, and confirmed by the au- lution; it is therefore by no means a docthority of many holy councils, is to be re- trine of the church, but it is left to the tained in the church; and she inflicts the private views of the individuals, whether anathema upon such as either declare in- and how far the absolution and the idea dulgences unnecessary, or dispute the of purgatory (see Purgatory), are conpower of the church to grant thein. It is nected with each other. It is falsely beher wish, however, that in the grant of lieved by many Protestants, that absoluindulgences, according to the custom long tion is esteemed by the Catholic church existing in the church, proper limits equivalent to conversion, and as effectual should be observed, lest the discipline of to remit the punishment of sins. Every the church become injuriously relaxed. popular catechism proves the contrary. But as the church desires that the abuses Indus, or Sindh*; a large river in the which have crept in, and have given occa- western part of Hindoostan, rising on the sion to heretical preachers to heap reproach north of the Himalaya mountains; it flows upon this venerable usage, should be cor- first north-west, then west, penetrates the rected, she ordains by the present decree, chain of mountains in the 36th parallel, that the shameful bartering of indulgences then takes a winding course to the south, for money, which has been so fruitful a and empties by several mouths into the source of abuse, shall be entirely abol- sea of Arabia, between lat. 239 20 and ished. As the corruptions which have 24° 40 N, Its chief tributaries are from sprung from superstition, ignorance, ir- the east; they were known to the Greeks. reverence, or from any other causes, can. One of them is the Behât or Jelam (Hynot here be enumerated and individually daspes), from Cashmere; it joins the censured, on account of the variety of the Chenab (Acesines), which also receives kinds prevailing in different places and the Ravy (Hydraotės); below the confluprovinces, the synod commands every ence of the Chenab' is that of the Kirah bishop to search out with diligence the (Hyphasis)
, formed by the junction of the abuses of his own church, and to lay them Setledje or Satadrou (Hesidrus) and the before the first provincial synod, that they Beyah. The country traversed by the may be branded as errors by the judgment Indus and its tributaries is called the of the other bishops, and be submitted to Penjab or Punjab. The water of the Inthe authority of the supreme bishop at dus is wholesome, and resembles that of Rome, whose wisdom will provide for the the Ganges. Its course, including its universal good of the church, that the windings, is estimated at 1700 miles, and sacred indulgences may in future be dis- is generally W. of S. The Delta of the tributed with purity and holiness. The Indus is about 150 miles in length along selling of indulgences has accordingly the coast, and 115 in depth. The river is ceased. In regard to the absolution still navigable, for vessels of 200 tons, to the practised in the church (continues the province of Lahore, a distance of 760 geCatholic writer), the spirit of the church ographical miles. From Attack to the is the same as in ancient times. The old Delta, a distance of about 800 miles, its discipline of penance never has been for breadth is generally about a mile, and its mally abolished. On the contrary, the depth from two to five fathoms. The tide principle has rather been confirmed by sets in with great violence. Owing to the the council of Trent, as has just been barbarous manners of the tribes which shown. The church still commissions , inhabit its banks, little commerce takes her servants to impose penances upon sin. place on this river. The bed of the Inners, in proportion to their guili,--even dus is sand, with a small quantity of heavier penances than the ordinary ones. mud. Why, then (he asks), should she not be INES DE CASTRO. Pedro, son of Alauthorized to remit part of the sentence, phonso IV, king of Portugal, after the if the penitent is found worthy of favor? death of his wife Constantia (1344), seWhether such remission be deserved by cretly married his mistress, Ines de Casthe penitent, is to be judged by those min- tro, who was descended from the royal isters of the church who are in immedi- line of Castile, from which Pedro was ate intercourse with them. To make absolution effectual, Bellarmin requires that Greek, which borrowed it from the Persian. The
* The name is very ancient. Inuus is from the the end attained should be more agreea- Persians seem to have derived it from the Indian ble to God than the performance of the Sind'hu, ocean.