Изображения страниц

military caring acadcy, tros de he gudanted to detection in 18. Drated into che Red Army, he saw his first military action in 1930 against the Japenece, and his back was injured in a grande caplosion. He was injured twice more in battle against the Germans

After the war, Grigortako jatund the staff of the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow; in 1940. he was appointed deputy chairman of the de partment of scienunc ro search and then, in 1866, ctmir. men of the department of cybernedes. Meanwhile he we wanting the degree of Meer of Mitary Science

In 1900, Grigorenko achieved buls bighest military rank, major general. By the end of his military arter five years later, he was the author of more than ardiciles in millmary schueca, most of them chanted ponsored

oradona, include ing the Order of Landn, two Orders of the Red Beaner, the Order of the Red Star, the Order of the Second World War, well as seven military budak Grigorelo's tre marriage

1922 ended in divorce is mos leer. Therwe soos troca

live in the Soviet Union. Alles second marriage to his current site, Zinaida, resulted in the birch of an au, Andred, who coas

tad to the United States veral years ago

The Digsident

Grigorate had some small

with Soviet suchords be protected for campia,

menace of and Sexnidiam beles rocedury beste bates

cingh ruutted

he dattvered in 196 delegate to a per endo la Moses che danceruter


Our answer in all cas yo era to the point of uilting in the direction of Nanding lines, and even at the risk of harraing Grigorento would have to alter our usual hierarchy of values, placing our duty to our protection and to the project above our duty to the patient; and we keer that we would have to tale steps that would demonstrate - to Grigoronico, to others and to ourselves that we had done so. Before anything horm ever, we would have to obtain troca Grigorenko, in advanca, his informod consent.

We aplained to him what we had in mind, and what the potencial dangers were for him, stna we were insisting

not only to

la cunca, they agreed at
Grigortala's dat was the
result not of racional coavic-
tion but, rather, of psychopo
thology. According to their
theory of hts mental illness.
Grigorenko was suffering
from a chronic paranoid condi
con that at times reached poy,
chodc proportions and that
caused him to act in ways that
had brought him into conflict
with Soviet law. Specifically,
that illness caused in him a
penchant for "Tetorratsme" -
a need to reforma sociecy, to
speak out and act out against
authority and to focus himself
repeatedly and obetinately on
dissident chemea. In so acting
and speaking, the theory held.
Grigorenko was not in control
of himself, was not responsible
for the legal implications of his
behavior and could be barred.
as , from attending his own
trial and testifying in tale owa
defense. Grigorenko's illness.
the Soviet paychiatrists also
implied, may have been ag-
pravated or partly caused by
arteriosclerocic changes in the
blood vessels supplying his

ferred to a lower part in the
Far East

There, Grigoraro founded a
1.3-60ernber "Union for the Ro
vival of Leninism" in 1983 and
prepared and distributed leaf-
iets calling for a return to
Leninist tenets and principles
He was arrested and sent for
his first psychiatric examine
tion at the Sertaky Institute of
Forensic Psychiatry in Moe
cow, where he was judged to
bo mentally ill. Hospitalized,
he was not relonged undil the
spring of 1905, after Krust

Unable to obtain any post dae in his own field, having house bis officer's pension be

forced to find work, at age 58 as a porter and longshora mon. He seat protest letters to Prime Minister Kosypia Pravda and the K.G.B.; be openly complained about the home of his position and have the and he publicly demonstrated against the trials of prominent did

, in response to an ap
al, he flow to Tesnient to be
1 detare wonen in a trial of
destdienst leaders. He was ar
rested and sent to a Tashlank
poychiatric commutation for
Germinado. That commi
sion found him to be without

a Windos. However, la an
al move. Grigoronto

transterred across the
mery to the Serbuky last
ante ta Moscow for a second
contadion, where he wu,
again, found to be mentally in.
Once more be was forcibly
bospital and, this time for
more than four years.

In 1974 be was released, and reased his dissident acelet den. In 1977, be received the sz-month visa to visit his son In New York, where he said he could obtain medical treat Beat that was unavailable to batera at home. Three months later, the Supreme Soviet med a decree, signed by Leo wid Bruchner, ruvolding has ctttanaship. and Griporento announced that bewus sosting usytum in the United States.

en it in ag

wledond our Inge med accepted our cond

place approval. An raid, bo bed noth

He dar boled the propered a decu toprao's signe embodied theo


The Re examination

forecall any don

bedown und Gnt

the usual mudah cal cuts and obligation and there in estuct, we had pro creded under conditions of ach van cantorahip. Grigorenko

ed the documdat in Rudan and send it with, he said, no

The Man

Pyotr Gripertoricha Grigo renkoo was born in 1997 to a Runninn Orthodou pensan family in the Ukraine. Hla mother died of typhus when he wa 2. His father remarried to 1912, but the new vile abas doned the household wichten your, soon after the father was called up to serve to World Vurl.

Grigorunt vu the tree in. bella village to join the Commu

Youth League. Al the an of IS, bo want to the city of Do netek, where he found work as a hocketmith and machinist and comnimod ble schooling at mighe; at age 20, be joined the Commune Party. And it was the party thank so him to a

of Hades del
At about the sam
wrod a oa latter to Ma.
cow voten artdciring the
rocorable and ottua harmful
activities of Khrushchev and
hla munca." Grigortako i
mediately lost his position at
the willary academy and
within a half year, was trans

In order to avaluate Grigo
renko's paychiatric status as
accurately and fully as possi.
ble, we arranged for an unusu-
ally elaborate camination
procedure. The interviews,
totaling some eight hours,
were carried out separately by
uch of the paychiatrists. One
we held at Harvard Univer
sicy and two in the videotape
studio at the New York Suate
Psychiatric Institute in upper
The questions

asked of Grigornico touched upon almost every dimension of his life, including his family, his earty memories, his sexual, intellectual and moral develop ment, his ideas, his impulses, his expectations, his feelings and the nature of his personal relationships. Inevitably, we paid particular attention to his poutical ideas and to the motinations for his dissident acts. All of the interviews were ar. ned out through an interpreter, and all were recorded, two on videotape.

The Patient

To commision of forensic 'paychiatruts, boch from the Serbuky Institute in Moscow, had recommended that Grigo radio be committed. Their fadings ware virtually ident

in addition, in order to inves cigate in depth show areas of .

poychopathology cited in the Soviet reports, three special Quminations formad. all by consultants from the Harvard Medical School. A three-hour bactery of poychological tests was auch ministered by Irene P. Suver. including the kinds of interpre tive, projective tests (such as the Rorschach ink blor" test) that could reveal the presence of paranoid sims. And the question of an arteriosclerode brain condition affecting Grigoronko's thinking, also noved in the Soviet diagnostic reporta,

investigated through a neurological cam mation by Norman Geschwind and an eight-hour battery of maropaychological tests by Barbara P. Janu.

Finally, we subrnicted video maped interviews to the state of the Blometries Research De partment at the New Yort State Psychiatric lascian Using the information on the tapea, the mornbers of the staff attempted to determine whether Grigorenko satistied chotr research criterte for a diagnosts of prental illness pestor present

Gripormalno dou net reed a speak English. Dr. Boris Zow bok, who was in the midst of a poychiatric rtaideacy u Columbia after having at prated from the Soviet Union ia 1973), kope Grigorendo io formed of our procedures, ad Viend w on special aspects of Soviet diagnostic definitions and provided us, as well as our cooteots, with translations during all examination. Iron cally, Dr. Zoubok had roostved part of his medical training in Moscow under the very sume Dr. Snezhnevsky who had

urged that Grigorenko bora | camined. For all his apor.

tise, however, we were con cerned that, as an émigré, Dr. Zoubok might be accused by the Soviets of having distorted Grigorenko's meaning order to cover any signs of ill

near. We arranged for three I other Russian-speaking per ! son to be present at the | Cocaminacions or to review the

tapes. In the end, all of them i found Dr. Zoubok's transla

tions fully reliable.

Grigoreako said that be al-

ways understood the possible

consequences of his actions. In and Findings

forming his Union for the Ro

vival of Leninism, for exam-
Grigorenko is a large pan of

ple, he said that he had fully
distinguished bearing with a cacpected to be shot:
shaved head and a slow, some

what shuttling gait. Although

you do that, then, if you sometimes quiet and subdued thought you might be shot?" during our interviews, he oftea

GRICORENKO: "It was be displayed considerable inter. cause I couldn't acquiesce to est and animation. That was the regime. I mew that I particularly true when he

would not achieve anything by spolu about his political ideas organizing (the union), that it and the change they had a vould be discovered very der pone over the years and soon. But I thought that that also, when he remetabored

would awakes a moral feeling previously forgotten events

in other people. ... Soviet psy. with special clarity, pain or

chiatrists considered this to be satisfaction. He was able, in

the main evidence for my response to direct questions, to

mental disease, the fact that I recount aspects of his history anterod into

with great precision, and he Monowing of its fucility. 11
reacted to the content of his American poychiatrists should
mercortes with a broad and have the same opindon, I would
full spectrum of responses, have to say, I would have to in
ranging from sad regree to evi-

sise, that they're wrong."
dear cajoyment, from whechu We tried to pred him about
redection to obvious trummor.

his motivacions for continuing
He established a relationship in his dissent, despite the des
with each of we quickly and gers and the frustracions.
easily, and was able to share "It's not a personal cause."
with w his moue distressing he said. "It's a sodal, comme
concert jakom

Someo always about the routs, ontumapha

Tota (Soviet) and iro

gowe should don

erated by people, but

ppe that everyoon rted againk it. There always

have to be people to startwiche Soviet paychtacry. could the others vill follow. And be cimetrued under particular those who start, regardless of circumstance, a symptoms whether or not they are talent or stron of certain paychiatric ed, or have special abilities condidan

they become a slogan, a ban
Most of our questions were ger, for those who follow.
aimed at resolving the issue of During my life, in my faithful
Grigorenko's paranoid condi service to Communism. I
dhom I the Soviet diagnoses caused a lor of damage to my
were correct, then some signs people, and I wanted, at least
of that condition should still be in my remaining days, to re-
present. And, too, we should be pair it. ... What's the sense of
able to detect store of it in his living one extra year if you
pesce as he presented it.

continue in the fraud of not
We questioned Grigorenko facing things? It's better to
at length about the motive- live the rest of your life crea.
tions for his dissident acts and tively so that you will not be
ideas. Was he able to appreci- ashamed in the eyes of your
ate the dangers inherent in belsprandchildren. (Ai this point,
actions? Did he have, or had Grigorenko appeared sad, but
he ever had. paranoid reform; continued to speak carefully
ist delusions ? Was be driven: and detiberately.) I always
us paranoids oftea are, by considered the inner impulse
socie unshakable bellet about to serve as a vocation inspired
the world that had no corro - instilled in my soul - by
spondence with really? Did he God.
have an owalted, innated vion

of his own powers, a prendlowe your soul? After all, only a few
some of himself as supertu people did what you did."
Dan, pertapa a motager af

GRIGORENKO: "No, this is not true. It's just that I be came known. I was just lucky that I became known, mostly u a result of the campaign in my defense (organized by his wite). There are many who did more than I did, but no one lonows about them."

PSYCHIATRIST: "Did God put it in their souls. 100?"

GRIGORENKO: "I think so. I think that Providence plays a greater role in the lives of peo ple then we think." PSYCHIATRIST:

DO you think that you have some kind of special relationship with God?"

GRIGORENKO: "NU. Even though I firmly believe that God exists in the world, and that there is some Supreme Renson, I untortunately cannot absorb myself fully in prayer....

La exploring Grigorenko's way of relating to others and interpreting their behavior, we rent especially interested in the possibility that, like a paranoid individual, he might beve tended to see all actions talona aguing him as part of ploc designed to

Finally, we nied to clarify the ques tion of arteriosclerode brada disease. It appears that in 1977 Grigorenko experienced a small stroke that affected vision in his right eye. In addition, in his physical examination, our consult. ant neurologist found evidence of ar. teriosclerosis of the right internal carotid artery. However, neither we nor our consultants, including our souropsychological consultant, found any evidence that the arteriosclerosis wa affecting Grigorenko's thinking. mood, behavior or character, or had domso in the past


pernacuta hin. Knowing that he was, in fact, followed by the K.G.B., and repeatedly investigated, we axpected, at the least, that he would stress those coperiences. We assumed he would sophasize the deviousness and vin dictiveness of the authorities in ar resting him, in hospitalizing him, in stripping him of his rank and his officer's pension. lastend, he frequently potated to the decency, sincerity, hoc asty and opens at some of his ad versaries, including members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.

Since the Soviet psychiatrists had cepanded at length on Grigorenko's personality characterbatas, stressing those that consistent with a diat sants of a partaid condition. We made special attempts at identifying such character des

We nelped him, for cumple, about a controntadion he had had in 1960 arte ing from his master's dissertation. In iba first chapter, the desertation hand contained implied criticisms of the odlitary theranda making athon, who toremowth West responded their for evideo a typically paranoid bility to compro 2. He maswered that, atror a while, be hand agreed to odotho anideksom

We found other evidence of Griga ronto's leability as well. During his thorsk bompitalization, for example, be revised his polldical ballets, rejecting the very same Lentaise nocions in whose name he had carried out his illegal desident acts and for whose

wako bo had been arrested and boupi talteed.

And w syuuumadcally sought other indications of any paranoid condition either now or in the past character istics, traits ar signs ranging from the Dont mild to the poor severa Our poychological consultant made a simi iar attempt Son, too, we ful.

la revlowing our tests, interviews and other caminations, we could find navidence of mental illness in Griga realno, a conclusion contirmod inda pendently by the blometrics research wall of the New York State Psychiatnic Insttone on the basis of their standardized evaluation of our video maped interviews. Nor could we find

vidence in Grignando's betery code statent with mental illness in the past. In particular, there is no evidence of ty nestal illness to the paranoid

et sort. While there is evidence on the beasis of his tory and physical findings of arterto sclerodc disease, there is no sign that teles condicion has significantly com proented Grigoreakoo's intellectual or emocional capacities, or that it has in may way formed or determined bis bebavior or mood. (A special session as the crumtrations that led to those conclusion will be held Tuesday at the convention of the American Psy clacric Asociation in Chicago)

In the roata, our teak in oantning Grigorenko was to look for signs of il

What we found, instead. was a men - a man who, ironically, ra minded w in some ways of the patien in Soviet descripcions. But their ver. shom of Grigortaloo was consistently sheed For where they claimed ob ton, found perseveranc where thery ched cottons, we found racionality: Where they identified paychodc rcles, found committed devocion, and where they diar nood pathology, we found health.




Since we reconvened these meetings on February 9 many important words have been spoken here about the most recent of a continued pattem of Helsinki Accord violations, the violence against the people of Poland. It is important to recall, however, that the excesses that disturb us in Poland are not only the result of Soviet military and political pressure, they reflect a pattern of even greater repression in Soviet society.

On Human Rights Day, in this Hall, the Soviet Delegate called our human rights concerns a "fuss being made over a bunch of dropouts"; he charged us with using "barefaced inventions" for the purpose of "damaging polemics." He obviously considers our expectation that the Soviet Union will observe its Helsinki commitments of 1975 to be an "undermining" of his country's "socio-political rights."

The Polish people understand, as the Final Act clearly directs, that human rights have directly to co with the individual's right to live in liberty and with dignity. Those who would redefine this concept by referring to economic and social rights of "masses" are attempting to obscure the absence of human rights in their own societies. Large groupings of people consist of individuals. Where the integrity of the human being is not respected, there are no human rights for the many

It is also noteworthy that those states who deny the human rights of the individual are unable to provide for his economic and social needs as well.

Recent news reports illustrate again with dramatic impact the consequences for a society and its people where there is a lack of concern and sensitivity for individual human rights. Allow me, Mr. Chairman, to give one vivid illustration of the extremes to which a failing society will go to suppress criticism of its own deficiencies.

In the Soviet Union, psychiatry, a healing science, has been perverted into an instrument of cruel political repression. Men and women, sane and exercising their rights as human beings under the Helsinki Final Act, have been, usually without trial, brutally condemned to the grotesque world of politically controlled psychiatric institution's, where they have been silenced

through drugs and violated in a manner reminiscent of the Middle Ages.

The logic of this travesty is cruel and simple: the authorities can commit a dissenter to a mental institution by administrative action. In the criminal commitment procedure, the defendant can be ruled "not accountable" and ordered by the court to receive compulsory psychiatric treatment, without the right to participate in his own defense or be present at his own trial. The trial itself is closed to the public.

Psychiatric incarceration spares the authorities the embarrassment of staging full-scale trials of political dissidents; a person's views are discredited by calling them crazy. Indefinite sentences without the de facto right of appeal are then thrust upon those whose continued activity is a nuisance to the state. Once in an institution, the victim is administered powerful drugs with painful and debilitating side effects in order to induce recantation. Others on the outside are then dissuaded from exercising their rights by 'the threat of psychiatric institutionalization.

No wonder this practice led the sixth World Congress of the World Psychiatric Association in 1977 unprecedentedly to single out the Soviet Union for condemnation! In recent weeks, as a result of yet new disclosures, the Royal College of Psychiatrists in England has voted to ask the world Psychiatric Association to expel the Soviet Union when it next meets in 1983.

We are all here aware that the repression of human rights in the Soviet Union has increased in intensity--clearly an act of defiance and disdain for this meeting and the Helsinki pro

As part of that repression, all of the founding members of the Working Commission for the Investigation of the Use of Psychiatry for Political Purposes have also been imprisoned or exiled.


Let us examine this abnormal phenomenon in human terms, using a few current examples:

Dr. Anatoly Koryagin, a consulting psychiatrist with the Working Commission had examined numerous people confined for alleged psychiatric illness and found them to be normal, sane individuals. For such activity he was sentenced last June to seven years in strict regimen camp plus five years internal exile. In taking his moral stand, Dr. Koryagin knew that Dr.

« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »