« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
XILT False names are rain,— thy lines their author tell;
XXV The first orime past impels us on to more,
And guilt proves fate, which was but ehoioe before.
XV. Pleads ke in earnest 1—Look upon his face:
His words come from his mouth; ours, from our breast I
XVI. See the sole bliss Heaven could on all bestow!
The bad must miss; the good untaught will find.
XVil Passions are winds to urge us o'er the wave;
XVlii. This without those obtains a vain employ;
XIX. The generous buoyant spirit is a power
Which in the virtuous mind doth all things conquer.
XX. To err is human; to forgive, divine.
Questions—115. What does Pronunciation include? 116. Does colloquial pronunciation ever differ from that used in reading the Scriptures or poetry? Mention example* 117. What is Modulation f 118. Emphasis? What is the original meaning of Emphasis I 119. To what may the misplacing of one's emphasis lead i 121. What is necessary ia order to emphasize expressively f
125. With regard to the Inflections of the Voice, upon which so much has been said and written, there are in reality but two — the rising and the falling. The compound, or circumflex inflection, is merely that in which the voice both rises and falls on the same word — as in the utter ance of the word " What," when it is intended to convey an expression of disdain, reproach, or extreme surprise. The analysis of vocal inflection was first promulgated by Mr. John Walker, author of the dictionary bearing his name.
126. The inflections are not denominated rising or falling from the high or low tone in which they are pronounced, but from the upward or downward slide in which they terminate, whether pronounced in a high or low key. The rising inflection was marked by Mr. Walkor with the acute accent ( ') ; the falling, with the grave accent (' ). The inflection mark of the acute accent must not be confounded with its use in accentuation.
127. In the utterance of the interrogative sentence, "Does Caesar deserve fame' or blame' ?'' the word fame will have the rising or upward slide of the voice, and blame the falling or downward slide of the voice. Every pause, of whatever kind, must necessarily adopt one of these two inflections, or continue in a monotone.
128. Thus it will be seen that the rising inflection is that upward turn of the voice which we use in asking a question answerable by a simple vet or no, and the falling inflection is that downward sliding of the voice which is commonly used at the end of a sentence. Lest an inaccurate ear should be led to suppose that the different signification of the opposing words is the reason of their sounding differently, we give below, among other examples, some phrases composed of the same words, which are i«vertheless pronounced with exactly the same difference of inflection as (he others.
The Siting followed by the Falling.
The Falling followed by the Rising.
1^9, Xhe rising progression in a sentence connects what has been said *«u wnat u to be utteretL, or with what the speaker wishes to be implied R supplied by the hearer; and this with more or less closeness, queru"Oasuesa, and passion, in proportion to the extent and force of the rise.
180. The falling progression disconnects what has been said from Whatever may follow ; and this with more or less completeness, exclusively, and passion, in proportion to the force and extent of the fall.
181. The rising inflection is thus, invariably, associated with what U incomplete in senso; or, if apparently complete, dependent on or modified by what follows; with whatever is relative to something expressed, or to be irapLed; and with what is doubtful, interrogative or supplicatory.
132. The falling inflection, on the contrary, is invariably associated with what is complete and independent in sense, or intended to be received as such; with whatever is positive and exclusive ; and with what is confidently assertive, dogmatical or mandatory.
133. The rising inflection is thus, also, the natural intonation of all attractive sentiments ; of love, admiration, pity, &c.; as in the exclamations " Beautiful'! Alas'! Poor thing'!" The falling inflection is the tone of repulsion, anger, hatred and reproach, as in the exclamations, "GoM FoolM Malediction'!"
134. A great number of rules are given by Mr. Walker and his followers for the inflecting of sentences or parts of sentences. To these rules there are many exceptions not enumerated by their framers. The rules, if used at all, must therefore be used with extreme caution, or they will mislead ; and the reader who undertakes to regulate his elocution by them will, in many instances, fall into error. We give below the rules that are least liable to exception; but even these must be received rather as hints to guide the reader, where he is in doubt, than rules to hold where his understanding dictates the intonation most in accordance with the sense and spirit of what he is reading. Marks of inflection, like marks of emphasis, may serve to illustrate a principle, as tor instance the fact that there is a rising and falling inflection of the voice, and that the sense of a sentence often depends upon a correct emphasis and inflection. But the student who expects to attain a correct style of elocution by following inflection marks, rather than by studying the pith and catching the spirit of what he is to read, will be disappointed.
I. Where the seuse is oomplete, whether at the termination of a sentence or of a part of a sentenoe, use the falling inflection.
II. When sentences are divisible into two parts, the oommencing part Is generally distinguished by the rising inflection.
III. Questions commencing with an adverb or pronoun, and which oannot be answered by a simple "yes " or " no," generally terminate with the falling inflection.
IV. Questions oommencing with a verb, and which can be answered by: simple " yes " or " no," generally terminate with the rising inflection.
V. When two or more questions in succession, the first beginning with a verb, are separated by the disjunctive particle er, the last question requires the falling, and the preceding ones the rising inflection.
VI. The general rule for the parenthesis (a Greek word signifying an insertion) is, that it must be pronounced in a lower tone and more rapidly than the rest of the sentence, and concluded with the inflection that immediately precedes it. A simile, being a species of parenthesis, follows the same rule.
VII. The title echo is adopted by Walker to express a repetition of a word or phrase. The echoing word is pronounced generally with the rising Inflection, followed by something of a pause
VIII. The monotone, in which neither inflection of the voice is used, may bo donned to be a continuation or sameness of sound upon certain syllables of a word or certain words, exactly like that produced by repeatedly striking a bell; such a stroke may be louder or softer, but continues exactly in the same pitch. To express this tone upon paper, a horizontal line is sometimes adopted, such as we use to designate a long vowel: thus (—). The monotone may be often appropriately employed in passages of solemnity and awe.
EXAMPLES ON THE ABOVE RULES.
I. It is to the unaccountable oblivion of our mortality that the world owes all its fascination'.
Age, in a virtuous person, carries with it an authority, which makes it preferable to all the pleasures of youth\
II. Virtue were a kind of misery', if fame were all the garland that crowned her\
Your enemies may be formidable by their numbers', and by their power'; but Ee who is with you is mightier than they\
TH. Who can look down upon the grave', even of an enemy1, and not feel a compunctious throb' that he should ever have warred' with the poor handful of earth' that lies mouldering before him11
How many men were in that army" at the time of the victory' 1
Than to dwell here', driven out from bliss', condemned
IV. Would a merciful Providenoe have given us talents', without designing that we should exert them' 1
Can such things be'— And overcome us', like a summer oloud', Without our special wonder' 1 Can the soldier, when he girdeth on his armor, boast like him that pntteth it off' 1 Can the merchant predict that the speculation, on which he has entered', will be infallibly crowned with success' 1
Avarus has long been ardently endeavoring to fill his chest': and, lo! it is now full'. Is he happy' 1 Does he use' it 1 Does he gratefully think of the Giver of all good things' 1 Does he distribute to the poor' 1
V. Does God, after having made his creatures, take no further care of them' 1 Has he left them to blind fate or undirected chance' 1 Has he for saken the works of his own hands' 1 Or does he always graoiously pre Krve, and keep, and guide them' 1
Can honor's voice provoke the silent dust' 1
136. Punctuation, from the Latin word punctum, a point, is the artof dividing words or sentences from one another by means of certain marks dr points, designed to facilitate the apprehension or to regulate the enuneiatiori of a written language. Points or stops are said to have beer, first used by Aristoph'anes, the Alexandrian grammarian; but the modern system of punctuation is due to Manutius, a learned printer, who lived at Venice in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
137. Authors differ in regard to the proper mode of punctuating; some contending, with Sheridan, that the stops should be disposed according to the emphasis and pauses which would be naturally made in reading aloud ; and others, that they should be placed according to the grammatical structure of a sentence. The former is called the Rhetorical, and the latter the Grammatical mode. The tendency of modern usage is to the latter.
138. In grammatical punctuation, such stops only are given as may assist the reader in promptly comprehending the sense. It may, therefore, often be proper co make a pause where no stop appears to the eye Indeed, it is often allowable, for the sake of pointing out the sense more strongly, or of shifting and relieving the voice, to make a very considerable pause where there is no punctuation mark, and where the grammatical construction requires none.
139. The grammatical points are the Comma (,), which marks the smallest grammatical division of a sentence, and usually represents the shortest pause; the Semi-colon (;) and the Colon (:), which separate those portions which are less connected than those divided by Commas; and the Period (.), which is what its name denotes, a full stop, which commonly terminates a sentence.
140. Besides these points, there are others, partly grammatical and partly rhetorical, which may be thus enumerated: the Note of Interrogation (?), which shows that a question is denoted by the word to which it 5s annexed ; the Note of Exclamation (!), expressing admiration, horror, or any considerable emotion ; the marks of Parenthesis (), used when a clause, word or sign, which interrupts the progress of the sentence, is inserted; the Dash (—), used where a sentence breaks off abruptly, or where suppressed emotion is to be expressed; or as a substitute for the marks of Parenthesis, and sometimes as a modification of the other stops, or independently when no other stop may be appropriate.
141. There are other points, related rather to letters, words and syllables, than to the grammatical elucidation of sentences. The Apos'tropha ('), a mark distinguished only from the Comma in being placed above the line, is used to denote the abbreviation of a word as o'er for ova