Изображения страниц
PDF
EPUB

Entrepot (nng-tre-iK/, the a u In father, the e Mm In her), a warehouse for the

deposit of goods.

Epnkmeeal (e-fem'eral). Thin is from the Gr. ephi, for, aml emtra, a day; perfthtng with the day ; short-lived.

KrV (Or. ipot, a word), a poem of the narrative kind, describing generally the explolt* of heroes.

Bfu'ire, one given to luxury; so called from Epkru'rua, a Greek philosopher, whose doctrines did not, however, authorize the seusual coustruction which was wrested from them.

Ipitomr (e-pit'-o-nu"), an abridgment, an ftb5revint!on, or compendious abstract.

Jcf. ru (t~p-ok ore-pok). This is from the Or. epecho, I stop, and mean* a certain fixed point of time, made famous by - me remarkable event, from whence eusuing yean are numbered.

Era differs from epoch in this: Ira is a point of time fixed by some nation or denomination of men epoch is a point 8.ved by historiaus and chronologists.

Erb (ar), before ; sooner than; supposed to be from the Saxon ar, signifying the morning. Being pronounced like JE'er, this word is sometimes mistaken for tC

Es'say, in literature, a short treatise, or tract. Lord Bacon first used it in this seuse.

Eureea (en-re'-ka) a Greek word, meaning,

/ have found. See p. 275.

Eurip'inbs (U-rip'i-dte), a Grecian tragic poet, b. 480 B. C. lie was torn in pieces by the dogs of King Archela'us, whose guest he was. Soph/odes, who survived him, publicly mourned his loss.

Evan'ukr is said to have built on the Tiber, at the foot of the Palatine Hill, a town which was incorporated with Rome. He Viught the arts of peace.

C/avqil (from two Gr. words, meaning to Kelt well) to announce good tidings), the Gospel; the history of Christ's life and resurrection.

JCverrTT, Enward, b. in Massachusetts, 1794. Quoted pp. 185, 187, 249.

Examine; said to he from tini Latin, ex~ amen, the tongue or beam of a balance.

Excel'sion, the comparative degree of the l4itiu adjective, excelsus, high ; so that it meaus higher. 285.

Excommunicate, to expel from the communion of the church.

Exile, The Poon, 82.

Exit, the third person of the Latin verb exeo, I go out; literally, he or it goes Oul; hence the departure of a player from the stage; a way of departure, passage out of a place.

Ex'odus, a way, or passage out; egress, departure; the title of the second book of Moses, which describes the journey from Egypt.

Ex'pletive, a word not necessary to the

styisc; one used to fill a space. Extempore (ex-tem'-po-re), on the spur of

the moment, at the time ; from the Lat.

worli ex, from, and tempore the time, j

Avoid the blunder of pronouncing this word (extempore) in three syllables.

Enteaorninart (eks-tror'-de-na-ry).

Extrin'sic, external, outward.

Farlb (Lat. fori, to speak). In Englisfl it is applied to any feigned thing j generally a story inculcating a moral precept. See pp. 67, 71, 72, 92, 130, 286,412.

Fall Of A Mountain, 105.

Fame. The root of this word meaning simply to speak or talk (good or ill), fame may be either favorable or the contrary. We often find that both praise and detraction are much exaggerated in men's months; hence the proverb, "commou fame is a common liar," 64, 309.

Faust. The au pronounced like ow in how.

Febrcart is from the Lat. febrvo, I cleanse; because on the fifteenth of this month the great feast of purification, called februay was held among the Romaus.

Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambray.in France, a great writer, and most amiable man, was b. 1651, d. 1715.

Fidelity in Little Things, 85.
Cicero and Demosthenes, 243.

Ferninann Ann Isarella, 281.

Ferha'ea, an ancient and famous city of Italy; once the capital of a sovereign duchy.

Feunalism. The fendal system was that form of government anciently subsisting in Europe, under which a victorious leader allotted cousiderable portious of land, called fiefs, or fends, to his principal officers, who, in their turn, divided their possessious among their inferiors j the condition being that the latter should render military service both at home and abroad.

Fieln. This word (says Trench) properly meaus a clearing where the trees have been felled, or cut down, as in all our early English writers it is spelled without the i, "feld," and not " field."

Fiii (fe-jee), one of the S. Pacific islands.

Fire-waten, the appropriate name given by the Indiaus to intonicating liquors.

Fleecy Troops. By a figure known as periph'rasis (circumlocution), the poet thus designates sheep, 136.

Flint, Timothy, an American writer, and a missionary to the Mississippi valley. He died in 1839. See pp. 299, 302.

Florence, capital of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and one of the finest cities in the world. The present population is 106,899.

Flukes, the broad triangular plates at the extremity of the arms of an anchor. The fius of a whale, from their resemblance, are sometimes thus called.

Flying Fisn, The 217.

Folio (Lat. folium, a leaf), a hook of the largest size, formed by once doubline a sheet of paper.

Foolscap, a kind of paper, usually about seventeen incnes by fourteen. The derivation of the word is uncertain.

Fo'hat, a sudden or Irregular incursion in

a border war. Ford, Jorn, an English dramatic writer, b.

10S6, d. 1670. See p. 295.

Forecastle (fore-kos-sl), that part of the npper deck of a ship forward of the furemast; als.i, in merchant vessels, the forward part, under the deck, where the Bailors live.

Forest, from the root of the Lat. word fora$% meaning ont of doors.

Fuux'ula, a prescribed form or order ; a model.

Fo'imm, a Latin word, meaning literally, what is ont of doors, an ontside space or place; in Rome a public place where ;_-mses were tried, and orations made.

Fostsh, Jorn, a much-esteemed English writer, b. 1770, d. 1843. See pp. 104, 331.

Franklin, Bentamin, distinguished as an essayist, a philosopher, and a statesman, was born in Boston, Mass., Jan. 17th, 1706, and died in Philadelphia, the city of hit adoption, April 17th, 1790. He discovered the identity of lightning with electricity, and obtained a lasting scientbic reputation thereby.

Remarks on his Character, 331.
Turning the Grindstone, by, 103.
Dialogue with the Gont, 355.

Fratzel, The Silent Teacher, by, 288.

Frederick, generally called the Great, King of Prussia, was born in 1712, and died

. 1786 ; a strict military disciplinarian, and friendly to literature.

Frian, from the French fr&re, a brother; in a restricted sense, a monk who is not a priest.

Friday, the sixth day of the week. The name is derived from Freya, a Saxon

goddess.

FitowArD (frd-ward), peevish, perverse ; its radical meaning being, turned or looking from.

Fulton, Rorert, an American engineer and projector, born in Pennsylvania, in 1767, died 1815. His first steamboat was put upon the Hudson (as described by Judge Story, p. 324) in 1807. The merit of a prior invention was claimed by John Fitch, also an American.

Gal'axy (Gr. gala-Wtos, of milk), the Milky Way i the long, white, luminons track visible across the heavens at night, from horizon to horizon. It consists entirely ol stars, scattered by millions, like glittering dust, on the black gronnd of the general heavens.

Ga'len, one of the greatest physicians of ancient times, b. hi Asia, 258.

Gastiuu Jcick, thy peculiar fluid secreted by the stomach, and essential to digestion.

Gb-ne'va, the most populons and industrions town of Switzerland, on the Rhone.

Bkmius. The Latin root of this word means bo produce, to bring forth, 147, 214.

Obs'oa (Jfin'oa), a famons seaport city of northern Italy, on tlie Mediterranean.

ay

Gen'tile (Lat. gens, a nation). The Jew* designated all not professing their religion as "the nations ;" hence the word Gen tile came to mean any person not a Jew or a Christian , a heathen.

Giubox, Edward, the celebrated English historian, was b. 17o7, d. 1794. In his great work, "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,"* he does not always do justice to his Christian characters. The same energy and virtue which, appearing in a heathen or a Mahometan, tills his heart with fervor, and his lofty periods with a swelling grandenr, loaves him cold and impassible, or cavilling and contempt uons, when it is exhibited in che cause of Christianity. 144.

Gibraltak, a strongly fortified seaport town and colony, belonging to G. Britain, near the sonthern extremity of Spain, where it occupies a monntainons promontory. The Strait of Gibraltar, between Spain and Morocco, is abont fifty miles long, and from nineteen to twenty-tii/t« broad.

Gil Blas (Zhil Bias). It is difficult to express in English the exact pronunciation of the French g. The nearest approach to it is zA, the z being sonnded as in azure. The a of Bias has the first elementary sonnd (see p. 17), and the s is sonnded. See Le Sage, Sautillane, Signer.

Giro x D E (Zh e-r^ nd'. See above). In French history, the Gironde were, during the revolution, a celebrated political party, termed Girondius, from La Gironde (the department in which Bordeaux is situated), which sent to the legislative assembly of 1791 three of the chief leaders of the party, 291.

Gittebn. See Arion.

Gladiator (Lat. gtadius, a sword), a sword-player, a prize-lighter, 94.

Glass. "Looks in a glass," &c., p. 321. The allusion here is to the imposition practised by fortune-tellers, who pretended to see future events in a beryl, or crystal glass.

Gloaming, the twilight; probably the word is a corruption of glooming.

Gnomon (no'-mon), a Greek word, meaning one who knows ; in a dial, the pin which by its shadow tells the honr.

Goldac (Gol-do'), a village of Switzerland, which was overwhelmed by the fall of part of the monntain of Rossberg, Sept. 3d. 1S06. The acconnt (p. 106) is substantially true.

Goldsmith, Oliven, a celebrated pec*, historian, and essayist, wa:i born in Ireiand in 1731; died 1774. He was one of the most genial and elegant writers of his day ; but, notwithstanding his great reputation, activity, and success, his life was embittered by perpetual debts and difficulties. The Village Preacher, 218. The Discontented Miller, 222. Retirement, 256. Goose-quill. The proTerb, p 64, indiecvM th- superiority of mental force over physical i that w the pen is mightier than the sword."

Gokwx, a fabled mobster, the sight of which

turned the be hold ei to stone, -Gt:tptx (Sixon, godvpell; god, good, and sprit, history), the Christian revelation.

Grattan, Henav, one of the most eloquent of Ireland's orators, b. i746, d. 1820. On Lord Chatham. /46.

Gubamb, James, a Scottish poet, b. 1765, d. 1811. Winter Sabbath, by, 433.

Gravitation (from the Lat. gravis, heavy) is a force wliich binds the universe together. It causes the falling of heavy bodies to the earth's surface, and, by a wonderful balancing of the same force, the heavenly bodies are kept within their proper paths. See Newton.

Grav, Thomas, an English poet, b. 1716, d.

. 1771. Ills Elegy (p. 272) is the most celebrated of his poems. It is related by Lord Million, that the evening before the capture of Quebec (1759) Gen. Wolfe, while on the Si. Lawrei.ce in a boat with some of liia officers, repeated tliis elegy, then new, alond, and siiid, " Now, gentlemen, I wonld rather be the author of that poem than take Quebec." See Curfew.

Greroe. The effects of Grecian art, literature, and philosophy, upon the world, promise to be as enduring as its civilization. They can hardly be estimated.

Grega'riocs (Lat. grex, » herd), going In flocks or herds; not liking to live alone.

Grimx, Gerald, an Irish poet and miscel lancons writer, who died yonng, abont the year 1840. Love due to the Creator, 179.

Guatemala, prononnced Gwa-te-mala; the a in the first and third syllables like that in father.

Guillotine (gil-lo-ten'), a machine for t>e heading in France, named from its inventor, Dr. Guillotin.

Gcinra, a piece of money, so called because it was originally coined of gold bronght from the coast of Guinea.

duttixrez, prononnced Goot-ti-a'reth.

Jtuks (jy'jes), according to Plato, was a shepherd of Lydia, who had a ring, with which, by turning a stone in it, he could become b.visible.

Gvmnas'tic, pertaining to athletic exercises. The Greek root gymnos means naked, the ancients beini- uaked in their exercises.

Haritation. The root of this word is the

Latin habeo, I have.

Halfpenny, prononnced haf-penny (the a as in father), or ha'pea-ne.

Hall, James, Prairies, The, 203.

Hall, Rorert, an eloquent Baptist preacher and theological writer, b. in England 1764, d. 1831. His sermon on Modern Infidelity established his fame. See p. 816.

H A Lleck, Fitz-grebne, an American poet, born 1795. On a Friend's Death, 358

Hamlet (believed to be from the same Saxon root as home, anciently written kame), a small village ; a little cluster of honses in the conntry.

Hampden, Jorn, one of England's best patriots, was born in London in 1594. He strenuonsly resisted the impositions of the royal government. Being mortally wonnded in the civil war against the king, he died, after six days of great suffering, in 1643. He was a devont Christian ; and his last words were, "0, Lord, save my conntry. 0, Lord, be merciful

to "and here his speech

failed him, and he fell back and expired.

Harvet, Wm., a celebrated physician, b. in England 1578, d. 1658. He discovered the circulation of the blood, of which he published an acconnt in 1628.

Hastings, Warren, born in England in' 1733, d. 1818. He was appointed by the East India Company governor of their possessions : but, being accused of having governed tyrannically, and extorted large sums of money, he was impeached by the British Honse of Commons, but finally acquitted, 268.

Hawthohne, Nathaniel, an American author, born abont 1809; in 1853 appointed consul to Liverpool by President Pierce.

A Rill from the Town Pump, 231.

Hazlttt, Wm., an English critic and essay ist, who died in 1830. He was a vigorons writer, but apt to be borne away by violent prejudices.

Hebrews, Literature of the, 389.

Hroton, the chief hero of the Trojans in their war with the Greeks. He was slaia by Achilles.

Hemans, Felicia Dorothea, the most popular poetess of England, was born at Liverpool in 1795, died 1835. She married yonng, but her marriage was infelicitons She wrote much for the magazines of the day; and many of her lyrics are of a high order ormerit.

The Graves of a Honsehold, 105.
Hymn of the Monntaineers, 239.
The Captive's Dreams, 310.

Henderson, Jorn, Acconnt of, 167.

Henav, Patrick, an American orator and statesman, born in Virginia 1736, died 1799. His early opportunities of education were very limited, but he rose above all impediments into great distinction as one of the most eloquent men of any age. He was a strenuons advocate for American independence. Extract from, 271.

Herschel, Sir Jorn, born in England 1790, a son of the celebrated astronomer, Wm. Herschel, and eminent for his mathematical and literary attainments. On a Taste for Reading, 399. Wonders of the Universe, 406.

Hes'perus, a name given to the planet Venus when she follows the sun or appears in the evening \ when she appears in the morning before sunrise, the same planet is called Lucifer

Hxt-k Ro Gn'kbous (Gr. eteros, other, and g^nos. kind), unlike or dissimilar in kind ; opposed to homogeneons,

Hexag'onal, having six angles.

Hey Wood, Thomas, an English dramatic writer, said to have written 220 plays between the years 15'J0 and 1640. Of these plays only twenty-fonr have been preserved. Extract from, 294.

Higginson, Francis, an eminent preacher, born in England, but who emigrated to galem, Mass., in June, 16J9, when there were but seven houses in the place. lie died in 1630. lie had a son also named Francis.

Hillard, George S., an accomplished American writer, author of "Six Months in lta.lv."

51 oval Influence, 399.
On a Literary Taste, 399.

Hippuc'ratiw (Ilip-poc'ratCs), the most famons among the Greek physicians, b. 456 it. C. In his method of cure, precepts as to diet lake the first rank.

Histoav (Gr. istoreo, I know by inquiry), an acconnt of facts; not only of such as relate to the political annals of nations and states, but to their manners and customs, literature and great men. Natural history treats of the works of nature generally.

Historical Characters, 144, 243.

Holm us, Oliver Wendell, an American physician and a gifted poet, 265, 337.

Ho.uiin, the great poet of the Greeks. He flonrished in the ninth century before the Christian era, and is supposed to have been a strolling bard, poor and blind. His Iliad is a poem descriptive of the siege of Troy, in Asia Minor; and his Od'yssey describes the wanderings of I" lyases. These poems have been translated by Pope; but Cowper's version of the Iliad is the most faithful.

Homily, a disconrse or sermon read or prononnced to an audience.

Ho-mo-ge'neocs (Gr. omos, the same, and genes, kind), of the same kind. See Heterogeneons:

Hood, Thomas, an English poet, comic and
pathetic, b. 1798, d. 1845.
Ode to his Son, by, 45.
Retrospective Review (abridged), 127.
The Lee-shore, 359.

Hovidkd Bell. By this striking image of a h>'ll covered with a hood, Grahame desttribes the effect of the snow in hiding it.

Horace, one of the most popular Latin poets; b. 0o B. C, d. 9 B. C.

Hwriv.on (Gr. orizo, I limit), the line which terminates the view on all sides.

Horn'x, George, an English bishop; b. 1730, d. 1792. The Government of the Thonghts, 97.

Housewife. By Walker and Worcester prononnced huz'wif; by Webster, as spelled.

BtrsanolD. Used (p. 426) as an adjective, in the sense of familiar.

Howard, Jorn, a celebrated English philanthropist, b. 1726, and d. 1790, from u maUxnant fever caught in visiting a suf

ferer. He did much to reform the prisons and hospitals of Europe. His death honr was so serene, that he said to a friend who tried to divert his thonght* from the subject, "Death has no terrors for me: it is an event I have always looked to with cheerfulness, if not with pleasure; and be assured that it is to mo a more grateful subject than any other." See Burke's enlogy, 146.

Howitt, Maav, Lines by, 297.

Hudson, or North Riven, a river of Niw York, rising in a monntainons conntry west of Lake Champlain, and flowing into the Atlantic below New York city. The tide flows up as far as Troy. Its scenery is very beautiful.

Hulks ; old, dismasted ships, formerly used as prisons in England.

Hume, David, author of a celebrated history of England, b. at Edinburgh in 1711. d. 1776. In his history he generally favors the side of power against the people ; and his insidions hostility to the Christian religion leads him to undervalue the labors and sufferings of many illustrions martyrs, religions and political. Extract from, 145.

Humility. The root of this word is the Latin humus, the gronnd.

Hurricane, The, by Bryant, 211.

Husrand, according to the Saxon derivation, is honse-hand, the binder of the honsehold by his labor and his government of love.

HydrostaticAl, relating to the science of weighing fluids.

Hvpekbol'ical (Gr. uperbalto, I throw beyond, overshoot), in rhetoric, exaggerated, tumid. The hy-per'bo-le is a figure, which may be extravagant either from its expressing too little or too much.

Hypothesis (Gr.), a supposition. Pl., ses.

Irid, or Ib, a contraction of the Lat., ibidem, meaning, in the same place, or atso there.

Idra, a Gr. word, from idein, to see; literally the image or resemblance of any object conceived by the mind.

Ides, one of the three epochs or divisions of the ancient Roman month. The calends were the first days of the different months; the ides, days near the middle of the months, and the nones, the ninth day before the ides. Brutus reminds Cassius of the ides of March (43 B. C.) as the time when Julius Caesar fell beneath their daggers and those of the other conspirators. "Tu quoque Brute !" (tho , too, Brutus !) was Cassar's exclamation on seeing Brutus stab. Casslus wad married to the half-sister of Brutus.

Iliad. See Homer.

Immoetalitv Of The Soul, Thonghts on

the, 150, 314, 31*, 412. Imprach, to accuse; to bring charge*

against a public officer uefore the propei

tribunal.

Impress', to compel to enter the public ser vice as a seaman.

U rim Ism, to tpcftk

•wp-wallj in Tcrw.

t\i u\vxX1ent IohOUXux, 181.

Indians, Fhe N. A., 299, 302. 38X

Isvxrt i. Narle, not to be subdued by force.

IxFle1VUn'a OF th1 V01ue,41, 46.

Isx-• k.\r. The original Latin is in'nocfii.t, and simply means, doing no hurt or harm. See p. 384.

lustrcenon. (Lat. in and struo, X furnish, set in order.) Compare this with the derivation of the word education.

Intangible, that cannot be tonched.

[htkmPrraJich, want of moderation, not in drinking only, but in eating, and any kind of Indulgence

Intrxse (Lai. inttndo, I stretch), strained, ardent, vehement, extreme in degree.

Io'ra, a imatl but famons island of the Hebrides, once the seat of an abbey, 371.

Irving, Wasrington, an admirable American writer, born in the city of New York, April 3,1783. His style is pure and felitilons, ami he has written no line "which dying he conld wish to blot." Climate of the Catskill Mts., Ill Ferdinand and Isabella, 281. The N. A. Indians, 382.

Israel. By this name is sometimes understood the person of Jacob, and sometimes the people of Israel, the race of Jacob.

Itri Riei.'s Sprar has reference to a passage iu Milton's Paradise Lost (beginning Book 4th, line 7SS), in which Itlmriel, one of the good angels appointed to search the garden, tonches with his spear (" for no falsehood can endure tonch of celestial temper ") the evil spirit, who, therenpon, starts up "discovered and surprised."

J A (prononnced ya, the a either as in father or water)t an adverb in German, corresponding to onr yes.

Jackson, Andrew, President of the United States from 1829 to 1837, was born in S. Carolina, in 17't7 ; died, 1845. He commanded at the battle of N. Orleans, where he displayed great military capacity. Extract from, 288.

Jacorin. In French history, a political club, during the first revolution, bore this name, having taken it from holding their meetings in the hall of a suppressed Jacobin monastery. The members were the most sanguinary and violent of the revolutionists; and Jacobinism came to mean a factions and bloody radicalism.

Januaav, the first month of the year. By some the name is derived from Janus, a Roman divinity; by others, from janua, a gate.

Jkfterscn, Thomas, third President of the United States, was born in Virginia, in 1743, and died on the 4th July, 1826, simultaneonsly with John Adams, the second president. It was Jefferson who drew up the famons Declaration of Independence, 381. Extract from, 28/.

Iekfrey, Francis, Lord, famons as a critic, b. in Scotland 1773, d. 1850. On the Steam-engine, 405.

Jeneen, Edward, an English physician, celebrated for having introduced, alnmt the year 1776. tlie practice of vaccination^ was born 1749, died 1823.

Jeri Salem, the capital of Palestine, and the scene of the crucifixion of the Savionr, is situated in the sonthern part of the conntry, abont thirty miles from the sea. It has been long in the hands of the Mahom etans, and is now a ruinons place, with abont twenty thonsand inhabitants, of whom five thonsand are Christians.

Jew, Wandering, The (p. 442), an imaginary personage, whose existence is derived from a legend, that when onr Savionr was on his way to execution he rested on a stone before the honse of a Jew, named Ahasuerus, who drove him away with curses; wherenpon, Jesus replied, "Wander thon upon the earth till I return." The fable runs, that the Jew, racked with remorse, has ever since been wandering over the earth. There is r»o fonndation in reason or history for this legend, but it lias been made the subject of stories by many writers, and there are many allusions to it in literature.

Jewell, Jorn', an English bishop in the time of Queen Elizabeth. He was an elegant Latin scholar; b. 1522, d. 1571.

Joan Of Arc, 259.

Jorn Littletorn, a poem. 336.

Jornsont, Dr. Samuel, born at Litchfield, Eng., 1709 ) died 17S4. His is one of the greatest names in English literature. His style, thongh somewhat pompons and wanting flenibility to moder n ears, is wielded by him with a peculiar mastery. He was the compiler of the first good diction:i ry of the English language. His biography, written by Boswell, is a storehonse of literary portraiture and informa tion, 371.

Jove (from Jovis, the genitive of Jupiter), the name of the supreme deity among the Romans.

Jchal is spoken of in the Bible (Gen. 4: 21) as i' the father of all such as handle the harp and organ."

Jcdah, the name of the fonrth son of Jacob and Leah -, also of a tribe and, finally, of a kingdom occupying the sonthern part of Palestine. The name Jew is derived from it.

July is so named from Jullus C«sar, who reformed the calendar, so that tbis month stood, as it does now with us, the seventh in order.

June, the sixth month, so named, aoccrding to some, from Juno • others say, from Junlus Brutus.

Jupiteh, in mythology, the Latin name of the deity called by the Greeks Zens: it is derived from that word, with the addition pater, father. See Jove.

Jc'\F.-xA'., one of the most caustic of the Roman satirists; and he may be called the last of the Roman poets. He died A. D. 128.

Elarn, Alfhonse, a French writer, distiu

« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »