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a cheapener.


CHAPXAX, a traficker, a cheapeper.

Extract from his Speeches 271. CHAPS (chops), the mouth of a beast.

CLEAVE ; as used p. 265, this is an inCHAPTER (trom the Lat. caput, a head), a transitive verb, or one in which the action

division of a book or treatise ; as Genesis is contined to the agent, and does uot pasa contains filty chapters.

over to an object. CHARLATAX, a quack; from an Italian CLERK ; the English pronunciation of this Worl, meaning to prate.

word (as if clark) is now repudiated. CHARLEMAGNE (Shar-le-man), King of the | CLEVER, dexterous, expert ; the meaning

Franks, and subsequently Emperor of the good-natured seems peculiar to Amer West, was born 712, died 811. His ica. name means Charles the Great. Although CLIFF (now generally spelt clef), a charac he did not know how to write, he was a ter in music ; from the L. clavis, a key. friend to learning. See p. 395.

Code. With the ancient Romans that part CHARLES the Twelfth of Sweden; born 1682; of the wood of a tree next to the bark was

killed by a cannon-ball, 1718. He was a called codex; and the laws written on military hero, who was lavish of human this wood, smeared with wax, took its bloni whenever his seltishuess or ambi name; whence is our word code, a collection was to be gratified.

tion of laws. CRICANARY («be-kan-er-y), trickery, by Cognac (kon-yak), a French brandy.

which a cause is delayed or perplexed. COLERIDGE, Samuel Taylor, an English poet CHILLON ( 1), 112. See Bonnivard. and philosopher, b. 1770, d. 1843. CAIROGRAPHY (kirografy), the art of writ Translation from Schiller, by, 313.

ing ; from the Gr. cheir, the hand, and COLOSSAL, gigantic, like a Colossus ; an grapho, I write.

ancient statue of Apollo, which stood Cho'k, a wedge used to secure anything! across the entrance of the harbor at

with, or for anything to rest on. The Rhodes, being so called. It was of brass, long-boat, when it is stowed, rests on two one hundred and five feet high, so that large chocks.

ships could pass under its legs. Cho'res, a number of singers ; verses of a COLOSSEUM (col-os-seun), The, 386. Bony, in which all present join.

COLLINS, Wm., an English poet, b. 1720, d. CHRISTENDOM, all the countries of the world, 1756. His odes, written when he was

the people of which profess Christian quite young, show great genius. ity.

Ode to the Passions, 102 CHRISTIANITY, Obligations to, 313.

COLUMBUS, Christopher, was born at Genoa, CHRONOY'ETER (Gr. chronos, time, and 1437 ; died 1506. See America. metros, measure), an instrument to COMBESTIBLE, capable of burning. measure time with great exactness.

COMET (from the Gr. komē, hair), a celes CHOM, a chamber-fellow.

tial body, with a luminous train. CICERO, the most famous of Roman orators ; Commons. In countries having kings and born 106 B. C., murdered by soldiers 43 nobles, the common people, or their repB. C.

resentatives, are thus called. Compared with Demosthenes, 243. COMPANION (from the Lat. commu'nis, Extract from, 267.

common, and panis, bread), literally, CINCINNATCS, a consul of ancient Rome; one with whom we share bread. he was repeatedly taken from his CON'CAVE, hollow ; opposed to convex, plough and farm to assume the highest spherical. offices of the state. A society of Ameri- CONCIERGERIE (kon-se-airzh'-re), the name can revolutionary officers took their name of a prison in Paris. from him, calling themselves Cincinnati, CONCISE (from the Lat. conci'do, to cut whence the great city of Ohio has its down), brief, containing few words. name.

CONCRETE (Lat. concres-ce-re, to grow toCIRCCMFERENCE (from the Lat. circum, gether, to coalesce in one mass). As an

around, and fero, I carry), a line that adj., formed by coalition of separate bounds the space of a circle.

particles in one body. In logic, existing CIRCUMSTANCE (from circum, around, and in a subject ; not abstract; as the white

stans, standing), an incident, a state of snow. As a noun, a compound, a mass aifairs.

formed by concretion. CIVILIZATIOX, Progress of, 338.

CONFCSED. As used by Heywood, p. 294, CLASSICS (from the Latin classes). The the accent is on the first syllable. In his

Romans were divided into six classes, and day, usage had not settled the accent of a classici was the name given to the first large class of English words. class ; whence the best Greek and Roman CONGREVE, WM., an English dramatist and authors have been, in modern times,

poet, b. 1672, d. 1729. His reputation, called classics, that is, first-class writers. CLASS Opinions ; those of a certain set or

very great in his day, has deservedly class of mutual admirers and supporters,

dwindled. 72.

The Preacher who Failed, &c., 286 CLAY, Henry, an American orator and

CONJURE ; when it means to call on solemnly statesman, born in Va. 1777, died 1852.

(as on p. 372), the accent is on the last For indly years be represented Kentucky

syllable ; when it ineans to affect by magic or to practise the arts of a conjurer, that acoent is on the first syllable.

in Congress.

COXSCIENCE ; derivation explained, 125. CRAVEN, A Coward; from to crave, because COXSENTANEOUS, agreeing, accordant.

supposed to crave his life. CONSONANTS ; derivation of, &c., 15, 16, 21. CREASY, E. S., on Demosthenes, 343. CONSTANCE', à lake between Germany and CROLY, REV. GEORGE, a poet of great ele

Switzerland, ten leagues long, and three in gance and power of diction, born in its greatest breadth.

Ireland about 1790. Estract from, 283. COXSTELLATION (from the Latin con, to- CROMWELL, OLIVER, one of the greatest

gether, and stella, a star), a group or characters in English history ; born 1599 cluster of fixed stars.

died 1658. Being elected to Parliament, CONTEM'PLATE. The Lat. word templum, a he attached himself to the Puritaus, be

temple, a place set apart for meditation, came one of the principal leaders against

enters into the derivation of this worl. King Charles I., and joined in bringing CONTEMPORARY, sometimes written cotem that monarch to the block. As a military porary (from the Lat. con, together, and leader, he oitained important victories,

tempus, time); living at the same time. which placed him at the summit of porrer, CONTENT (from con, and teneo, I hold). so tirat he dissolved the Long Parliament

He who is content is literally one who | (see p. 285), and, in 1653, assured the

contains ; who holds enough ; satisfied.. supreme authority in England, under the CONTINENT (Lat. continens, containing), | title of Lord Protector. At one period of

that which contains or holds; hence, in his life he was on the point of emigrating geography, a great extent of land nut dis to Massachusetts. joined by the sea. The word is much CRUCIFIX (from the Lat. cruci, to a cross, used by British writers to signify the and firi, I have fixed), a cross on which countries of Europe other than Great the body of Christ is fixed in effigy. Britain and Ireland.

CUMBER, perplexity, distress. CONTRARY. This word should not be used CUMBERLAND, RICHARD, a miscellaneous

as if the same in meaning as opposite. writer, b. in England 1732, d. 1811. “ Opposites" complete, while “contraries” |

1 Affectation, by, 144. exclude each other. Opposite qualities CURFEW (from the French couvre-feu, cover may meet in a person, but not contrary. fire), a bell anciently rung at eight o'clock CONVERSATION SPOILERS, 218.

in the evening, when people were obliged to COPSE (from the Gr. kopto, I fell, cut down), extinguish their fires and lights; accidents

a wood of small growth, because of being from fire being then very frequent and cut.

fatal, as houses were built mostly of wood. CORDUROY, a thick cotton stuff, corded or King Alfred once ordained that, at the ribbed.

ringing of the Curfew, or Cover-fire, Bell, CORONACH (kor'-o-nak), a wild expression of all the inhabitants of Oxford should cover

lamentation among the Scotch Highland up their fires and go to bed. “The curers ; poured forth by mourners over the few tolls the knell of parting day." See deal body of a friend, 258.

p. 272. There is no good authority for CORNCCO'PIA (L. cornu, a horn, copia, the punctuation which would here make plenty), the horn of plenty.

tolls an intransitive verb. CORREI (kõr'ray), the hollow side of the hill, CCRSES. The proverb (p. 61) simply means where game usually lies.

that the heart that can give vent to a CORTEGE (kõr-tă zjh), a train, a retinue.

curse against another is cursing itself COTERIE (ko-te-ree'), a set, clan, circle of most, by giving strength and developinent people.

to evil and malignant feelings. COTTLE, JOSEPH, a publisher and author, of CU'RCLE (from the Lat. currus, a chariot).

Bristol, Eng. His tribute to Henderson, The curule chair, among the Romans, wag p. 167.

a stool without a back, conveyed in a Coulter (köl'ter), the sharp iron of a chariot, and used by public officers.

plough. It is from the Latin culter, a CYCLE, a circle ; in chronology, a periodical plough-share, which is from colo, I culti space of time. vate.

CYLINDER, a long, circular body, of uniforme COUP-DE-MAIN (koo-uhr-mång'), a bola diameter. Adj., cylindrical.

stroke ; literally a hand-stroke. COURAGE, from the Lat. cor, the heart DAFFODILS (Gr. asphou' elos), a species of

the heart being the seat of courage, 242. Narcissus, with beautiful flowers of a deep COURIER, PAUL LOUIS, a witty French yellow hue. It flowers in April or May. writer, born 1773, assassinated 1825.

Some of the more hardy species grow An Adventure in Calabria, 305.

wild. COWPER, WM., one of the truest and hest of The Daffodils, a poem, 70. English poets, was born 1731, died 1800. DAGUERREOTYPE (da-gěr'ro-type), so called Ode to Peace, 137.

from M. Daguerre (dah-ghair ), a French Reciprocal Kindness, 197.

artist, who gave publicity to his invention Extracts from, 177, 218, 311, 410, 414. in 1839. An apparatus somewhat similar CRABBE, Rev. GEORGE, a very original Eng to his was contrived about the same tine

ush poet ; b. 1754, d. 1832. His de by M. Niepci, also a Frenchma). with scriptions of life among the poor are whom the honor should be partially ceverely true.

shared. See . 373. Practical Charity, by, 257

DARLIA & well-known plant, which receives ning «Te Deum laudamus," Pe praise

its name from Dani, a Swedish botanist. thee, o God. DANTS (Dan-t), the subliinest of the Italian DEWEY, Rev. ORVILLE, On Death, 318. pes, was born at Florence, 1265 ; diud DIALOGUE (from the Gr. dia, and legein, to 1321.

discourse together), a conversation be DAKLING, GRACE, an heroic girl, daughter tween two or more persone. The follow

of the keeper of the North Sunderland ing are dialogues: lighthouse, on the coast of England. A Adam and Orlando, 319. steam-veel having been wrecked in 1833 A Sister Pleads for a Brother, 320. on the rocks known as the Great llark Gil Blas and the Archbishop, 340. ars, Grue, who was then twenty-two The Trade of War, 343. years old, persuaded her father to go with Brutus and Cassius, 350. her to the rescue of the crew in an open Franklin and the Gout, 355. buit. There was a raging sea ; but they From Hamlet, 371. went, ani sived nine persons, who other Wolsey and Cromwell, 420 wise would have perished. Grace died a DIAM'ETEK, from the Gr. dia rough, and few years after this event. See Words metros, measure ; a straight line passing worth's poem on her, p. 201.

through the centre of a circle, and dividDAUPHIN ; formerly the title of the eldest son ing it into two equal parts.

of the Kiug of France. The editions of the DIAMOND, the most valuable of gems. The classics which were made for the use of word is pronounced either in three sylthe dauphin are entitled in usum del- lables (di'-a-mond) or in two (di'mond). phini.

DIAPA'SON (Gr. dia, through, and päson, DAVY, SIR HUMPHREY, an eminent chemist, all), in music, the octave or interval which

b. in Eng and 1778, d. 1829. He was an includes all the tones. By a bold metaagreeable writer and poet. 317.

phor, Dry len has beautifully availal DEATII, Thoughts on, 309, 318.

himself of this expression in his Ode, P DECEMBER, the twelfth month of our year, 416.

from the Latin decem, ten, because in the DICKENS, CHARLES, a popular English Rman year it constituted the tenth author, born in Portsmouth, 1812. month, the year beginning with March.

The World of Waters, 206. DEFLECT, to turn aside, deviate.

The Wind and Rain, 208. DEGERANDO, a French writer, author of an Alfred the Great, 244.

excellent work on seif-education. He died | DILEMMA (Gr.), a puzzling situation, where in 1812. lle was a distinguished member each alternative is bad. of the French Institute.

VIOGENES (Di-oj'e-nes). surnamed the Cynic, The Mind its own Educator, 322.

was a philosopher of ancient Greece ; DE sr, one who believes in the existence of porn 414 B. C. He is said to have had Gud, but not in revealed religion.

an interview with Alexander the Great at DEMO TIENES, Character of, 273.

Corinth, at which on the king's asking Democracy of Athens, 206.

him if he could oblige him in any way, the DEMRE (from the French des maurs, of Cynic replied, “ Yes, you can stand out of good manners), sober, downcast.

the sunshine." The Cynics were so called D3 QUINCEY, THOMAS, a powerful but ec from the Greek word kunikos, dog-like,

centric writer, born in England about because of their morose, snarling mode of 1790. The account of Joan of Arc (p. speech. 259) is chiefly taken from his masterly DIPLOMA (from the Gr. diploö, I fold up), a review of Michelet's (Meesh-la's) narra document, signed and sealed, conferring tive in his llistory of France.

some privilege, right or houor. This a DERIVATIVE (from the Lat. de, from, and letter or writing of an university, confer

rivus, a small stream), flowing or proceed ring a degree, is called a diploma.
ing from. A derivative word is one which LIPHTHONGS. See p. 16.
takes its origin in another word.

Disc, or Disk (from the Gr. diskos, a round DER'vis, a Persian word, meaning poor ; in plate, a quoit ; diskos being derived from

Mahom'eran countries, a religious person dikein, to throw, whence its application leading an austere life.

to the form of the thing thrown. The DERZHA'VIN, GABRIEL, a Russian poet and word dish has a similar derivation). Disk,

statesman, born 1743, died 1819. His in astronomy, means the face of the sun Ode to the Deity (see p. 153), as we learn and moon, as they appear to observers on from the translator, Dr. Bowring, has the earth. heen translated into Japanese, by order DISCHARGE. A debtor is said to have his of the emperor, and is hung up, embroi- discharge when he has a release or ao dered with gold, in the Temple of Jeddo.| quittance in full from his debt. It has also been translated into the DISCIPLE (from the Lat. disco, I learn), a Chinese and Tartar languages, written on learner ; a follower. a piece of rich silk, and suspended in the DISCOVER, literally, to uncover. Mark the disimperial palace at Pekin'.

tinction between this word and to intent. DE'UM, the accusative case of the Latin word We discover what already existeil ; we

Deus, God. "Te Deuin” are the first invent when we make something to be words of a celebrated Latin hymn, begin which hitherto was not. Harvey i

rovno?? he orculation of the blood ; but confound this contraction wit] Ere, which Watt "invented" the steam-engine.

see. Dock, the place where a criminal stands in ELECTRICITY (Gr. elektron, ember), the

court ; also, a ship-builder's yard. A substance in which the property of atdry dock has flood-gates to admit the traction after friction was first noticed. tide, or prevent its influx, as occasion Electric Telegraph, The, 378. miay require.

EL'EGY, commonly a plaintive poem, as is DOGMA, an opinion ; that which seems true implied by the Greek name, which signi

to one (from the Gr. dokein, to seem). fies to cry alas ! aias! (E! E! legein) Dogmatism, positive assertion, without Elegy in a Country Church-yard, 272. proof.

ELEMENTARY SOUNDS, Table of, 17. DOUBLOON, a Spanish coin of the value of ELEUSINIAN, from Eleusis, an ancient city of two pistoles.

Attica, north-west of Athens, and famous DRAGOON', to force to submit.

for the celebration of certain heathen DRAMA (drā'ma, or dră m-a). This word is religious rites, the chief design of which is

from the Gr. drao, I act or do ; and said to have been to inculcate a belief in means à composition in which the action the immortality of the soul, and in the or narrative is not related, but represent unity of the Deity. ed. Adj., dra-måt'ic. See extracts, p. ELIZABETH, Queen of England, was the 383 ; also Dialogues.

daughter of Henry VIII. by his quan DRAWING-ROOM, a room to which the com Anne Boleyn. She was born 1533, died

pany withdraw from the dining-room. 1602. See pp. 145, 247. DRYDEN, John, a celebrated English poet. ELLIOTT, EBENEZER, sometimes called the Born 1563; died 1631.

“ Corn-law rhymer” and “the poet of Futurity, by, 113.

the poor," was born in England in 1781 ; Ode on Cecilia's Day, 416.

died 1849. DUMAS, ALEXANDER, a French miscellaneous Woman's Mission, by, 359. writer, very voluminous.

ELLIPSE, an oval figure; the curve in Inconvenient Ignorance, 181.

which the planets perform their revoluFall of a Mountain, &c., 106.

tions about the sun. It presents to the Imprisonment of Bonnivard, 142.

eye, at once, variety and regularity, and Dorps, a gloomy, depressed state of mind. is, therefore, preferred by painters to the It is not an elegant word.

circle for the outline of their pictures. DYMOND, JONATHAN, on Duelling, 330.

For the grammatical use of the word, see

p. 54. EAGLE. The figure of an eagle was the ELLIPTICAL, having the form of an ellipse.

standard of the Romans; and has been | ELOQUENCE, the art of clothing thoughts in adopted as the emblem of the United the most suitable expressions, in order to States.

produce conviction or persuasion. EARLY RISING, Thoughts on, 225.

Eloquence of Statesmen, 266. ECHO (Gr.), the return or reverberation of a Moral and Religious Eloquence, 313. sound. Plural, echoes.

Eloquence of Science, 404. ECLAT (ek-kla', the a as in father), a burst- EMERALD, a mineral of a beautiful green

ing forth; hence, applause, pomp, show. color, obtained in greatest perfection from ECLIPSE (Gr. ekleipo, I cease, faint away, Peru. In value it is rated next to the

or disappear), the obsciration of the light ruby. of a heavenly body, 174.

EMERSON, R. W., The Snow-storm, 433. ECLIPTIC, the sun's path in the heavens. It EMPHASIS, see pp. 39, 40.

has been called the ecliptic because eclips- EMPORIUM, a Greek word, meaning a trades only happen when the moon is on the ing-place. It is now adopted into Eng same plane, or very near it.

lish, and signifies a city or place where ECONOMY (Gr. oikos, a house, and nomos, a | great commercial transactions are made.

law), originally, the thrifty management | EMPYREUMA, a Greek word, meaning the of a family ; hence applied to individual offensive smell produced by fire app ied and public concerns.

to organic matters, chiefly vegetable, in EDUCATION. This important word is traced close vessels. Empyreumat'ic oil is ob

to the Latin e, from, and duco, I lead. tained from various substances in this Thus education must educe; and that way. (says Trench) is to draw out, and not to ENCYCLOPÆDIA (from the Gr. en, in, kyclos, put in. To draw out what is in the a circle, and paideia, instruction), a circle child, -the immortal spirit which is of instruction ; a dictionary of science, the there, this is the end of education; and arts, &c. so much the word declares.

ENDICOTT, Joan, governor of the colony of Thoughts on, 184, 322.

Massachusetts, 1644. EDWARD, the Prince of Wales, surnamed | ENGHIEN, Duc d' (Duke D'ang-ghe-ang' ;

the Black Prince, son of Edward III. of the first a as in father), son of the Duke England, was born in 1330, died 1376. of Bourbon, was born in France in 1772. While in France, in 1356, he won the great Being accused of conspiracies against battle of Poictiers (pronounced in French Bonaparte as First Consul, although Piva-te-a', the first a as in water).

nothing was proved against him, he E'ER (år), a contraction for ever. Do not! underwent sentence of death, 1804.

ESTREPOT (ang-tre-po', the a 39 in father, Avoid the blunder of pronouncing this

the e as in her), a warehouse for the word (extempore) in three syllables.
diposit of goods.

EXTRAORDINARY (eks-tror'-de-na-ry).
EPIL MERAL (e-fem'eral). This is from the EXTRINSIC, external, outward.
Gr. ephi, for, and imēra, a day ; perish-
ing with the day; ahort-lived.

FABLE (Lat. fari, to speak). In Englise Ep'te (Gr. čjos, a word), a poem of the nar it is applied to any feigned thing ; gene

rative kind, describing generally the ex rally a story inculcating a moral precept. ploits of heroes.

See pp. 67, 71, 72, 92, 130, 286, 412. EPITRE, one given to luxury ; so called FALL OF A MOUNTAIN, 105.

trom Epicu’rus, a Greek philosopher, FAME. The root of this word meaning whose doctrines did not, however, author simply to speak or talk (good or ill), fame ize the sensual construction which was may be either favorable or the contrary, wrested from them.

We often find that both praise and de EPITOME (epit'-0-0), an ahridgment, an traction are much exaggerated in men's

aböreviation, or compendious abstract. mouths; hence the proverb, "commou EP cu ēn-ok or e-pok). This is from the fame is a common liar," 64, 309. Gr. epecho, I stop, and means a certain Faust. The au pronounced like ow in how. tixed point of time, made famous by sme FEBRUARY is from the Lat. febrvo, I cleanse; remarkable event, from whence ensuing because on the fifteenth of this month the years are numbered.

great feast of purification, called februa, ERA differs from epoch in this: ēra is al was held among the Romans.

point of time fixed by some nation or de- FENELON, Archbishop of Cambray, in France, nomination of men ; epoch is a point a great writer, and most amiabie man,

fixed by historians and chronologists. was b. 1651, d. 1715. ERE (ar), before ; sooner than ; supposed Fidelity in Little Things, 85.

to be from the Saxon er, signifying the Cicero and Demosthenes, 243. morning. Being pronounced like Eer, FERDINAND AND ISABELLA, 281.

this word is sometimes mistaken for it. FERRA'RA, an ancient and famous city of ES'SAY, in literature, a short treatise, or | Italy; once the capital of a sovereign

tract. Lord Bacon first used it in this duchy. sense.

FEUDALISM. The feudal system was that EUREKA (eu-re-ka) a Greek word, meaning, form of government anciently subsisting I have found. See p. 275.

in Europe, under which a victorious leader EURIPIDES (U-rip'i-des), a Grecian tragic allotted considerable portions of land,

poet, b. 480 B, C. He was torn in pieces called fiefs, or feuds, to his principal offi by the dogs of King Archelarus, whose cers, who, in their turn, divided their guest he was. Soph'ocles, who survived possessions among their inferiors; the him, publicly mourned his loss.

condition being that the latter should EVANDER is said to have built on the Tiber, render military service both at home and

at the foot of the Palatine Hill, a town abroad. which was incorporated with Rome. He FIELD. This word (says Trench) properly taught the arts of peace.

means a clearing where the trees have EVANGEL (from two Gr. words, meaning to been felled, or cut down, as in all our

Tell well, to announce good tidings), early English writers it is spelled without the Gospel; the history of Christ's life the i, “feld,” and not " field." and resurrection.

FIJI (fe-jee), one of the S. Pacific islands. EVSRETT, EDWARD, b. in Massachusetts, FIRE-WATER, the appropriate name given by 1794. Quote pp. 185, 187, 249.

the Indians to intoxicating liquors. EXAMINE ; saill to be from the Latin, ex- FLEECY TROOPS. By a figure known as Kvrloin the ammortiva darrea of the

amen, the tongue or beam of a balance. periphrasis (circumlocution), the poet EXCEL'SIOR, the comparative degree of the

thus desionate shpen. 136.*** Latin adjective, excelsus, high ; so that PLINT, TIMOTHY, an American writer, and a it means higher. 285.

missionary to the Mississippi valley. He EXCOMMUNICATE, to expel from the com died in 1839. See pp. 299, 302. munion of the church.

FLORENCE, capital of the Grand Duchy of EXILE, THE POOR, 82.

Tuscany, and one of the finest cities in EXIT, the third person of the Latin verb the world. The present population is

exeo, I go out ; literally, he or it goes 106,899. out; hence the departure of a player | FLUKES, the broad triangular plates at the from the stage; a way of departure, pas extremity of the arms of an anchor. The sage out of a place.

fins of a whale, from their resemblance, EX'ODUS, a way, or passage out; ēgress, de are sometimes thus called.

parture; the title of the second book of FLYING Fish, THE 217. Moses, which describes the journey from Folio (Lat. folium, a leaf), a book of the Egypt.

largest size, formed by once doubling a EXPLETIVE, a word not necessary to the sheet of paper. sense ; one used to fill a space.

FOOLSCAP, a kind of paper, usually about EXTEMPORE (ex-tem'-po-rë), on the spur of seventeen inches by fourteen. The deriva

the moment, at the time ; from the Lat. tion of the word is uncertain. worʻls ex, from, and tempore the time. /

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