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surface, and represented in a vivid manner iu their proper colors, shapes, &c.

Camilla, n ancient mythology, one of the swift-footed servants of Diana, accustomed to the chase and to war.

Campaona [ham-pan'-ya^ the a pronounced like a in father), a term applied to the low lauds of the Tiber about Rome in Italy. The word simply meaus a flat, open country. The Roman Campagna is quite unhealthy at certain seasous.

Campbell, Thomas, a great lyrical poet (see Lyrical), was born in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1777; died 1844. He wrote his ftua poem of "The Pleasures of Hope" when onlv twenty-two years of age.

Fr. "Pleasures of Hope," 309, 412, 310.

Lord Cllin's Daughter, 276.

Canaan (Ca'nan), all that tract of land, on each side of the Jordan in Palestine, which God gave for an inheritance to the children of Israel.

Cana Ries, thirteen islands in the Atlantic Ocean, about sixty miles from the west coast of North Africa; known to the ancients as the Fortunate Isles. They were re-discovered in 1402, and seized by the Spaniards in 1420, who planted vines there. The canary-bird is a native of these isles.

Cannon, from the Latin word eanderg, to be white, to shine, to glitter \ hence sincerity, purity. The word candle is of the same genealogy.

Cannlrs, candlestick. See Candor.

Can'nfbal, a person that devours human flesh. The word is probably of Indian origin.

Canninn, George, a highly accomplished orator and writer, born in London in 1770, died in 1827- See p. 270.

Capacity (from the L. capio, I hold, or take), the power of containing or taking.

Caps (from the L. caput, the head), a point "or head of land projecting from the mainland into a sea or lake.

Can'icature (from the Italian caricare, to charge, to load), a distorted, exaggerated likeness of any thing or person.

Carlyle, Thomas, an eccentric writer, born iu Scotland in 1796. His style, at first simple and eloquent, latterly became affected and grotesque, though often vigorous.

The Sword and Press, by, 255.

Cahnival (from two Latin words, carni and vale, meaning, farewell to Jlesk), a festival celebrated with merriment and revelry in Roman Catholic countries, during the week before Lent.

Cahniv'orous, feeding on flesh.

Carrier-piceon, The, a poem by Moore, 137. The carrier-pigeon flics at an elevated pitch, in order to surmount every obstacle between her and the place to which she is destined

Cashier (Fr. casser, to break), to dismiss from service.

Castle-builninn, forming visionary project* , building tl castles in the air," 71

Castle of indolence, the title of a cekorated

poem by Thomson, written in the manner of Speuser, and containing many obsolet*

words.

Cass, Lewis, On Labor, 427.

Catacombs (from the Greek words, kata, down, and kumbos, a hollow), a cave for the burial of the dead.

Catiline, a Roman of great talents, but dissolute habits. He couspired agaiust his country, and was denounced by Cicero in his most celebrated oration.

Catsrill Mountaius are in the vicinity of Catskill, Green county, N. Y., on the Hudson. They received their name from the great number of catamounts formerly killed there, 111.

Cavehn by the Sea, The, 183.

Cecilia. There are several saints of this name in the Catholic church. The most celebrated, who has been erroneously regarded as the inventress of the organ, suffered martyrdom A. D. 220. How Cecilia came to be the patron-saint of music is not agreed.

Ode on Cecilia's Day, 416.

Cbnis, Mount, a mountain of the Alps in Savoy. It is eight thousand six hundred and seventy feet above the level of the sea.

Century (from the Latin centum, a hundred), in a general seuse, anything consisting of a hundred parts; a period of a hundred years. Chalmers, Thomas, a celebrated Scotch divine, born 1780, died 1847. Planets and Heavenly liodies, 224. Ministry of the Beautiful, 317. Chambers, Robert, a distinguished Scottish writer and publisher, born 1801. Complaint ofa Stomach, 157. Self-killing, 171.

Kindness to Brute Animals, 195.

Best Kind of Revenge, 213.

Sound and Seuse, 236.

Passage of Beresina, 326.

Idleness, Jesting, &c., 370.

Common Errors, 408. Channinn, Wm. Eilery, a celebrated American clergyman and writer, born at Newport, B. I., 1780; died 1842.

On the Teacher's Calling, 186.

The Free Mind, 277.

Effects of Irreligion, 316.

The Worth of Books, 398. Chase on the Ice, 131. Chatham, Wm. Pitt, Earl of (or Lord), wan one of the greatest orators and statesmen of England, and a stanch friend of the American colonies in their difficulties with the British government. He was born 1708, died 1778.

Described by Hazlitt, Grattan, 245, 6,

On Taxing America,- 267. Cha-me'-leon, a species of lizard, found in Asia and Africa. It has the remarkable power of changing its iolor, producing a succession of rich and varied tints over the whole body. On this peculiarity Merrick's admirable fable (see p. 413) is founded.

C it A i * i w a trafficker, R cheap^ner.

Chaps (chops), the month of a beast.

Chapter (trom the kit. caput, a head), a division of a bi.ok or treatise; as Genesis contains fifty thapters.

Chaelatan, R quack from an Italian word, meaning to prate.

Charlemaone t8liar-le-man), King of the Franks, and subsequently Emperor of the West, was born 742, died 814. His name means Charles the Great. Althongh he did not know how to write, he was a friend to learning. See p. 395.

Chaeles the Twelfth of Sweden ; born 1692; killed by a cannoa-ball, 1718. He was a military hero, who was lavish of human blood whenever his selfishness or ambition wai to 1k." gratified.

Cricanurv (she-kao-er-y), trickery, by which a cause is delayed or perplexed.

Crillun (shiUuntr), 142. See lionnivard.

Cmirogeaph? (kirog'rafy), the art of writing; from the Gr. cheir, the hand, and erapho, I write.

Choex, a wedge used to secure anything with, or for anything to rest on. The long-boat, when it is stowed, rests on two large chocks.

Cho'eus, a number of singers; verses of a song, in which all present join.

Christendom, all the conntries of the world, the people of which profess Christianity.

Christianity, Obligations to, 313. Chronom'eter (Gr. chrono», time, and

mctrox, measure), an instrument to

measure time with great exactness. Chcm, a chamber-fellow. Cicero, the most famons of Roman orators;

born 106 B. C, murdered by soldiers 43

B. C

Compared with Demosthenes, 243.

Extract from, 267. Cincinsa'tus, a consul of ancient Rome; he was repeatedly taken from his plongh and farm to assume the highest offices of the state. A society of American revolutionary officers took their name from him, calling themselves Cincinnati, whence the great city of Ohio has its name.

Circcmference (from the Lat. circum, Rroand, and fe.ro, I carry), a line that bonnds the space of a circle.

UacciUtan'ce (from circum, aronnd, and Rffitta! atanding)' au incident, a state of

iSL^ J?" **** ctaMM). The 5S ZZ*£l1t*i six cla/ses, and class: wheWS n.ame ^iven to the Qrst authors have £f ««* and Roman called elastic» tiff^ m modera tunes,

Class Op SoTM lst flret-class writers!

class of nmtu-,i 1t ?of a certain set or 72. i4i" ««nirers and supporters,

cl-*v, Henry an A statesman, Wn ut^icsta orator and ^-,'"^'y yearsV r a" W",died 1852. Congreas. Ue repreaeuted Kentucky

Extract from his Speeches 271. Clrave; as used p. 265, this is an h>

trausitive verb, or one In which the action

is confined to the agent, and does not past

over to an object. Clekk; the English pronunciation of thia

word (as it dark') is now repudiated. Cleven, dexterons, expert -, the meaning

good-natured seems peculiar to Amer

ica.

Cliff (now generally spelt clef), a charac ter in music; from the L. clavis, a key.

Code. With the ancient Romans that part of the wood of a tree next to the bark was called codex; and the laws written on this wood, smeared with wax, took its name; whence is onr word code, a collection of laws.

Cognac (k&o-yak), a French brandy.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, an English poet and philosopher, b. 1770, d. 1843. Translation from Schiller, by, 343.

Colossal, gigantic, like a Colossus; an ancient statue of Apollo, which stood across the entrance of the harbor at Rhodes, being so called. It was of brass, one hundred and five feet high, so that ships conld pass under its legs.

Colosseum (col-os-se'um), The, 386.

Collins, Wra., an English poet, b. 1720, d. 1756. His odes, written when he was quite yonng, show great genius. Ode to the Passions, 402.

Columbus, Christopher, was born at Genoa, 1437 ; died 1506. See America.

Combustible, capable of burning.

Comet (from the Gr. kome, hair), a celes tial body, with a luminons train.

Commons. In conntries having kings and nobles, the common people, or their representatives, are thus called.

Companion (from the Lat. commu'nis. common, and pan is, bread), literally, one with whom we share bread.

Con'cave, hollow opposed to convex, spherical.

Conciergerie (koa-se-airzh'-re), the name of a prison in Paris.

Concise (from the Lat. conci'do, to cot down), brief, containing few words.

Conceete (Lat. concres-ce-re, to grow together, to coalesce in one mass). As an adj., formed by coalition of separate particles in one body. In logic, existing in a subject; not abstract; as the white snow. As a nonn, a componnd, a mass formed by concretion.

Confused. As used by Ileywood, p. 294, the accent is on the first syllable. In his day, usage had not settled the accent of a large class of English words.

Congeeve, Wm., an English dramatist and poet, b. 1672, d. 1729. His reputation, very great in his day, has deservedly dwindled. The Preacher who Failed, &c., 286

Conture ; when it means to call on solemnly (as on p. 372), the accent is on the last syllable ; when it means to affect by magic, or to practise the arts of a conjurer, tut accent is on the first syllable.

Oonpctence ; derivation explained, 125.

Cosy Est A'stbous, agreeing, accordant.

Cousonants ; derivation of, &c., 15, 16, 21.

Coustance', a lake between Germany and Switzerland, ten leagues long, and three in its greatest breadth.

Constella'tion (from the Latin con, together, and atelta, a star), a group or cluster of fixed stars.

Cont Em'plate. Tini Lat. word templum, a temple, a place set apart for meditation, enters into the derivation of this word.

Contem'porary, -sometimes written cotemporary (from the Lat. con, together, and tempus, time); living at the same time.

Content (from con, and teneo, I hold). He who is content is literally one who contaius; who holds enough; satisfied.

Continent (Lat. continent, containing), that which contaius or holds; hence, in geography, a great extent of land not disjoined by the sea. The word is much used by British writers to signify the countries of Europe other than Great Britain and Ireland.

Conteart. This word should not be used as if the same in meaning as opposite. "Opposites M complete, while " contraries" exclude each other. Opposite qualities may meet in a person, but not contrary.

Conversation Spoilers, 248.

Copse (from the Gr. kopto, I fell, cut down), a wood of small growth, because of being cut.

Cornuroy, a thick cotton stuff, corded or ribbed.

Coronach (kor'-o-nak), a wild expression of lamentation among the Scotch Highlanders ; poured forth by mourners over the dead body of a friend, 258.

Cohncco'fia (L. cornu, a horn, copra, plenty), the horn of plenty.

Correi (kdr'ray), the hollow side of the hill, where game usually lies.

Cortege (kfir-tA'zjli), a train, a retinue.

Coterie (ko-te-rte'), a set, clan, circle of people.

Cottle, Josepn, a publisher and author, of Bristol, Eng. His tribute to Henderson, p. 167.

Coulter (kol'ter), the sharp iron of a plough. It is from the Latin culler, a plough-share, which is from colo, I cultivate.

Coup-ne-main (koo-duhr-mang'), a bold

stroke; literally a hand-stroke. Couhage, from the Lat. cor, the heart —

the heart being the seat of courage, 242. Couriea, Pacl Loins, a witty French writer, born 1773, assassinated 1825. An Adventure in Calabria, 305. Cowpen, Wm., one of the truest and best of English poets, was born 1731, died 1800. Ode to Peace, 137. Reciprocal Kindness, 197. Extracts from, 177, 248, 311, 410, 414. Crarhh, Rev. Geoege, a very original Engwih poet b. 1754, d. 1832. His descriptious of life among the poor are ■everely true.

Practical Charity, by, 257

Crayen, a coward from to crave, because

supposed to crave his life.

Creasy, E. S., on Demosthenes, 343.

Croly, Rev. Geoege, a poet of great ele gance and power of diction, born in Ireland about 1790. Extract from, 283.

Cromwell, Olivea, one of the greatest characters in English history ; born 1599 died 165-3. Being elected to Parliament, he attached himself to the Puritaus, became one of the principal leaders agaiust King Charles I., and joined in bringing that monarch to the block. As it military leader, he obtained important victories, which placed him at the summit of power, so tiiat lie dissolved the Long Parliament (see p. 2SS), and, i.i 1653, assumed the

. supreme authority in England, under the title of Lord Protector. At oue period of his life he was on the point of emigrating to Massachusetts.

Crucifin (from the Lat. cruci, to a cross, andJixi, I have fixed), a cross on which the body of Christ is fined in efligy.

Cumbea, perplexity, distress.

Cumberlann, Richarn, a miscellaneous writer, b. in England 1732, d. 1811. Affectation, by, 144.

Curfew (from the French couvre-feu, cover fire), a bell anciently rung at eight o'clock in the evening, when people were obliged to extinguish their fires and lights; accidents from tire being then very frequent and fatal, as houses were built mostly of wood. King Alfred once ordained tliat, at the ringing of the Curfew, or Cover-tire, Bell, all the inhabitants of Oxford should cover up their tires and go to bed. "The curfew tolls the knell of parting day." See p. 272. There is no good authority for the punctuation which would here make tolls an intrausitive verb.

Curses. The proverb (p. 64) simply meaus that the heart that can give vent to a curse agaiust another is cursing itself most, by giving strength and development to evil and malignant feelings.

Cc'rule (from the Lat. currus, a chariot). The curule chair, among the Romaus, was a stool without a back, conveyed in a chariot, and used by public officers.

Cycle, a circle ; in chronology, a periodical space of time.

Cylinnea, a long, circular body, of uniform diameter. Adj., cylindrical.

Daffonils (Gr. asphsd'elos), a species of Narcissus, with beautiful flowers of a deep yellow hue. It flowers in April or May. Some of the more hardy species grow wild.

The Daffodils, a poem, 70. Daguerreotype (da-ger'ro-type), so called from M. Daguerre (dah-ghair), a French artist, who gave publicity to his invention in 1839. An apparatus somewhat similar to his was contrived about the same nine by M. Niepci, also a Frenchman, with whom the honor should be paruaUj shared. See p. 37$.

Dahlia. a veU-kwnrn plant, which receives iu name from i - , :. a Swedish botanist.

Dantk (Dan-tf ), the sublunest of the Italian pouts, was born at Florence, 1205; died 1321.

Darling, Gr.icb, an beroto girl, daughter of the keeper of the North Sunderlaad lighihonf?, on the coast of England. A •team-vessel having been wrecked in 1838 cu the rocks known as the Great ilarkars, Grace, who was then twenty-two "years old, persuaded her lather to go with her to the rescue of the crew in an open boat. There was a raging sca but they went, and saved nine persons, who otherwise wonld have perished. Grace died a few years after this event 3ee Wordsworth's poem on her, p. 201.

Dau-ui S formerly the title of the eldest son of the King of France. The editions of the classics which were made for the use of Die dauphin arc entitled in uxum delphini.

Davt, Sir Himphrav, an eminent chemist, b. in Engiand 177it, d. 1829. He was an agreeable writer and poet. 317.

Dxath, Thonghts on, 309, 318.

Decemben, the twelfth month of onr year, from die Latin decern, ten, because in the Roman year it constituted the tenth month, the year beginning with March.

Deflrot, to turn aside, deviate.

Dkgerahdo, a French writer, author of an excellent work on seif-educatiob. He died in 1842. He was a distinguished member of the French Institute. The Mind its own Educator, 322.

Deist, one who believes iu the existence of
God, but not in revealed religiont

Dbmos'thenes, Character of, 243.
Democracy of Athens, 200.

I i M . (frun the French des mrewr.t, of good manners), sober, downcast.

Di Qcincey, Thomas, a powerful but eccentric writer, born in England abont 1790. The acconnt of Joan of Arc (p. 259) is chiefly taken from his masterly review of Michetet'l (Meesh-la's) nam tive in his History of France.

Pxiuv'Atirx (from tne Lat. de, from,•ami rivus, a small stream), flowing or proceeding from. A derivative word is one which takes its origin in another word.

DBr'vis, a Persian word, meaning poor; in Mahom'etan conntries, a religions person leading an austere life.

Daaxhi'viX, Garriel, a Russian poet and statesman, burn 1743, died 1819. His Ode to the Deity (see p. 153), as we learn from the translator, Dr. liowring, has been translated into Japanese, by order of the empVror, and is hung up, embroidered with gold, in the Temple of Jeddo, It has also been translated into the Chinese and Tartar languages, written on a piece of rich silk, and suspended in the imperial palace at Pekin'. Dbvm, the accusative case of the Latin word DetM, Qod. "Te Denm" are the fiist words of a celebrated Latin hymn, begin

ning " Te Denm laudamns," We. praite thee, O God. Dkwkv, Rev. Orville. on Death, 318. Dialooue (from the Gr. dia, and lege in, to

disconrse together), a conversation be tween two or more persons. The follow ing are dialogues:

Adam and Orlando, 319. A Sister Pleads for a Brother, 320. Gil Bias and the Archbishop, 340. The Trade of War, 343. Brutus and Casslus, 350. Franklin and the Gont, 355. From Hamlet, 371. Wolsey and Cromwell, 423 Dlam'eter, from the Gr. dia irongh, and metros, measure; a straight line passing throngh the centre of a circle, and dividing it into-two e^ual parts. Diamond, the most valuable of gems. The word is prononnced either in three syllables (dl'-a-mond) or in two (di'mond). Diapa'sox (Gr. dia, throngh, and pasSn, all), in music, the octave or interval which includes all the tones. By a bold metaphor, Dryden has beautifully availed himself of this expression in his Ode, p 416.

Dickens, Chaeles, a popular English
author, born in Portsmonth, 1812.
The World of Waters, 206.
The Wind and Rain, 208.
Alfred the Great, 244.
Dilemma (Gr.), a puzzling situation, where

each alternative is bad. uioGiix1a(Di-6j'e-nes). surnamed the Cynic, was a philosopher of ancient Greece; Dorn 414 B. C. He is said to have had an interview with Alexander the Great at Corinth, at which, on the king's asking him if he conld oblige him in any way, the Cynic replied, "Yes, yon can stand ont ol the sunshine." The Cynics were so called from the Greek word kunikos, dog-like, because of their morose, snarling mode of speech.

Diplo'ma (from the Gr. diploo, I fold up), a document, signed and sealed, conferring some privilege, right or honor. Thus a letter or writing of an university, conferring a degree, is called ndiplo?na. Dipn'thongs. See p. 16. Disc, or Disk (from the Gr. disfcos, a ronnd plate, a quoit diskos being derived from dikein, to throw, whence its application to the form of the thing thrown. The word dish has a similar derivation). Disk, in astronomy, means the face of the sun and moon, as they appear to observers on the earth.

Discharge. A debtor is said to have ha discharge when he has a release or acquittance in full from his debt. Disciple (from the Lat. disco., I learn), a

learner; a follower. Discoven, literally, to uncover. Mark the distinction between this word and to invent. We discover what already existed; we invent when we make something to be which hitherto was not. Harvey "iia covrri^' ihe divulation of the blood ; but Watt "invented" the steam-engine.

Dock, the place where a criminal stands in court ; also, a ship-builder's yard. A dty dock has flood-gates to admit the tide, or prevent its influx, as occasion may require.

Dogma, an opinion ; that which seems true to one (from the Or. dokein, to seem). Dogmatism, positive assertion, without proof.

Doubloon, a Spanish coin of the value of

two pistoles. Dhagoon', to force to submit. Drama (dra'ma, or drfcm-a). This word is from the Gr. drao, I act or do; and meaus a composition in which the action or narrative is not related, but represented. Adj., dra-m&t'ic. See extracts, p. 383; also Dialogues. Pha Wing-room, a room to which the company withdraw from the dining-rooin. Drtnbn, Jorn, a celebrated English poet. Born 1563; died 1631. Futurity, by, 113. Ode on Cecilia's Day, 416. Dumas, Alexannea, a French miscellaneous writer, very voluminous.

Inconvenient Ignorance, 181.
Fall of a Mountain, &c., 106.
Imprisonment of Bonnivard, 142.
Dumps, a gloomy, depressed state of mind.

It is not an elegant word.
Dymonn, Jonathan, on Duelling, 330.

Eagle. The figure of an eagle was the standard of the Romaus ; and has been adopted as the emblem of the United States.

Early Risinn, Thoughts on, 225.

Ecao (Gr.), the return or reverberation of a sound. Plural, echoes.

Eclat (ek-kla', the a as in father), a bursting forth; hence, applause, pomp, show.

Eclipse (Gr. ekleipo, I cease, faint away, or disappear), the obscuration of the light of a heavenly body, 174.

Eci.ip'tic, the sun's path in the heaveus. It has been called the ecliptic because eclipses only happen when the moon is on the same plane, or very near it.

Economy (Gr. otkos, a house, and nim&s, a law), originally, the thrifty management of a family; hence applied to individual and public concerus.

Enucation. This important word '3 traced to the Latin e, from, and duco, I lead. Thus education must educe; and that (says Trench) is to draw out, and not to put in. To draw out what is in the child, — the immortal spirit which is there, — this is the end of education ; and Bo much the word declares. Thoughts on, 184, 322.

Enwarn, the Prince of Wales, surnamed the Black Prince, son of Edward III. of England, was born in 1330, died 1376. While in France, in 1356, he won the great battle of Poictiers (pronounced in French Pva-ta-d', the first a as in water).

E'fc-r (ki% a contraction for ever. Do not

confound this contraction with Ere, which see.

Electricity (Gr. elektron, amber), the substance in which the property of attraction after friction was first noticed. Electric Telegraph, The, 378.

El'egy, commonly a plaintive poemras is implied by the Greek name, which signi flea to cry alas! alas ! (E! E! legcin) Elegy in .a Country Church-yard, 272.

Elementart Sounns, Table of, 17.

Eleusinian, from Elensis, an ancient city of Attica, north-west of Atheus, and famous for the celebration of certain heathen religious rites, the chief design of which is said to have been to inculcate a belief in the immortality of the soul, and in the unity of the Deity.

Elizarrtn, Queen of England, was the daughter of Henry VIII. by his qut*a Anne Boleyn. She was born 1033, died 1602. See pp. 145, 247.

Elliott, Ebenezen, sometimes called the lt Corn-law rhymer" and "the poet of the poor," was born in England in 1781; died 1849.

Woman's Mission, by, 359.

Ellipse, an oval figure; the curve in which the planets perform their revolutious about the sun. It presents to the eye, at once, variety and regularity, and is, therefore, preferred by painters to the circle for the outline of their pictures. For the grammatical use of the word, see p. 54.

Elliptical, having the form of an ellipse. Eloquence, the art of clothing thoughts in the most suitable expressious, in order to produce conviction or persuasion. Eloquence of Statesmen, 266. Moral and Religious Eloquence, 313. Eloquence of Science, 404. Emeealn, a mineral of a beautiful green color, obtained in greatest perfection from Peru. In value it is rated next to the ruby.

Emerson, R. W., The Snow-storm, 433.

Emphasis, see pp. 39, 40.

Emporicm, a Greek word, meaning a trading-place. It is now adopted into »ig lish, and signifies a city or place where great commercial trausactious are made.

Empyreuma, a Greek word, meaning the offeusive smell produced by lire app'ied to organic matters, chiefly vegetable, in close vessels. Empyrenmat'ie oil is obtained from various substances In thii way.

Encyclopaenia (from theGr. en, in, kyclos^ a circle, and paideia, iustruction), a circle of iustruction ; a dictionary of science, the arts, &c.

Ennicott, Jorn, governor of the colony of Massachusetts, 1644.

Enghien, Due d' (Duke D'ang-ghe-ang'; the first a as in father), son of the Duke of Bourbon, was born in France in 1772. Being accused of couspiracies agaiust Bonaparte as First Cousul, although nothing was proved agaiust him, he underwent sentence of death, 130-1.

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