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gave the name, is not now accurately | onoma, a name), without a name ; nam known. Alexander Von Humbolilt, who less. A book or writing is said to bo Btudied the question closely, ascribed the anonymous when the author's name is gereral reception of the name America to suppressed. its having been introduced into a popular A C., or Ante Christum, affixed to dates work on geography, published in 1507. signify so many years before the birth of Discovery by Columbus, 188, 191.

Jesus Christ. On Taxing the Colonies, 267.

A. M. These initials may stand for ante Progress of, by Burke, 269.

meridiem, before noon; artium magister, The American Union, 271.

master of arts; and anno mundi, in the AMPHITHEATRE (from the Gr. amphi, about, year of the world.

and theatron, a seeing-place), in anti- | ANTIQUITY (from the L. antiquus or antiquity, a spacious editice of a circular or cus, ancient, which is from ante, before), oval form, having its area encomngosed the times of old. with rows of seats, one above another, and ANTIPODES (an-tip'o-dez), from the Greek used for gladiatorial and other shows. See anti, against, opposed to, and pous, a p. 386.

foot; those people who, living on the A MUSE. This word (says Trench) plainly other side of the globe, have their feet

atlirms of itself that amusement must directly opposite to ours. Do not misfirst be earned. It is from a, without, pronounce this word, as many do, by and musis, the Muses, who, it must be making the last five letters of it one syl remembered, were the patronesses, in old lable instead of two. time, not of poetry alone, but of history, | APPETITE (from the Latin appeterë, to seek geometry, and all other studies as well. | after), though used for desire generally, is What shall we, then, say of those who oftener applied to the desire of food, would fain have their lives to be all hunger. " amusement," or who claim it otherwise APOLOGUE (from the Gr. apo, from, and than as this temporary withdrawal a logos, a saying), a fable or fiction, of musis (from the Muses)? The very word which the object is moral. See Fable. condemns them. See Muses.

Select Apologues, 72. ANALOGY (from the Gr. ana, and logos, ac Apologues in Verse, 286.

cording to rule, or proportion), a relation APOS'TATIZE (from the Gr. apo, from, and of similarity between different things in istasthai to stand), to stand away from ; certain respects. Adj., anal'ogous.

to desert or forsake. . ANECDOTE (from the Gr. a, not, ek, from, | APOS'TRO-PHE (Gr. apo, from, and stro.

and dotos, given ; meaning, originally, I phê, a turning). In rhetoric, a figure something not yet given out, or divulged of speech by which the orator or writer to the world); any little story or incident suddenly breaks off from the previous told or narrated.

method of his discourse, and addresses, in Anecdotes and Incidents, 278.

the second person, some person or thing, ANCIENT Mariner. In Coleridge's poem abgent or present. For the use of the

under this title, the mariner is guided to word in grammar, see p. 49. his own country by angelic spirits, who Satan's Apostrophe to the Sun, 349. 66 stood as signals to the land, each one a APRIL. The fourth month of the year. The lovely light," 398.

name is probably derived from the Lat. ANGELO, Michael Buonarotti, the greatest | aperirë, to open ; from the opening of the

of Italian artists, alike eminent in paint buds, or of the earth in ploughing. ing, sculpture and architecture ; no had | AQUEDUCT (Lat. aqua, water, and ductus, poet, and a noble-hearted man. Born at a leading). A conduit (kon'dit), or chanChiusi, in 1474 ; died at Rome, in 1564. nel, for conveying water from one place to Anecdote of, 278.

another. ANGLE (from the L. an şulus, a corner). | AQUA CLAUDIA, a famous aqueduct in Rome,

When one line stands upon another, so as begun by the Emperor Nero in the first not to lean more to one side than to century of the Christian era, and finished another, both the angles which it makes by Claudius. It conveys water from a with the other are called right angles. distance of thirty-eight miles. For thirty All right angles are equal to each other, miles it forms a subterranean streani, being all equal to ninety degrees, making and for seven miles is supirorted on arthe quarter of a circle.

cades (series of arches). Such was the ANIMAL'CULE, a minute animal, generally solidity of its construction, that it continues

one that can be discerned only by aid of to supply modern Rome with water to this the microscope.

day. See p. 217. ANIMALS, on Cruelty to Brute, 195.

ARBITRARY, bound by no rule or law. A. D., or Anno Domini, in the year of our ARCADIAN, pertaining to Arcadia, a mount

Lord, affixed to dates, signify so many ainous part of ancient Greece, where the Vears from the birth of our Saviour.

inhabitants led simple pastoral lives, and ANON', as an advert), soon, by and by, cultivated music.

ever and anon, now and then. Anon., ARCHIMEDES (Ar-ki-me'dés), account of, 275. with a period at the end, is an abbrevia- | ARCHITECT (Gr. arche, chief, and tekton, a tion for anonymous.

worker). A chief workman or builder ; ANONYMOUS (from the Gr. 1, not, and I one skilled in designing buildings : thus architecture is the art of building accord-i vanished, and you have inste:21 a creat inx to certain proportions and rules.

ure more subtle than any beast of the A-RESA. A Latia word, originally meaning field ; upon the belly must it go, and dust

& in l, but applied to that part of the must it eat all the days of its life." ang hitheatre in which the wladiators ATHENS, the most celebrated city of Greece, fullt, which was covered with sand, once the great world metropolis of philos

ophy and art ; mentioned in the Acts of ARI US, an ancient Greek bard and per- the Apostles. It is the capital of the

four on the cithern, or gittern, a stringed modern kingdom of Greece, 128. i rument siinilar to the guitar. His life ATMOSPHERE (Gr. atmos, vapor, and sphai being tiireatened by pirates at sea, he is ros, a sphere). The fluid which sur

bled to have played on his cithern, and rounds the earth, and consists of air and th"), with a prayer to the gods, to have vapor of water. The air is composed of

ped into the sea, where å song-loving two gases, oxygen and nitrogen, mixed dolphin received him on his back, and bore in the proportion of one of the former to him afely to the shore, 295.

four of the latter. Animals cannot live in ARISTARLHO4, the greatest critic of anti nitrogen, nor can fiame burn in it, sepa

quity. He fi urished B. C. 156. His rated from oxygen. See pp. 206, 362, criticisms were so severe that his name 404. has become proverbial, 342.

ATONE. To be, or cause to be, at one ; to ARISTOTLE, often called the Stagyrite, from reconcile ; to make amends.

Sunvira, a town of Macedonia, where he | AUDUBON, John James, a native of Louisiwis born, 354 B. C., was a pupil of ana, and celebrated for his published colPlato and a preceptor of Alexander the lection of drawings, under the title of the Great. He was one of the most influen “ Birds of America." He was educated in tial of the philosophers and writers of art at Paris, under the great painter ancient Greece, and a good part of his David. Died 1851. Wirks still exist. His doctrines are some Disappearance of Indians, 302. times styled the Aristotelian philosophy. AUGUST. The eighth month of the year; so He died 323 B. C. See p. 311.

named from ARITHMETIC (Gr. arithmos, number), the AUGUSTUS Cæsar, the first Roman emperor science of numbers, 124.

He was born B. C. 63. Literature and ARNDT, from the German of, 360.

the arts flourished remarkably under his ARTICULATION explained, 14, 27.

reign. ASIDE. In dramatic writing, a character is AURORA. In the ancient Mythology the

supposed to utter a remark aside when goddess of the morning. he does not mean that the other persons AUTUMN. This word is said to be derived of the drama, who may be present, shall from the Latin auctum, increased, be hear it.

cause the wealth of man is augmented by ASININE (as'i-nine), resembling an ass.

the fruits of harvest. Ass. The Ass and the Lainb, 67.

Poetry of Autumn, 374. A PAR'AGUS, a Greek word, meaning the first AVALANCHE (from the French avaler, to

bud or sprout; now applied to a well descend). A mass of snow siiding down a known garden vegetable

mountain. ASSIZE (from a Latin word meaning to sit) AVERAGE, a mean number, or quantity.

is the periodical session held by the judges of the superior courts in the counties of BABEL, or Babylon, an ancient city and England. The plural form, assizes, is province of Asia, on the Euphrates. The popularly used.

city was probably on the site of the fam ASTHMA (Gr. asthmaino, I breathe hard). ous tower of Babel ; and its present ruins

A disease the leading symptom of which consist of fused masses of brick-work, &c is difficulty of breathing.

It stood on a large plain ; and its walls ASTONISHED (from the L. ad, to, and tono, formed an exact square, each side of

I thunder) means originally struck with which was fifteen miles long. There were thunder.

one hundred gates, twenty-five in each of ASTRONOMY (Gr. astron, a star, and nomos, the four sides, all of which were of solid

a law). The science which treats of the brass, as Isaiah bears witness, ch. 45. V celestial bodies.

2. "I wil break in pieces the gates of Astronomy and Immortality, 150, 224. brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron." ASYLUM (Gr. a, without, sule, plunder). A Babylon was taken by Cyrus, the Persian

place to which those who fled were free monarch, B, C. 538; and the Babylonian from harm ; a sanctuary. The modern empire was destroyed, as the prophets

use of the word differs from the ancient. Isaiah and Jeremiah had predicted. Cy ATHEIST (Gr. a, without, theos, God). One rus, who was the destined conqueror of who madly denies the existence of a God. Babylon, was foretold by name above 66 The fool hath said in his hear:, There is one hundred years before he was born. no God." Take away this belief in God Isaiah 45 : 1--4. See pp. 164, 217. wholly from man --- let him have been sub- BACCHANAL, a drunken reveller ; from Bacjected to none of the influences from chus, the deity of wine. society and his fellow-men which the Bacon, Francis, Lord, was born in Loudou beliei' produces, and the man will have 1 in 1561 ; died 1626. He was a great

brated its breed fortress in ud de-

philog her, and the most learned man of | BEAUTIFUL, The, a poem, 261.
his day ; but his career teaches the moral Ministry of the, 317.
lesson that the tree of knowledge is not the BILLETS, pieces of wood, cut with a hill, or
tree of life. He held the office of Iligh beaked axe, so called from its resemblanre
Chancellor, but showed himself morally to the bill of a bird.
unfit for it, 312

BIVOUAC (biv'wak). This word is derived
BAILLIE, Joanna, uistinguished as a dramat from the Lat. bis, twice, and the German
ic writer ; b. in Scotland, 1705; d. 1850. wache, a guard, and signified originally a
First Voyage of Columbus, by, 191.

guard to keep watch during the night.
BAJAZET, a warlike but tyrannical Sultan of To bivouac is to remain as a guard all

Turkey, who succeeded to the throne in night, without tents or covering. The
1389, having strangled his rival brother. word is sometimes spelled with a final k.
He died 1403. See p. 255.

BLACKSTONE, Sir Wm., an eminent lawyer,
BANCROFT, Geo., extract from, 193.

b. at London 1723, d. 1780. Ilis “ Com-
BANYAN. A very large tree of India. It mentaries on the Laws of England” is

sends down roots from its branches, and still a legal text-book.
those roots, striking into the ground, them- BOATSWAIN (in seamen's language bo'sn),
selves become trunks.

an officer on board of certain ships, who
Lines on, by T. Moore, 311.

has charge of the rigging, boats, &c.
Bar, to prevent, obstruct.

BOARD of Health. The term bourd is an
BA'SHAN. In scriptural geography, the plied to any body of individuals intrusted,

land east of the Jordan, and north of Gil for public or private purposes, with the
ead ; celebrated for its rich soil and fat management of any business or specula-
cattle, especially its breed of buils.

tion. It is the province of the Board of
BASTILE (basteel'), a noted fortress in Paris, Health in cities to provide against con-

built in the fourteenth century, and de tagious diseases, &c.
stroyed by the populace in 1789. See BODLEIAN. The library of Oxford, England,
p. 60.

under this name, is so called from Sir
BAYONET, so called from having been first Thomas Bodley, who died in 1612, and
made at Bayonne, in France.

who did much for its foundation.
Bays, the plural of bay, the laurel-tree ; ap- BOMBAST. This word is of the same origin

plied to a crown or garland bestowed on as bombasin, and once meant linen sewed
warlike or literary merit.

together with tax between, to swell it
BEADLE (from the root of to bid), a messen out. Hence it was applied to a tumid,

ger ; in England a parish ollicer, whose inflated style, in which sound predomi-
business is to punish petty offenders.

nates over sense.
B. C. These initials attached to dates sig- BONAPARTE, Napoleon, was born in Corsica,
nify " before Christ.”

an island in the Mediterranean, belonging
BEGUISE. The Beguines were a class of to France, on the fifteenth August, 1769

women in Germany and the Netherlands, He was at the military school of Brienne
of pious and secluded habits, similar to from 1779 to 1781, when he went to Paris.

the nuns, except that they took no vows. In 1786 he commenced his military carcex,
BELAY, a nautical term, meaning to fasten which was the most wonderful of modern
or make fast, as a rope.

times. In 1801 he became Emperor of
BELLIG'ERENT (from the Lat. bellum, war, France. After remarkable reverses, he
and gero, I carry on), waring war.

was defeated by the allied armies under
BELL. The derivation of this word is curi Wellington, at Waterloo, June 18, 1815.

ous ; it is from the Anglo-Saxon belları, He surrendered himself to an English
to bellow.

squadron, and was brought to Plymouth,
BELVIDERE (from the Lat. bellus, fine, and whence he was removed to St. Helena, a

video, I see). In Italy this name is given barren island in the Atlantic Ocean, where
to the cupolas on palaces, from which a he dieıl May 5th, 1821.
fine prospect may be had. It is also the An Early Riser, 226.
name of a part of the Vatican (the ancient Character of, by Lamartine, 393.
palace of the Popes in Rome), where the Napoleon as a Student, 396.
Sainous statue of Apollo, known under BONNIVARD, Francois de, b. 1496, d. 1570,
he name of Belvidere, is placed. This was the prior of a convent near Geneva,
statue is believed to be the most perfect in Switzerland, and one of the most stren
ever made. The artist's name is un uous supporters of the liberty of his coun
known. In Italian the word is pro try. He was seized and imprisoned by

nounced in four syllables, Bel-ve-lā'-re. the Duke of Savoy in the castle of Chillon,
BENEFACTOR (from the L. bene, well, and at the eastern extremity of the Lake of

factor, a doer), one who confers a bene Geneva, where he remained from 1529

till 1536, when he was liberated by his
BENGAL' (the a as in fall) is the most east countrymen. The traces left by his steps

ern province of Hindostan, lying on each on the pavement of his cell are still seen.
side of the Ganges.

Account of, by A. Dumas, 142.
BERESINA (Bēr-e ze'na), a river of Russia. BONUM, the Latin for good ; summum

The Passage of, by the Frerch, 3:26. bonum, the chief good.
BESTIARY, one who fought with wild beasts Boxe, a premium for a privilege.
at the ancient spectacles.

| Books. The inner bark of treca #38 me


used for writing on. In England, many was very methodical in his time ; but there hundred years ago, people used to write is not much to praise in his private char upon the bark of the beach-tree, which acter. 2:26. ti y Caily bue. We have not changed Buoy (from bois, the French for wood), a the word much. Ser Library.

piece of wood floating on the water, to in Thats on Books, 397.

dicate shoals, &c. The adjective buoyanı Boox (frestli the Danish bomme, a drum), to has the same origin.

hath & b e like the roar of the waves, BURGER, Godfrey Augustus, b. 1748, d. 1794: or a distint kun.

a German poet, celebrated for his spirited BOUS (frm the Lat. bonus, or Fr. bon), a ballads. ght, a favor.

The Brave Man, by, 165. BOULOGNE (Boo-lon), a sea port of France on BURKE, Edmund, a writer, orator, and the English Channel.

statesman, of great eminence. Born in BOLQUET (buo-ka), a nosegay.

Ireland, 1780; died 1797. He was one of Bow, the curved part of a ship forward. the greatest masters of English style ; an

When it has this meaning it is pronounced amiable and religious man in private life, so as to rhyme with cow.

and exemplary in his domestic and social BOWKING, John his translation of Derzha duties. See character of, by Hazlitt, and vin's odle, 153.

Grattan, 245, 246. True Courage, hy, 242.

Extracts from his Speeches, 146, 268, BRAHMIN, the highest or priestly class, futing the Ilinos.

BURNET, Gilbert, Bishop of Salisbury, was BRAVE MAN, The, translated from the Ger born in Scotland, 16-13; d. 1714. He was man of Burkir, 165.

the author of a History of the Reformar BRAZIFR, an artiticer in brass.

tion. 226. BREWSTER, Sir David, an eminent philoso- BURRINGTON, E. H., Lines by, 264.

pher of Sc tland, b. 1781. He was the BURTON, W., Learning to Write, 87. inventor of that optical toy, the Kaleido-BLSAMEN. A name given by the Dutch 8C pe.

colonists to some roaming tribes akin to Barbarism of War, by, 303.

the Hottentots, in the vicinity of the BRIDEWELL, a house of correction for dis Cape of Good Ilope. They are of a dark

orderly persous ; so called from the palace copper complexion, and small in stature. near Bridget's well in London, which was So deep are they sunk in barbarism, as to turned into a work-house.

be unacquainted even with the construcBROOKE, Henry, The Lion, &c., by, 139. tion of huts or tents, 119. BROOKS, C. T., Translatious by, 83, 412. By and By. The proverb, p. 64, 12, is BROUGHAM, Henry, Lord, distinguished as a directed against the habit of procrastina

statesman, man of letters, and philoso tion ; of putting off what ought be done at pher; born in Scotland. He entered once till " by and by." Parliament in 1810. On Science, by, 441. BYRON, Lord George Gordon, an English The Schoolmaster Abroad, by, 269.

nobleman, of great but misapplied talents. On the Pleasures of Science, 41.

He was born in the year 1788, and died in BROWNE, J. R., The Whale Chase, by, 400. Greece, in 1824. See p. 148. BRUCE, Robert, one of the most heroic of the Ambition, by, 100.

Scottish kings, and the deliverer of Scotland The Guilty Conscience, 258.

from the English yoke; b. 1274, d. 1329. Ancient Greece, 310. BRUIN, a familiar name given to the bear, A Storm on the Mountains, 333. from the Fr. brun, brown.

The Colosseum, by, 388. BRCTCS, Lucius Junius, known as the first

Brutus, received his surname of Brutus, CABINET, in politics, the governing council or brute, from feigning idiocy in order to of a country ; so called from the cabinet or escape the tyranny of Tarquin, a king of apartment in which the Chief Magistrate ancient Rome. Lucretia, a lady of great transacts public business, and assembles purity, having been grossly abused by his privy council. In the United States the Sextus Tarquin, Brutus threw off his pre members of the President's Cabinet are the tended idiocy, and roused the Romans to Secretaries of State, of the Treasury, of expel their king and establish a republic. War, of the Navy, the Interior, the PostAs consul, he afterwards sentenced his master General, and the Attorney General. two sons to death for crimes against their CADI (in Arabic, a judge). The Turks style country. See p. 308. Marcus Junius their inferior judges Cadi. Brutus, celebrated by Shakspeare, was a CA'LYX, a Greek word, signifying a cup. It descendant of the first Brutus, 350.

is the name given by botanists to the outBRYANT, Wm. Cullen, an eminent American ermost of the enveloping organs of a

poet, b. in Cummington, Mass., No. 3, flower. 1791.

CALABRIA, the southern part of the kingdom Extracts from, 178, 205, 257, 338.

of Naples ; traversed throughout by the The llurricane, by, 211.

Apennine Mountains. November, by, $75.

Adventure in Calabria, 305. BUFFON, born 1707, lied 1788 ; a famous CAMERA Obscura, or Dark Chamber, is an

naturalist, the eloquence of whose style optical apparatus, by which the images gave a charm to his scientific works. He of external objects are thrown 02) 3 Tbite

surface, and represented in a vivid man- CASTLE of Indolence, the title of a celeorated

er in their proper colors, shapes, &c. poem by Thomson, written in the manner CXILLA, n ancient mythology, one of the of Spenser, and containing many obsoleto

swift-footed servants of Diana, accustomed words. to the chase and to war.

CASS, LEWIS, On Labor, 427. CAMPAGNA (kam-pan'-ya, the a pronounced CATACOMBS (from the Greek words, kata,

like a il father), a terın applied to the down, and kumbos, a hollow), a cave for low lands of the Tiber about Rome in Italy. I the burial of the dead. The word simply means a flat, open CATILINE, a Roman of great talents, but discountry. The Roman Campagna is quite solute habits. He conspired against his unhealthy at certain seasons.

country, and was denounced by Cicero in CAMPBELL, Thomas, a great lyrical poet his most celebrated oration.

(see Lyrical), was born in Glasgow, Scot CATSKILL Mountains are in the vicinity of land, in 1777; died 1844. He wrote his fine Catskill, Green county, N. Y., on the poem of “The Pleasures of Ilope” when Hudson. They received their name from only twenty-two years of age.

the great number of catamounts formerly
Fr. “ Pleasures of Hope,” 309, 412, killed there, 111.

CAVERX by the Sea, The, 183.
Lord Ullin's Daughter, 276.

CECILIA. There are several saints of this CANAAN (Canan), all that tract of land, on name in the Catholic church. The most

each side of the Jordan in Palestine, which celebrated, who has been erroneously reGod gave for an inheritance to the chil garded as the inventress of the organ, sufdren of Israel.

fered martyrdom A. D. 220. How Cecilia CANA'RIES, thirteen islands in the Atlantic came to be the patron-saint of music is not Ocean, about sixty miles from the west

agreed. coast of North Africa ; known to the Ode on Cecilia's Day, 416. ancients as the Fortunate Isles. They CENIS, Mount, a mountain of the Alps in were re-discovered in 1402, and seized by Savoy. It is eight thousand six hundred the Spaniards in 1420, who planted vines and seventy feet above the level of the there. The canary-bird is a native of sea. these isles.

CENTURY (from the Latin centum, a hunCANDOR, from the Latin word canderë, to dre), in a general sense, anything con

be white, to shine, to glitter ; hence sin sisting of a hundred parts; a period of a cerity, purity. The word candle is of the hundred years. same genealogy.

CHALMERS, Thomas, a celebrated Scotch CANDLES, candlestick. See Candor.

divine, born 1780, died 1817. CAN'NIBAL, a person that devours human Planets and Heavenly Bodies, 224.

flesh. The word is probably of Indian Ministry of the Beautiful, 317. origin.

CHAMBERS, Robert, a distinguished Scottish CAXNING, George, a highly accomplished wriier and publisher, born 1801.

orator and writer, born in London in 1770, Complaint of a Stomach, 157. died in 1827. See p. 270.

Self-killing, 171. CAPACITY (from the L. capio, I hold, or Kindness to Brute Animals, 195. take), the power of containing or taking

Best Kind of Revenge, 213. CAPE (from the L. caput, the head), a point Sound and Sense, 236.

or head of land projecting from the main Passage of Beresina, 326. land into a sea or lake.

Idleness, Jestiny, &c., 370. CARICATURE (from the Italian caricare, to Common Errors, 103.

charge, to load), a distorted, exaggerated CHANNING, Wim. Ellery, a celebrated Amerilikeness of any thing or person.

can clergyman and writer, born at NewCARLYLE, Thomas, an eccentric writer, born port, R. I., 1780; died 1842.

in Scotland in 1796. His style, at first On the Teacher's Calliny, 186.
simple and eloquent, latterly became af The Free Mind, 277.
fected and grotesque, though often vigor Effects of Irreligion, 316.

The Worth of Books, 398.
The Sword and Press, by, 255.

CHASE on the Ice, 131.
CARNIVAL (from two Latin words, carni and CHATHAM, Wm. Pitt, Earl of (or Lord), way

valë, meaning, farewell to flesh), a fes one of the greatest orators and statesmen tival celebrated with merriment and of England, and a stanch friend of the revelry in Roman Catholic countries, dur-/ American colonies in their difficulties with ing the week before Lent.

the British government. He was born CAENIV'Orous, feeding on flesh.

1708, died 1778. CARRIER-PIGEOX, The, a poem by Moore, Described by Hazlitt, Grattan, 245, 6.

137. The carrier-pigeon flies at an ele On Taxing America, 267. vated pitch, in order to surmount every CHA-ME-LEON, a species of lizard, found in obstacle between her and the place to Asia and Africa. It has the remarkable which she is destined

power of changing its olor, producing a CASHIRR (Fr. casser, to break), to dismiss succession of rich and varied tints over from servicc.

the whole boily. On this peculiarity CASTLE-BUILDING, forming visionary proj Merrick's admirable fable (see p. 413) is

eets ; building castles in the air," 711 foundeui.

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