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Consonant, and such combinations as the following may afford a fitting practice for the voice ; thus (the a throughout as in father) : ah, ang, am, an, at, ar, ap, ab, of, av, ath (the th hard as in Ihin), ath (the in soft as in <Aine), at, ad, ak, ag (the^ as in gun), ash, az, &o. Then place in similar juxtaposition with Consonants the other Elementary Vowel sounds, simple and compound, the a in fat, the e hi met, the u in mate, &c., and continue the practice. These combinations may be easily written out on a slate, and much benefit derived from exercising the voioa on them, till a clear and accurate articulation of all the Vowel sounds ia attained.
107. In what we say of Consonants we allude to their actual sounds, and not to the arbitrary names given to them in the Alphabet. There are many difficult Consonant combinations in the English language, to the proper utterance of which careful practice is essential. Several of the Consonants, as they are heard at the beginning or at the end of a word, can be enunciated independently, although the aid of a Vowel sound may at first seem indispensable. The student can test this, by suddenly suspending the voice before it reaches the Vowel in such combinations as b'a, d'a, &e. ; or by prolonging the Consonant Sound after the Vowel in ab— 4; eb—b; ib—b; ad—d; ed—d; id—d, &c. ; or before, as in 4—be, d—de; g—ge, &c.
108. "In taking some of the mute consonants (p, b,f, v, t, d, th, k, g, t, z, sh, zh)," says Professor Latham, "and pronouncing them as independently of any Vowel as it is possible to do, we shall succeed in making an imperfect sound. Now, if the mute consonant so taken and uttered be one of the following, p,f, t, th (as in thin), k, s, or sh, the sound will be that of a whisper. The sound of p', t' (such as it is), is that of a man speaking under the natural pitch of his voice, and at a whisper.
109. "But if the mute consonant so taken and uttered be any one of the following, 4, v, d, th (as in thine), g, z, or zh, the sound will be that of a man speaking at the natural pitch of his voice, and with a certain degree of loudness and clearness." After experimenting upon the independent consonant elements thus indicated,— carefully distinguishing their alphabetical names from their actual sounds,— the student may proceed to practise his voice upon the combinations which they form.
110. The following Exercises contain nearly all the difficult consonant combinations that can occur in English speech. By delivering the words of each paragraph according to the punctuation, at first deliberately, and then more rapidly, as practice makes perfect, they will be found to serve as exercises in respiration as well as in articulation. In elocution it is important to acquire the power of keeping the lungs well filled by frequent and imperceptible inspirations.
til. To gain this power, the exercise is recommended of prolonging the Simple Vowel sounds musically to the full extent of expiratory power; silently replenishing the lungs, and recommencing the sound as expeditiously as possible. The same principle of exercise in connection with
112. In the following exercises, most of the noteworthy difficulties in Lbs articulation of our language have been introduced. In some of tho sentences, it will be seen, little regard has been had to the sense which they may make; the object being either to accumulate difficulties in Consonant combinations or to illustrate varieties of Vowel sounds and their equivalents:'
EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION.
I. A father's fate calls Fancy to beware. All in the hall here haul the awl all ways. .Aunt's heart and hearth are better than her head. And sAall I, sir'raA, guarantee your plaid t Arraign his reign to-day; the greot rain gauge. And so our wAaling ended all in wailing. Accent' the ae'eent accurately always.
II. Awful the awe; nor broad ought Tom to maul. The 6ul6, the oriie, the oarfc, the 6a6&ling bihber. Biding thou hudg'dst, and budding bravely bidest. JJu661es and hu66ubs 6ar6arous and puMic. Canst give the blind a notion of an ocean 1 CAurlish cAirographers, cAromatic cAanters. CAivalry's cAief cAid the cAurl's cAaffering cAoice cAimerical.
III. Call her; her cAoler at the collar scorning-. Crime craves the Czar's indictment curious. Despised despoilers tracked the dastard's doom. Diaphanous delusions dep'recate. DracAmas disdain dispersed despotically. £arn earth's dear tears, whose dearth the heart's hearth inurns.
IV. England her men metes there a generous measure. Ctesar deceives the people from his seat. The key to that machine is in the field. Friends, heads and heifers, leopards, bury any. .Examine, estimate the eggs exactly
V. FauZts T He had faults; I said he was not faZse. .Facundious PAilip'a ^ippant^uenoy. GAastly the gibbous anjer gorges gnomes. Go! thoujA roug-A coug-As and hiccougAs plougA thee througA / Giudg'dst thou, and gib'dst thou, Gorgon, with thy gyves 1
VI. He Aumbly Aeld the Aostler's Aorse an Aour. His Aonest rAetorio ezAilarates. ifear'st thou this Aermit's Acinous Aeresy 1 He twists the texts to suit the several sects. Hope, boats, roads, odats, and loads of cloaks and soap. Why haross'dsr thou him thus inhumanly 1
VII. In either place he dwells, in neither fails. Is he in life through one great terror led 1 In one great error rather is he not % Is there a na,ne — is their an aim more lofty 1 I say the judges ought to arrest the cull rit. I say the judges sought to arrest the culprit.
VIII. Janglingly jealous Jeered the Tacobin. June's azure day sees the jay gaylyj'ump. Anavish the Anaok could compass such a Anot. iCcep cool, and learn that cavils cannot Aill. AentucAy Anows the darA and bloody ground.
IX. -Long, Zank and Zean, he iZZy Zectured me. Lo! there behold the scenes of those dari ages. The soenes of those darA cages, did you say 1 Jfete'orous and meteor'io vapors. Afulctedst thou him 1 In misery he mores
X. Myrrh by the murderous myrmidons was brought itfan is a micro* oosm, a mimic world, itfute moping, maimed, in misery's murmurs whelm'd Mammon's main monument a miscreant makes. Moments their solemn realm to 3femnon give.
XI. Neigh me no nays; inow me now, neigAbor Dobbin. JVipt now th« flower is riv'n, fcrever fall'n. Nymphs range the forests still till rosy dawn Nay! did I say I scream 1 I said ice cream. Never thou olaBp'dst more fleeting trinmphs here.
XII. O'er wastes and deserts, waste sand deserts straying. On the hard wharf the timid dwarf was standing. 0, note the occasion, yeoman, hautboy, beau / Or'thoepy precedes orthog'raphy. Obligatory objects then he offered. .
XIII. Precedents ruled preee'dent Presidents. Poor painted pomp oi pleasure's proud parade. PAarmacy /ar more /armors cures than kills. Psyche (si-ke) puts out the spAinx'B pseudo pipe. Politics happ'n to be uppermost. The room's perfumed' with perfumes popular.
XIV. Quilp quoted Quarles's Quiddities and auirks. Queens and ooyuets ouiokly their conquests quit. Quaoks in a guan'dary were guaking- there. Quench'd'sf thon the qruarrel of the ouid'-nunos then 1 Quiescent Quixotism and Quibbling ouizzing-.
XV. Rave, wretched rover, erring, rash and perjured. iJude rugged rocks reechoed with his roar. .RAinoceroses armed and .Russian bears. .Round rang her sArill, sAarp, frenzied sAriek for mercy. iZuin and rapine, ruthless wretch, attend thee!
XVI. Sis slim sleek saplings s/othfully he sawed. Stridulous strays the stream through forests strange. Sn&rl'sts thou at me? Vainly thou splash'dst and strov' st. SAall sAuffling sAift thy sArinking-, sArieking sAame 1 Schisms, chasms and prisms, phantasms and frenzies dire. Smith, smooth, smug, smart, smirked, smattered, smoked and smiled. Sudden he sadd'n'd; wAerefore did he sadd'n?
XVII. The Aeir his Aair uncovered to the air. That last still night, that lasts till night's forgot! The strident trident's strife strides strenuous. The dupes shall see the dupe survey the scene. The martial corps regarded not the corpse. (See Note to IT 60.)
XVIII. The ringing, clinging-, blighting, smiting curse. The storms still rtrove, but the masts stood the struggle. The steel these steal still stereotypes (the er as in terror) their stigma. The stalk these talkers strike stands strong ar.d steady. TAawing it fAermometrically tArives.
XIX. Temptations tantamount indictment's debtor. TentA or ten tAousands breaks the chain alike TAinh'sf tAou the heights, depths, breadtAs, thor rt tAorough in 1 The soldiers skilled in war, a thousand men 1 The sol Jers Ailled in war a thousand men. The prints the prince selected were superb.
XX. Then if thou btt't, thou feJl'st a blessed martyr. Thou lie'st — lie's! did I say 1 appear'sf in the Senate! Though thy cry moved me, thy crime moved me more. These things can never make your government. Thou barh'dst the dart that wounded me, alas!
XXI. Thou startl'dst me, and still thou startl'st me. Thou watch'st then where thou watch'dst, sir, when I oame. Thou blaok'n'dsf and thou black%'xt mc in vai: ThougAt'tt thou those Moughts of Mine oould thrill me llrougb! The intriguing rogrue's vague brogue plagues like an ague.
XXIT. Thou Blept'et, great ocean, hush'dst thy myriad waves. The wolf ■hose Aowl, the owf whose Aoot is heard. The new tune played on Tuesday suits the duke. Too soon thou aauckl'dst o'er the gold thou stolen. Twanged sAort and sharp, like the sArill swallow's cry.
XXIII. Use makes us use it even as usage rules (this last u like the o in more), Umpires usurp the usurer's usual custom. Utility's your ultima tum, then, Untenable, untractable, unthinking. Urge me no more ; your arguments are useless. The tutor's revolution is reduced.
XXIV. Vain, vacillating, ve'hement, he veers forever. TVAetting his scythe, the mower singetA blitAe. TVAile uiAiling time at whist, why will you wAisper 1 JVAelmed in the waters were the wAirliug- wAeels. JVAere is the ware that is to wear so well 1
XXV. WAite were the wights who waggishly were winking. Wrenched by the hand of violence from hope. Woul&t thou not highly — wouldrf not holily 1 With sAort sArill sArieks nits by on leathern wing. Xerxes, Xantippe, Xen'ophon and Xanthus.
XXVI. yachts yield the yeomen youthful exeroise. Tou pay nobody 1 Do you pain nobody 1 Tour kindness overwAelms me — makes me bankrupt. Zeuxis, Zenobia, Zeus and Zoroas'ter. Zephyr these heifers indolently fans.
113. By the term alliteration is meant the repetition of the same letter, chiefly at the beginning of words. In the following Exercise the words of every line are alliterative according to the order of the letters of the alphabet. It will be found a good practice for keeping alive the attention of a class to have the lines read singly, one by each pupil successively.
An Austrian army, awfully arrayed,
Boldly, by battery, besieged Belgrade;
Cossack commanders oannonading come,
Dealing destruction's desolating doom;
Every endeavor engineers essay,
For fame, for fortune, fighting furious fray;
Generals 'gainst generals grapple, grimly great;
How hold heroio hearts hard, haggard hate 1
Infuriate, indiscriminate in ill,
Kinsmen kill kinsmen, kinsmen kindred kill!
Labor low levels loftiest, longest lines;
Men march 'mid mounds, 'mid moles, 'mid murderous mines;
Now noisy, noxious numbers notice naught
Of outward obstacles, opposing aught;
Poor patriots, partly purchased, partly pressed,
Quite quailing, quaking, quickly quarter quest;
Reason returus, religious right resounds,
Buwarrow stops such sanguinary sounds.
Truoe then to Turkey; triumph to thy train.