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85. In the following words the last syllable but one should be accented , aroma, aspirant, abdomen, decoʻrum, inqui'ry, oppoʻnent, precë'dent (when an adjective), precë'dence, horizon, compo'nent, condolence, man. da'mus, panthe'on, clandestine, affi'ance, compli'ant, defal'cate, muse'um, pilas'ter, inter'stice, bitu'men, interne'cine.
86. Accent the first syllable in the following words: con'tumacy, ex'emplary, bibʻliopole, lam'entable, hortatory, tem'perament, com'parable, des'ultory, in'teresting, con'sequently, cir'cumstances, rep'ertory, leg'islative, cem'etery. In no'menclature, and ju'dicature, there is a par. tial accentual stress on the a.
87. Accent the an-te-pe'nult (last syllable but two) in the following: compu'table, contem'plative, retrib'utive, restoʻrative, centrifugal, centrip'etal, adver'tisement, daguerre'otype (pronounced da-gěr'otype). Accent the pe’nult (last syllable but one) in the following: coadju'tor, homici'dal, adamante'an, empyrean, Europe'an, adverti'ser.
QUESTIONS — 70. What is a syllable ? 71. A monosyllable ? dissyllable trisyllable ? polysyllable? Can you give the derivation of these words ? 72. What is meant by the quantity, long or short, of vowels ? 73. Does quantity differ froin accent ? 74. What is accent? 75. The mark of accent? 78. May words be distinguished by accent alone, even when spelled alike? 79. Give specimens of nouns and verbs that are spelled alike but distinguished by accent. 80–84. Give specimens of trisyllables in which the first syllable is accented ; the second. Words of four syllables in which the first is accented; the second.
88. THE derivation and meaning of the term articulation have been explained in paragraphs 5 and 6. At first signifying the jointing of speech by the utterance of consonants and of syllables, it comprehends, in its more extended signification, the whole subject of the exact pronunciation of elementary sounds and their syllabic combinations in language.
89. “ Every articulation,” says Bell, “ consists of two parts — a position and an action. The former brings the organs of speech into approximation or contact, and the latter separates them, by a smart percussive action of recoil, from the articulative position. This principle is of the utmost importance to all persons whose articulation is defective. On its application distinctness entirely depends. Let it be carefully noted : audibly percussive organic separation is the necessary action of every articula tion.”
90. We have seen that defects in articulation may proceed either from over-eagerness in utterance or from sluggishness and inattention. We will bere cite some of the Vowel and Consonant sounds that are most frequently marred by a vicious articulation. The proper sourd :f the a ir
at is often too decidedly perverted in the syllables and terminations in al, ar, ant, able, an, ance, &c., as in the following words : fatal, particular, scholar, separate, arrogant, honorable, perseverance, preliminary, descendant, ordinance, &c.; in which the a should be slightly obscured, but not debased into the e in her or the u in but.
91. Words ending in ent, ens, ence, ess, &c., are often needlessly deprived of their just sound. We hear imminurnt for imminent, vehemurnt for vehement, argumurnts for arguments, referurnce for reference, laziniss for laziness, goodniss for goodness, &c. The e in these words should have a slight sound of the e in ebb, end, &c. Do not say rebul or rebble instead of rebel, chick’n instead of chicken, sudd’n instead of sud'den, nov’l instead of novel, trav’l instead of travel, slov'n instead of sloven, couns’l instead of counsel, mod’l instead of model, vess’l instead of vessel, ardurnt instead of ardent, timbr'l instead of timbrel, &c.* In verbs and participles ending with en, the accent being on the previous syllable, the e is generally dropped. Say ris'n, tak’n, wak’n, drunk’n, sadd’n, grav'n, bright’n, op'n, chos'n, &c. Do not say b’lieve, d’ny, prdict, prmote, instead of believe, &c.
92. There are many readers who, instead of giving the syllable er, when unaccented, its true sound, would have us suppose, by their modo of utterance, that it is spelled úh. They will, for instance, say powuh, povủhty, govủhn, instead of power, poverty, govern, in which words the e has the sound it has in her. Do not obscure the e too much, or confound it with the i, in such words as society, variety, satiety, &c.
93. In syllables and terminations in žn, il, šty, ility, ible, the i short should not be obscured more than is required for a free and graceful ute terance. Say satin, not sat’n, Latin, not Lat’n ; province, not provence; mountain (mountin), not mount'n ; fountain (fountin), not fount'n; capacity, not capac-e-ty ; lenitive, not leneteve ; pupil, not pup'l; council, not counc'l; pencil, not penc’l, &c. Do not convert the long i into e in such words as benign, oblige, &c. · 94. Syllables and terminations in o, ow, and or, are badly articulated by many, who say potater for potato, comprumise for compromise, tobaccernist for tobacconist, innervate for innovate, feller for fellow, winder for window, meller for mellow, hist’ry for history, hallerd for hallowed, meader for meadow, philoserpher for philosopher, colerny for colony, abrurgate for abrogate, &c. The o in such words as horizon, motion, Boston, &c., may be slightly obscured, but not dropped.
95. The unaccented u is often erroneously suppressed, or made to sound like e, in such words as particular, voluble, regular, singular, educate, &c. The full, diphthongal srand of the u in mute should be given to
* In regard to such words as weapon, reason, treason, season, &c., although authority Ls in favor of the dropping of the Vowel before the n, it is a question w jether the slight Bound of the o is not proper.
Consonant, and such combinations as the following may afford a fitting practice for the voice ; thus (the a throughout as in father): ah, ang, am, an, al, ar, ap, ab, af, av, ath (the th hard as in thin), ath (the in soft as in thine), at, ad, ak, ag (the g as in gun), ash, az, &c. Then place in similar juxtaposition with Consonants the other Elementary Vowel sounds, simple and compound, the a in fat, the e in met, the u in mute, &c., and continue the practice. These combinations may be easily written out on a slate, and much benefit derived from exercising the voio: on them, till a clear and accurate articulation of all the Vowel sounds is attained.
107. In what we say of Consonants we allude to their actual sounds, and not to the arbitrary names given to them in the Alphabet. There are many difficult Consonant combinations in the English language, to the proper utterance of which careful practice is essential. Several of the Consonants, as they are heard at the beginning or at the end of a word, can be enunciated independently, although the aid of a Vowel sound may at first seem indispensable. The student can test this, by suddenly suspending the voice before it reaches the Vowel in such combinations as b'a, d'a, &c.; cr by prolonging the Consonant Sound after the Vowel in abb; eb—b; ib—b; ad—d; ed-d; id-d, &c. ; or before, as in b ue, d-de; g-ge, &c.
108. “In taking some of the mute consonants (P, b,f,v, t, d, th, k, g, s, z, sh, zh),” says Professor Latham, “and pronouncing them as independently of any Vowel as it is possible to do, we shall succeed in making an imperfect sound. Now, if the mute consonant so taken and uttered be one of the following, p, f, t, th (as in thin), k, s, or sh, the sound will be that of a whisper. The sound of p', ť (such as it is), is that of a man speaking under the natural pitch of his voice, and at a whisper.
109. “But if the mute consonant so taken and uttered be any one of the following, b, v, d, th (as in thine), 8, 2, or zh, the sound will be that of a man speaking at the natural pitch of his voice, and with a certain degree of loudness and clearness.” After experimenting upon the independent consonant elements thus indicated,- carefully distinguishing their alphabetical names from their actual sounds, the student may proceed to practise his voice upon the combinations which they form.
110. The following Exercises contain nearly all the difficult consonant combinations that can occur in English speech. By delivering the words of each paragraph according to the punctuation, at first deliberately, and then more rapidly, as practice makes perfect, they will be found to serve as exercises in respiration as well as in articulation. In elocution it is important to acquire the power of keeping the lungs well filled by frequent and imperceptible inspirations.
111. To gain this power, the exercise is recommended of prolonging the simple Vowel sounds musically to the full extent of expiratory power ; silently replenishing the lungs, and recommencing the sound as expeditiously as possible. The same principle of exercise in connection with
articulation may be obtained in counting, by pronouncing the numbers from one to a thousand deliberately and distinctly, with as few perceptible breathings as possible.
EXERCISES IN CONSONANT COMBINATIONS. I. Orb'd; prob’dst, trouble ; troubl'st, troubld, troubl’dst; troubles, brand, probes, prob’st ; waddle, waddl’st, waddl'd, waddl’dst, waddles ; hard'n, hard’n’st, hard’n’d, hard’n’dst, hard’ns, drove ; deeds, didst, breadth, breadths, bragg'd, bragg’dst, glow ; mingle, mingl’st, mingid, mingl’dst, mingles, grow, wags, wagg'st ; hedg’d, bulb, bulb'd, bulbs, hold, holds, hold'st, bulge, bulg'd; wholm, whelm’d, whelms, fall’n, shelve, shelves, balls, silk, silks, hulks.
II. Mulot; mulcts, help ; help’d, helps, helpost; scalp'st, halt, halts, halt’st; gulf, gulfs, delft, false, fall’st ; health, healths, filch, filch'd, entomb’d, entomb’dst ; tombs, scamp, scamps, attempt, attempts, nymph, nymphs ; entomb'st, send, sends, send'st, range, rang’d, guns, hang'd ; hang'dst, hangs, strength, strengths, wink, wink’d, winks, wink'st, daunt; daunts, daunt'st, wince, winc'd, hyacinth, hyacinths, flinch, finch’d, barb, barb'st.
III. Barb’d; barb’dst, barbs ; heard, heard'st, bards ; burgh, burghs, urgo, urg'd ; hurl, hurl’st, hurl'd, hurl'dst, hurls ; warm, warm’st, warm’d, warm’dst, warms, warmth ; turn, turn'st, turn'd, turn'dst, burnt, burns, curve; curv'st, cury'd, curv’dst, curves, wars, bark, barks, bark'st ; bark’d, bark’dst, carp, carps, carp’st, carp’d, carp'dst, hurt, hurts ; hurt'st, turf, turf'd, turfs, purse, burst, bursts, hearth, hearths, harsh.
IV. Search ; search’d, striv'd; striv’dst, driv'l, driv'l'st; driv'l'd, driv'l'dst, driv'ls, heav'n; heav'ns, eleventh, drives, driv'st, amaz’d ; muzzle, muzzl’st, muzzl’d, muzzl’dst, muzzles, prism ; prisms, prison, im prison’st, imprison'd, imprison’dst, prisons, wreath'd ; wreaths, wreath'st wreath, truckle, truckl'st, truckl’d, truckl’dst, truckles ; black’n, black’n’st black’n’d, black’n’dst, black’ns, crafty, act, acts, racks ; ripple, rippl'st rippl’d, rippl’dst, ripples, prove, crypt, crypts, clips, clipp'st.
V. Depth ; depths, settle ; settl’st, settl'd, trust; combats, combat'st, flame, trifle ; trif'st, trifi'd, trif'dst, trifles, fragment; waft, wafts, laughs, laugh’st, fifth ; fifths, slaughter, nestle, nestl’st, nestl’d, nestl’dst, nestles ; smoke, snail, basin, basins, skip, mask, mask’d, masks ; mask'sta har'ass'dst, screw, spatter, rasp, rasp'd, rasps, spring, splash ; stay, busty busts, streets, strides, logarithm, logarithms, through, smith'd, youths, shrink.
QUESTIONS. -- 104. What practice on Vowel sounds is recommended ? 105. On they combinations with consonant sounds ? 106. What other combination is suggested ? 107 Can Consonant sounds ever be uttered independently of Vowels? How can this ha tested ? 108, 109. What difference is found in the mute Consonants in uttering them in dependently of Vowels ? 110. What is said of the management of the breath in reading 111. What exercise is suggested ?
112. In the following exercises, most of the noteworthy difficulties in whe articulation of our language have been introduced. In some of the sentences, it will be seen, little regard has been had to the sense which they may make ; the object being either to accumulate difficulties in Consonant combinations or to illustrate varieties of Vowel sounds and their equivalents :
EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION.
I. A father's fate calls Fancy to beware. All in the hall here haul the awl all ways. Aunt's heart and hearth are better than her head. And shall I, sir'rah, guarantee your plaid ? Arraign his reign to-day; the great rain gauge. And so our whaling ended all in wailing. Accent the ac'cent accurately always.
II. Awful the awe ; nor broad ought Tom to maul. The bulb, the bribe, the barb, the babbling bihber. Biding thou budg’dst, and budging bravely bidest. Bubbles and hubbubs barbarous and public. Canst give the blind a notion of an ocean ? Churlish chirographers, chromatic chanters. Chivalry's chief chid the churl's chaffering choice chimerical.
III. Call her; her choler at the collar scorning. Crime craves the Czar's indictment curious. Despised despoilers tracked the dastard's doom. Diaph'ănous delusions deprecate. Drachmas disdain dispersed despotically, Earn earth's dear tears, whose dearth the heart's hearth inurns.
IV. England her men metes there a generous measure. Cæsar deceives the people from his seat. The key to that machine is in the field. Friends, heads and heifers, leopards, bury any. Examine, estimate the eggs exactly
V. Faults? He had faults; I said he was not false. Facundious Philip's flippant fluency. Ghastly the gibbous anger gorges gnomes. Go! though rough coughs and hiccoughs plough thee through! Grudg'dst thou, and gib’dst thou, Gorgon, with thy gyves ?
VI. He humbly held the hostler's horse an hour. His honest rhetorio exhilarates. Hear'st thou this hermit's heinous horesy? He twists the texts to suit the several sects. Hõpe, boats, roads, cats, and loads of cloaks and soap. Why harass'dst thou him thus inhumanly?
VII. In either place he dwells, in neither fails. Is he in life through one great terror led ? In one great error rather is he not? Is there a navle -is their an aim more lofty ? I say the judges ought to arrest the cul; rit. I say the judges sought to arrest the culprit.
VIII. Janglingly jealous jeered the Jacobin. June's azure day sees the jay gayly jump. Knavish the knack could compass such a knot. Keep cool, and learn that cavils cannot kill. Kentucky knows the dark and bloody
IX. Long, lank and lean, he illy lectured me. Lo ! there behold the soenes of those dark ages. The scenes of those dark cages, did you say ! Mote'orous and meteor'io vapors. Mulctedst thou him? In misery he mores