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GO. T. — T represents the Twenty-seventh elementary sound, as in take, liu, at, &e. Like s and c, it is aspirated when it comes immediately aftef An accented syllable, and is followed by the vowels ia, ie, or io, taking the sound, in these cases, of sA, as in partial, patient, nation, &c . T is mute in mortgage and often (of'n).
66. Th (hard, or aspirate), as in il\m, thorn, &c., represents the Twenty-fifth elementary sound. Th (soft), as in tAine, represents the Twenty-sixth elementary sound. In the substantives breatA, clotA, the th is hard, as in tAin. In the verbs breatAe, clotAe, the tA is soft, as in !Aine. In some nouns tA is hard in the singular, as in batA, patA, mouiA, and soft in the plural, as in baiAs, patAs, moutAs. In some words the tA .8 pronounced like t; as in TViomas, thyme.
67. V. — V represents the Twenty-fourth elementary sound, as in can, weare, hiue, uoid, starve, waue, &c.
68. X. — X represents, 1. The sound of ks, as in execute, tax, &c. 2. The sound of gz, as in exert, example, exalt, &c. 3. The sound of s, as in Jfonophon, Xerxes.
69. Z. — Z represents the Thirty-second elementary sound, as in seal; and the Thirty-fourth elementary sound, as in azure.
Qc1NTro.vs. — 45. Is b ever mute? 46. When is c sounded like k 7 like s? 47. Is e ever mute? What are the sounds of ch 7 How do you pronounce s-c-k-is-m and y-a-c-h-t; 48. What of D; 49. F7 50. When does g have the sound of j? Name lome exceptious. When is g mute? 52, 53. What of gh 7 ough 7 54. Is h ever mute'
Ought it to be mute in ?In f 55. What of y; 56. K 7 47. Lt 58. Af? 69
K 7 60. fi; 61. Q 7 62. ft 7 63, 64. S 7 When do plural endings in i have the sound of 2 7 65. What of T 7 66. Th 7 Name words in which th is soft. Hard 67, 63, 69. What do v, x and y, represent?
70. A Syllable is a single or compound sound, pronounced with all its articulations by a single impulsion of the voice. The word Syllable is derived from the Greek words syn (with) and lahein (to take). Thus the three letters m-a-n, being taken with one another, form the word man, and thus constitute what the grammarians call a Syllable. The word man is not only a syllable, but a word also; which shows that words may consist of a single syllable.
71. Words consisting of a single syllable, as man, he, are called monosyllables, from the Greek word monos (alone). Words consisting of two syllables, as enter, tempest, are called dissyllables, from the Greek word di$ (twice). Words consisting of three syllables, as incident, adjective, are called trisyllables, from the Greek word treis (three). Words consisting of more than three syllables, as super'erog'atory, indefinite, are called polysyllables, from the Greek word polys (inanjj. As a general rule, there must be in a word as many syllables as there are Vowel sounds perceptible to the ear.
f 2. Contrast the sound of the a in fat or the e in met with the a in fate and the e in mete, and it will be found that the time taken up in the utterance of the Vowel sounds in fate and mate is nearly twice as long as in the utterance of the Vowel sounds in fal and mat. The difference between long and short sounds is generally expressed by the marks " and ". The former, called a Makron (from a Greek word signifying long), is placed above long sounds ; and the latter, called a Breve (from the Latin word brtvis, signifying short), is placed above short sounds ; as in gate, glad,
73. In the English language it is the quantity of the Vowel which determines the quantity of the syllable. Short Vowels, though followed by several Consonants, form short syllables; and long Vowels form long syllables, even though few or no Consonants follow. Quantity must not be confounded with Accent. In the substantive com'pact, and the adjective compact, the Quantity of the Vowels is the same, although the Accent of the syllables is different
71. Accent (from the Latin ad, to, and cano, I sing) is the distinguishing stress laid in pronouncing on certain syllables of words. Accent is to syllables what Emphasis is to sentences ; it distinguishes one from tie crowd, and brings it forward to observation. In the word tyrant, there is an emphasis or stress upon the first syllable; in the word presuw, on the second syllable. This stress is called accent.
75. The circumstance of a syllable bearing an accent is sometimes expressed by a mark ( ' ) ; in which case the word is said to be accent" . ated, that is, to have the accent signified in writing. The mark is generally placed at the end of the accented syllable ; as in tor'ment, include1, har'ass, equip'.
76. Monosyllables are necessarily without accent. Words of two syllables have one of them accented, and but one. Words of three and four Syllables, derived from dissyllables, usually retain the accent of their primitives; as virtue, virtuous, virtuously. The preterite and partioiples of verbs retain the accent of the verbs. Words ending in tion, sion, tian, eious, tious, cial, Hal, Hate, cient, tient, have the accent on the last syllable but one, called the penultimate syllable, or the penult; as in mten'tion, apprehen'sion, &c.
77. Words ending in acal and ical, and in i racy, fluous,ferous, fluent, Ky, pathy, aphy, &c., have the accent on the last syllable but two, called the antepenultimate syllable, or the antepe'nult; as in fantastical, democ'lacy, homazop'athy, &c. Some words have a secondary accent, as vt olin', legislator, tn'imadvert'; and some words of seven or eight syllables hare one primary and two secondary accents; as in'divis'ibil'ity, incom'preken sibil'ity.
78. A great number of words are distinguished by the difference of accent alone; thus we say, an at'tribute,to attribute; the month of August, an august' person ; a written com'pact, a compact! crowd; half a min'ute, a minute' inquiry. The accent applied to words of this class, with a double meaning, is called discriminative accent A Rhetorical accent is one applied for the purpose of contrast. Of course it holds good only where it is used for that purpose; as, "this corruptible must put on incorrupLion."
79. The following list of words, in which the Discriminative accent is employed to distinguish different parts of speech having the same form, is given by Walker. It is composed of nouns and verbs, the accent being on the first syllable in the former, and on the second syllable in the latter.
80. Ac'cent, accent'; affix, affix'; aug'ment, augment'; bom'bard, bombard'; ce'ment, cement'; col'league, colleague'; collect, collecf; com'pound, compound'; com'press, compress'; con'cert, concert'; concrete, concrete'; con'duct, conduct'; con'fine, confine'; con'flict, conflict'; oon'tract, contract; con'voy, convoy'.
81. Con'serve, conserve'; con'sort, consort'; con test, contest'; contrast, contrast'; con'verse, converse'; concert, convert'; des'cant, descant; des'ert, desert'; di'gest, digest'; es'cort, escort'; es'say, essay'; ex'port, export'; ex'tract, extract'; ex'ile, exile'; fer'ment, ferment'; fre'quent, frequent'.
82. Im'port, import'; in'cense, incense'; in'sult, insulf; ob ject, object' ; per'fume, perfume'; pre'fix, prefix': prem'ise, premise'; pres'age, presage' ; pres'ent, present'; prod uce, produce'; proj'ect, project'; pro'test, protest'; reb'el, rebel'; refuse, refuse7; subject, subject'; sur'vey, survey'.
83. In the adjectives ab'sent and ab'stract, the accent is on the first syllable ; in the verbs, it is on the second. In the noun com'pact, the accent is on the first syllable, and in the adjective on the second. In the words ally' and romance', the accent is on the last syllable whether they be nouns or verbs. Accent the last syllable in the following words: desert' (signifying merit), dessert' (signifying a service of fruit after meat). finance', pretence', pretext', research', resource', recess', burlesque', revolt. Accent the first syllable in ex'quisite, mis'chievous, tap'estry, con'trary, des'ignate, rec'ognize, ad'vertise, pre'eedent (when a noun), sor'cerer (the o as in nor), ap'erture, rev'ery, in'novate, pedestal, dis'putant, post'humous, dy'nasty.
84. In contem'plate, confiscate, compensate, concen'trate, consum'mate, cunstel'late, demonstrate, expur'gate, and extir'pate, orthoepists differ as to whether the accent should be on the first or second syllable. Walker, who represents the best English usage, places the accent an the second By liable. Poets often place it on the first.
85. In the Mowing words the last syllable but one should be acoented , aro'mst, aspir'ant, abdo'men, deco'rum, inquiry, oppo'nent, prece'dem (when an adjective), prece'dence, hori'zon, compo'nent, condolence, mantla'mus, panthe'on, clandes'tine, affi'anee, compliant, defal'cate, muse um, pilas'ter, inter'stice, bitu'men, interne'cine.
86. Accent the first syllable in the following words: con'tumacy, ex'emplary, bibliopole, lam'entable, hor'tatory, tem'perament, com'parable, des'ultory, in'teresting, con'sequently, cir'cumstances, rep'ertory, legislative, cem'etery. In no'menclature, and ju'dicature, there is a par. tial accentual stress on the a.
87. Accent the an-te-pe'nult (last syllable but two) in the following: compu'table, contem'plative, retrib'utive, resto'rative, centrifugal, eentrip'etal, advertisement, daguerre'otype (pronounced da-ger'otype). Accent the pe'nult (last syllable but one) in the following: coadju'tor, homicidal, adamante'an, empyre'an, Europe'an, adverti'ser.
iC1NTioNS — 70. "What is a Hyllable? 71. A monosyllable? dissyllable f trisyllable? polysyllable? Can you give the derivation of these words? 72. What is meant by *Jie quantity, long or short, of vowels? 73. Does quantity differ from accent? 74. What is accent? 75. The mark of accent? 78. May words be distinguished by accent alone, even when spelled alike? 79. Give specimeus of nouus and verbs that are spelled alike but distinguished by accent. 80—84. Give specimeus of trisyllables in which the first syllable is accented; the second. Words of four syllables in which the first is accented;
88. The derivation and meaning of the term articulation have been explained in paragraphs 5 and 6. At first signifying the jointing of speech by the utterance of consonants and of syllables, it comprehends, in its more extended signification, the whole subject of the exact pronunciation of elementary sounds and their syllabic combinations in language.
89. "Every articulation," says Bell, "consists of two parts — a position and an action. The former brings the organs of speech into approximation or contact, and the latter separates them, by a smart percussive action of recoil, from the articulative position. This principle is of the utmost importance to all persons whose articulation is defective. On its application distinctness entirely depends. Let it be carefully noted: audibly percussive organic separation is the necessary action of every articulation."
90. We have seen that defects in articulation may proceed either from over-eagerness in utterance or from sluggishness and inattention. We will here cite some of the Vowel and Consonant sounds that are most fre■ uently marred by a vicious articulation. The proper sound :f the a is at is often too decidedly perverted in the syllables and terminations tn al, ar, ant, able, an, ance, &o., as in the following words: fatal, particular, scholar, separate, arrogant, honorable, perseverance, preliminary, iescendant, ordinance, &o.; in which the a should be slightly obscured, but not debased into the e in her or the u in but.
91. Words ending in ent, ens, ence, ess, &c., are often needlessly deprived of their just sound. We hear imminurnt for imminent, vehemurnt for vehement, argumurnrs for arguments, referurnce for reference, lazim'ss for laziness, goodniss for goodness, &o. The e in these words should have a slight sound of the e in ebb, end, &o. Do not say rebuZ or rebAZe instead of rebel, chick'n instead of chicken, sudd'n instead of sudden, nov'l instead of novel, trav'l instead of travel, slov'n instead of sloven, couns'l instead of counsel, mod'l instead of model, vess'l instead of vessel, ardurn* instead of ardent, timbr'l instead of timbrel, &c.* In verbs and participles ending with en, the accent being on the previous syllable, the e is generally dropped. Say ris'n, tak'n, wak'n, drunk'n, sadd'n, grav'n, bright'n, op'n, chos'n, &c. Do not say 6'lieve, d'ny, prdict, prmote, instead of believe, &c.
92. There are many readers who, instead of giving the syllable er, when unaccented, its true sound, would have us suppose, by their mode of utterance, that it is spelled uA. They will, for instance, say powtZA, povuAty, govuAn, instead of power, poverty, govern, in which words the e has the sound it has in her. Do not obscure the e too much, or confound it with the i, in such words as society, variety, satiety, &c.
93. In syllables and terminations in in, tl, ity, ility, ible, the i short should not be obscured more than is required for a free and graceful utterance. Say satin, not sat'n, Latin, not Lat'n ; province, not provence; mountain (mountin), not mount'n ; fountain (fountin), not fount'n; capacity, not capac-e-ty ; lenitive, not leneteve ; pupil, not pup'l; council, not counc'l; pencil, not penc'l, &o. Do not convert the long i into e in such words as benign, oblige, &c.
94. Syllables and terminations in o, ow, and or, are badly articulated by many, who say potafer for potato, compromise for compromise, tobaccernist for tobacconist, innervate for innovate, feller for fellow, winder for window, meller for mellow, hist'ry for history, hallerd for hallowed, mcader for meadow, philoserpher for philosopher, colerny for colony, abrurgate for abrogate, &c. The o in such words as horizon, motion, Boston, &c., may be slightly obscured, but not dropped.
95. The unaccented u is often erroneously suppressed, or made to sound like e, in such words as particular, voluble, regular, singular, educate, &c. The full, diphthongal sr und of the u in mute should be given to
• In regard to such words as weapon, reason, treason, season, &c., althongh authority Is in favor of the dropping of the Vowel before the n, it is a question w lether the slight sonnd of the o is not proper.