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of the organs of speech, originating a sound within the mouth. Brute animals utter Vowel sounds. Man only can utter Consonant sounds.
19. A part of the Consonant sounds are Continuous, and a part are EXPLOSIVE. If you place a short e before each of the following letters, p, b, t, d, ke and g, - you will find, in enunciating them, that you have no power of prolonging their Consonant sounds or of resting on them. They escape with the breath at once. It is not so with f, v, sh, zh, s, l, in, n, r. Sound them with a short e (as in ebb) prefixed, and you will find that the breath is transmitted by degrees, and the sound can be pro longed. The first class are Explosive ; the second, Continuous.
20. The following table gives the classification of elementary sounds adopted by two of the most distinguished grammarians and orthoëpists of our day, Professor Latham, of King's College, Cambridge, in England, ani Professor Fowler, of Amherst, Massachusetts.
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TABLE OF THE ELEMENTARY SOUNDS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
6 0note, boat, &o.
o u « bull, full, &o. 5. " e“ mete, seal, &o. 11. 6 00 6 fool, cool, &c.
e“ met, bed, &c. 12. o u “ but, tub, &c.
VOWEL OR CONSONANT SOUNDS. 13. That of w in woe.
14. That of y in yes
CONSONANT SOUNDS. 15. That of h in hot, an aspirate or simple breathing. 16. “ ng “ king, a nasal consonant sound. 17.
“ m " man, a liquid nasal consonant sound. 18. " nu not,
66 " 19. " T " let, a liquid consonant sound. " q " run “ “ “
COGNATE CONSONANT SOUNDS. 21. That of p in pan, , aspirate. 29. That of k in kind, 2 aspirate 22. " b bag, S vocal. 30. 66 “ gun, S vocal. 23. “ f“ fan, ) aspirate. 31. " S " sin, , aspirate. 24. " v " van, 3 vocal. 32. " 2" real, 3 vocal. 25. « th “ thin, ) aspirate. 33. “ sh “ sh. ve, ) aspirato 26. " th “ thine, S vocal. 34. " z " azure, vocal 27. « t« tin, , aspirate. 28. « d« din, } vocal. 21. Here ends the list of the simple, single, elementary sounds in the English language. But besides these there are six compound sounds. Up these, four are compounded by means of a vowel, and two hy metns of a consonant.
COMPOUND VOWEL SOUNDS.
COMPOUND CONSONANT SOUNDS.
REDUNDANT LETTERS. 22. As far as the representation of sounds is concerned, the letters C, 9 and x, are redundant (more than enough). C expresses only what is as well expressed by either s or k. The words city and can are pronounced sity and kon respectively. Q is only kw (or cw), and x is only ks (or cs). The words queen and box are pronounced cween (or kween) and boks (or bocks, or bocs) respectively. In the words Philip and fillip a single sound has a double sign.
DEFICIENT LETTERS. 23. Six of the simple, elementary sounds have no sign or letter corres ponding to them in the English alphabet. These six sounds are, -1. The u in but. This is expressed by the letter u the proper sound of which is to express the vowel sound in words like bull. 2. The th in thin. 3. The th in thine. 4. The sound of the sh in shine. 5. The sound of z in azure. 6. The sound of the ng in king.
QUESTIONS.- 11. What are the Vowels ? 12. What do you understand by Cognate Consonant Sounds ? the Aspirate letter ? the Liquids ? the redundant signs ? 13, 14. What other classifications are there of Consonant Sounds? 15. What is a Diphthong? Name the distinction between a proper and improper diphthong. What is a Triphthong 16. What is a Letter ? 17. What is the peculiarity of Consonant Sounds? Why are they so called? Why are Vowels so called ? 18. Name the distinction. 19. What is meant by explosive Consonant Sounds ? What by continuous ? 20. How are elementary sounds classified ? 21. Name the Compound Vowel Sounds. The Compound Consonant Sounds. 22. What do you understand by the word redundant ? What are the redundant letters of the English Alphabet ? 23. What the deficient ?
RELATIONS OF THE VOWEL LETTERS TO THE ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.
24. A.— It has been seen that a represents four elementary sounds : 1. The ancient or Italian sound, as in father. 2. The short sound, as in măt. 3. The long sound, as in māte. 4. The broad sound, as in fall. These sounds are variously modified, according to their combinations with other sounds ; as in the following words : liar, care, what, many.
25. The sound of a interchanges with o in salt, wash, &c., where the a has nearly the sound of o in not. It interchanges with the sound usually
represented by short e in many, any, says, &c. The change froia a to o takes place most especially before 1, as in wall, call. When the liquid 1 is followed by another Consonant, the l is generally sunk in the pronunciation, as in falcon, salmon, pronounced faucon, saimon.
26. Æ, an Improper Diphthong, is borrowed from the Latin, in which language it is always long. In English it is used only in words of Latin origin or formation ; and it is sometimes long, as in păan, and sometimes short, as in cětěra.
27. Ai, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long a, as in pail ; to short a, in plaid, raillery ; and sometimes to short e, as in said, again, against. It has the sound of long i in aisle, and of short i in fountain, curtain, &c.
28. Au, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to broad a in cause, and sometimes to the Italian a, as in aunt, and to long a in gauge. In hautboy (the t mute) it has the sound of long o. Aw, an Improper Diphthong, has the sound of broad a, as in maw. Ay, a Proper Diphthong in the word ay, is elsewhere an Improper Diphthong, and is equivalent to long a as in day, except in quay, which is pronounced ke.
29. E.- E represents two elementary sounds, the Fifth and the Sixth. 1. The long sound, as in mēte. 2. The short sound, as in mět. It has an obtuse sound in her. It is sometimes equivalent to long a, as in there, where; but were is properly pronounced wer (the e as in her). Eig. sometimes equivalent to short i, as in England.
30. Before an unaccented final syllable, when it precedes l or n, e sometimes has an indistinct, short sound, and is sometimes suppressed altogether. It is sounded in chapel, flannel, travel, chicken, vessel, kitchen, sudden, woollen, &c.; and it is suppressed in drivel, gravel, heaven, &c. At the end of words it is always mute, except in monosyllables which have no other vowels, and in some proper names, as Tempë, Lethë, &c.
31. The sound of e is generally suppressed in the preterites of verbs, and in participles, in ed, when the e is not preceded by d or t; as feared, praised, tossed, &c., pronounced feard, praisd, tost. In poetry, the sound of the e is sometimes retained ; and to signify this, it may have over it the mark of the Diæ'rēsis (a Greek word, meaning division or separation), as in praisëd, blessëd, which when thus marked ought to be pronounced as words of two syllables. The acute or grave accent is sometimes used for the same purpose.
32. Ea, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long e, as in tea; to short e, as in head ; to long a, as in break; to the Italian a, as in heart, hearth, &c. Ee, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long e, as in eel. Ei, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long a, as in veil ; to long e, as in deceit ; to long i, as in height; to short i, as in surfeit; and to short e, as in heifer.
33. Eo, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long e, as in people ; to short e, au in leopard , to long o, as in yeoman ; and to short (, ils ID
George. Eu and ew (except, according to Walker, when preceded ly r) have the diphthongal sound of u, as in feud, dew. In sew, shew, and strew, ew sounds like long o.
34. Ey has the sound of long a, as in eyry. In key it has the sound of long e ; and, when unaccented, it has the slight sound of e, as in gal. ley, valley. Eye is equivalent to i. Eau has the sound of long 0, as in beau ; in beauty and its compounds, it has the sound of long u.
35. L-I represents two sounds : 1. The diphthongal, sometimes called the long sound, as in pine. 2. The Seventh elementary sound, called the short sound, as in pit. Before r this is equivalent to short u, as in thirst. It is sometimes equivalent to long e, as in machine.
36. I, unaccented, readily blends with the succeeding Vowel, as in motion, physician, concession. le, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long i, as in die ; to long e, as in fiend ; to short i, as in sieve ; and to short e, as in friend. In terminations, like twentieth, in fiery, in Orient, the Vowels should be separated in the pronunciation ; also in variëgate. Ieu and iew, Triphthongs, have the sound of long u, as in lieu, review.
37. 0.20 represents two elementary sounds, namely, the Eighth and the Ninth : 1. The long, as in note. 2. The short, as in not. O is sometimes equivalent to oo, as in prove, and to u short, as in love, and to broad a, as in lord, and to short į in women, and to the u in full, as in wolf. When long, oo represents the Eleventh elementary sound.
38. Oa, an Improper Diphthong, is sometimes equivalent to long o, as in coal, boat, coat, soap, &c.; or to broad a, as in broad. Oe, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent sometimes to long 0, as in foe, or to 00, as in canoe, or to long e, as in fætus. Oi is a Proper Diphthong, and equivalent to oy, except in tortoise, pronounced tor'tiz, choir, pronounced kwir.
39. Ou is a Proper Diphthong. It is the most irregular in the language. It has the sound of short u in enough, country, flourish, &c.; the sound of oo in soup, group, tournament, uncouth, &c.; the sound of long o in though, soul, court, source, pour, &c.; the sound of short aw in cough, trough, &c.; the sound of broad a in ought, thought, &c.
40. U.-- U represents three sounds : 1. The long or diphthongal, as in cube, mule, dupe, fume, student, due, stupid, constitution, resolution, &c. 2. The Tenth elementary sound, as in bull. 3. The Twelfth elementary sound, as in but. It is also equivalent to short i in busy, and to short e in bury. After r, long u has the sound of o in move ; as rule.
41. Ua, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to the Italian a in guard; to short a, as in guarantee ; to long a, or wa, in persuade. Ue is equivalent to long u, as in hue; to short e, as in guest ; and is sometimes mute, as in league, antique, demagogue.
42. Ui, an Improper Diphthong, has the sound of long i, as in guide, of short i, as in conduit ; of long u, as in juice. Uy, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long i, as in buy.
43 W.- W, from being partly a Vowel and partly a Consonant in its ase, may be called a Semi-vowel. It has nearly the sound of ou, and represents the Thirteenth elementary sound, as in wet. With o and e it forms Diphthongs, as in now, new. It is always mute before r; as in write, wrist. It is often joined to o at the end of a syllable without affecting the sound, as in grow.
44. Y.-Y, from being partly a Vowel and partly a Consonant, may be called a Semi-vowel. It represents the Fourteenth elementary sound, as in yet. It is equivalent to u, as in youth ; to long i, as in cypress ; to short i, as in synod, tyranny, &c.; to short u, as in myrrh.
QUESTIONS. – 24, 25. What are the elementary sounds of the letter a ? When does the sound of a most usually change to o ? How do you pronounce f-a-l-c-o-n, and s-a-l-m-o-n ? 26. What is @e? 27. Ai? To what sounds equivalent ? 28. Au? ar ? wy? 29. What of e and its equivalents ? 30, 31. Mention instances in which the sound of e is suppressed. 31. What is said of the mark of the Diæ'resis? 32. What are ea, ze, and ei? 33. Eo, eu, ew? 34. Ey, eau ? 35, 36. Mention a word in which the ong sound of 2 occurs. The short sound. What is ie ? ieu and iew ? 37. Mention & word in which the long sound of o occurs. The short sound. 38. What are oa, oe, oi ? 89. Ou ? 40. Mention words in which the long sound of u occurs. The short sound. 41. Va, ue. 42. Vi, uy. 43. What is w ? v?
RELATIONS OF CONSONANT LETTERS TO THE ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.
45. B. - B represents the Twenty-second elementary sound, as in bag, bib, bulb, bribe, hubbub, &c. In such words as debtor, subtle, redoubt, &c., and in lamb, comb, dumb, thumb, &c., the b is mute.
46. C. — Before another c, and before a, o, u, l, r, t, the sound of c is hard, and equivalent to k; as in can, come, cub, accurate, clip, crop, act; also where it ends a syllable, as in public. Before e, i and y, c is soft and equivalent to s; as in accent, flaccid, vacillate, cymbal, &c., except in sceptic, scirrhus, and their derivatives, where the c is hard, like k. .
47. Ce and ci, followed by another vowel, often blend into the sound of sh, as in ocean, social. C is mute in arbuscle, corpuscle, muscle, czar, victuals, indīct, Connecticut, &c. Followed by the letter h, c sometimes Berves to express the sound of tsh; as in church, chivalry, birch ; the sound of k, as in chorus, chimòra, scheme, chirogʻraphy, distich, &c. ; the sound of sh, in machine, chagrin, chaise. Ch is sometimes mute, as in schism (pronounced sizm), yacht (pronounced yot), drachm. Where the Latin word drachma, however, is used, the ch should be sounded like k.
48. D. - D represents the Twenty-eighth elementary sound, as in did, ruddy, &c. When ed is preceded by a hard cousonant, and the e is mute.