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gramaaticul. s.ignifi$anvie ; and ia the third, which presupposes the first and second, he imparts the' highest degree of expression and effect to what he delivers.
4. Orthoepy, a word derived bam the Greek ortlion (upright) and epb (I speak), signifies the right utterance of words. Orthoepy determines words, and deals with language as it is spoke a; orthography determines the correct spelling of words, and deals with language as it is written. Orthography addresses itself to the eye, Orthoepy to the ear Orthoepy includes Articulation.
5. An articulate sound, from artic'Ulus, a Latin word for joint, is properly a sound which is preceded or followed by the closing of the organs of speech, or bringing some parts of the mouth in contact. A Consonant is, in the strict sense, an Articulation, or an Articulate Sound; but, in use, the term is extended to Vowel sounds.
0. In anatomy the term articulation signifies the connection of the bones of the skeleton by joints. In Orthoepy it may signify, in addition to its more extended meaning, the proper connection, in utterance, of the joints or syllables of words. Thus, in the words ap-pe-tite, gov-er-nor, we are directed by Articulation to pronounce every syllable distinctly, instead of fusing the second into the first, and pronouncing the words as if they were written thus: aptite, govnor. Articulation regulates the enunciation of letters also ; thus it directs us to give its proper sound to the h in such words as wAale, w/iat, wAieh, sAriek, sArunk, sArill, &c., where the sound of the italicized letter is often improperly dropped.
7. "In just articulation," says Austin, " the words are not hurried over, nor melted together ; they are neither abridged nor prolonged; they are not swallowed, nor are they shot from the mouth ; neither are they trailed, and then suffered to drop unfinished ; but they are delivered from the lips as beautiful coins are issued from the mint, deeply and accurately impressed, neatly struck by the proper organs, distinct, sharp, perfectly finished."
8. Without a clear and accurate articulation, no person can give proper effect to language in the delivery. Precipitancy in speech, which drops some syllables and pronounces others too faintly, is the most common cause of a defective articulation. It must not, however, be supposed that a proper rapidity of utterance is inconsistent with distinctness. A habit if undue precision and deliberation in enunciating is quite as offensive as the haste which confounds syllables and words. But the extreme of speaking too fast is the more common fault. To pronounce with accuracy and completeness, even though it be slowly, is the first thing to be studied.
9. An indistinct articulation is often the result of mere indolence or inattention. There must be energetic muscular action of the vocal organs, or your utterance will become inanimate and ineffective. A full inhalation of the breath, a vigorous expulsion of it, a steady exercise of the muscles oalled into play, are all essential to the attainment of a good delivery.
10. In commencing a course of reading exercises, it will be we'i to revive our recollections of the first principles of elocution. In doing tins, we will consider, first, the simple elementary sounds produced for the utterance of the English language. These sounds must be thoroughly understood, and correctly practised, before the complicate sounds flowing from them into speech can be enunciated with ease, propriety, and force.
Qurstioxs. — 2. What is necessary to a good elocution? 4. What is the distirxtion between Orthoepy and Orthography? 5, 6. What is an Articulate Sound? Explain the derivation of the word articulate. 8. What is the most common cause of a bad articulation 9. Mention another cause.
11. The primary division of our articulate sounds is into Vowels and Consonants. The Vowels, that is, the Vowel Letters, are a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes w and y, which last two are called Semi-Vowels or Half-Vowels. A, o, «, and w, represent the broad Vowel Sounds ; e, i, and y, the small Vowel Sounds.
12. The Consonants, that is, the Consonant Letters, are p b,f v, t d, k g, s z; h; I, m, n, r ; j, c, q, x, and sometimes w and y. Here we have, first, the representatives of those consonant sounds allied in the manner of formation or utterance, and called Cognate, from two Latin words, con and nascor, signifying related by birth. These sounds are arranged in pairs, because of their relationship. Then we have the Aspirate h, which simply represents a breathing sound, as in /tap, Aold. Thirdly, we have the Liquids I, m, n, r; and lastly, the double letterj, with the redundant signs c, q, and x.
13. There is another classification of Consonants, sometimes adopted. It has reference to the organs by which they are uttered, whether chiefly by the lips, the teeth, or the palate. B, p, f, v, and m, have been called Labials. D, t, s, z,j, and g (this List when equivalent to^'), and c when equivalent to s, have been called Dentals. K, g, r, I, and c (this last when equivalent to k), have been called Palatals. AT and g are sometimes called Gutturals, from the Latin word guttur, the gullet or throat. S and z are also sometimes called Sibilants, from the Latin word sibilans (hissing), in consequence of the hissing sound attending their production. M and n are also called JVasals, from their relations to the nose j I and r, Linguals, from their relations to the tongue.
1t. In Dr. Rush's classification, there are, I. Twelve Tonic sounds, aa represented in the Vowels and Diphthongs of the following words • .£-11, i-rt, a-n, it-le, ott-r, i-sle, o-ld, ee-l, oo-ze, c-rr, c-nd, i-n. These twe*v« Tonic sounds have a vooality as distinguished from a whisper or aspiration, and admit of indefinite prolongation. II. — Subtonic Sounds. The sounds represented by the italicized letters in 6-ow, d-are, g-ive, ta-ng, Z-ove, m-ay, n-ot, r-oe, have unmixed vocality. In t,-ile, z-one, y-e, w-oe, (A-en, a-z-ure, the sounds represented by the italicized letters have aspiration. Some of the Subtonio vocalities are nasal; as, m, n, ng, b, d, g. III. — Atomc Sounds ; which are represented by the italicized letters in u-p, ou-J, ar-fc, i-f, yes, A-e, wh-e&t, tA-in, pu-sA. These nine have no vocality, but only a whisper or aspiration. In this classification of the Elementary Articulate Sounds, we have twelve Tonic, fourteen Subtonic, and nine Atonic Sounds ; in all, thirty-five. In prolonging the long sounds of a and i, they pass into e; and in prolonging those of o and u, they pass into oo. These are therefore regarded by Dr. Rush as Diphthongs, though not written as such.
15. A Diphthong,* from the Greek words dis (double) and phthonge (a voice), is two Vowel letters joined in one syllable, as ea in eagle, oi in voice. A Proper Diphthong is a Diphthong in which both of the Vowels are sounded, as oi in voice. An Improper Diphthong is a Diphthong in which only one of the Vowels is sounded, as ea in beat A Triphthong is three Vowel letters joined in one syllable, as eau in beau, uoy in buoy.
16. It is necessary to bear in mind that a Letter is not itself a sound, but only the sign of a sound. Thus, the name of the letter m does not enter as an element into the word man when pronounced ; but another Bound, which the letter m represents, does. The alphabetical sound oi the letter a is the same as the sound it represents in the word fate; but it is not the same as that which it represents in all, father, fat
17. The simple elementary sounds, called Consonants, have the following peculiarity: they cannot be made to form even the shortest word or syllable without the aid of a Vowel. Thus, the Vowels a and o are capable of being used as syllables, and so are the combinations ba and lo. But the single sounds of b', or V, if taken by themselves, cannot form a word, or even a syllable. In order to do so, they must be joined to Vowel, and sounded along with it. For this reason they are called Consonants, from the Latin words con (with) and sonans (sounding); whilst the woi'd Vowel is derived from the Latin word vocalis (vocal), because Vowels can be sounded by themselves.
18. Vowel sounds are produced by the lower organs of speech ; and Consonant sounds, which cannot be formed without bringing parts of the mouth in contact, are produced by the upper. The Vowels may be uttered distinctly with the lips as far apart as they can be stretched. But, to enunciate Consonants properly, there must be an appulsion or striking
* Orthogpists differ in regard to the pronunciation of this word. Webster seta it dowa as dif-thong; Walker, Worcester, and others, as dip-thong. As enphony does not here require a departure from the original Greek pionunciation (Walker's authority to the contrary notwithstanding), we prefer to say, with Webster, dif-thong and trif-thong; but teachers must decide the question for themselves.
of the organs of speech, originating a sound within the mouth. Brut* mimals utter Vowel sounds. Man only can utter Consonant sounds.
19. A part of the Consonant sounds are Continuous, and a part ar8 Explosive. If you place a short e before each of the following letters,— p, b, t, d, k and g, — you will find, in enunciating them, that you havs no power of prolonging their Consonant sounds or of resting on them. They escape with the breath at once. It is not so with/, v, sh, zh, s, I, m, n, r. Sound them with a short e (as in ebb) prefixed, and you will find that the breath is transmitted by degrees, and the sound can be pro longed. The first class are Explosive ; the second, Continuous.
20. The following table gives the classification of elementary sounds adopted by two of the most distinguished grammarians and orthoepists of our day, Professor Latham, of King's College, Cambridge, in England, »nl Professor Fowler, of Amherst, Massachusetts.
TABLE OS THE ELEMENTARY SOUNDS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. VOWEL SOUNDS.
VOWEL OR CONSONANT SOUNDS.
13. That of w in uioe. 14. That of y in yes
15. That of h in Aot, an aspirate or simple breathing.
16. "ng " king-, a nasal consonant sound.
17. "m " man, a liquid nasal cousonant sound.
18. " n " not, " " ""
19. " I " let, a liquid consonant sound.
20. " r " run" ""
COGNATE CONSONANT SOUNDS.
21. That of p in pan, ) aspirate. 29. That of 4 in tind, } aspirate
22. " 6 " iag, 5 vocal. 30. " g" gun,) vocal.
23. " /" /an,) aspirate. 31. " i" iin,) aspirate.
24. " v" van,) vocal. 32. " z" real, 5 vocal.
25. "th" thin, ) aspirate. 33. " sh " sit. 1e, ) aspirate
26. "th " tAine, ) vocal. 34. « z "azure, v vocal
27. " t" tin,} aspirate.
28. " d" din,) vooal.
21. Here ends the list of the simple, single, elementary sounds in the English language. But besides these there are six compound sounds. Of these, four are compounded by means of a vowel, and two by means of a consonant.
COMPOUND VOWEL SOUNDS, i That oi i in pine, dine, Ac. 3. That of on in honse, south, Ac. 3. " u " cube, mute, Ao. 4 " oi " voioe, noise, Ao
COMPOUND CONSONANT SOUNDS.
1. That of ch in cAest (aspirate). 2. That of j1 invest (vocal).
22. As far as the representation of sounds is concerned, the letters c, q and x, are redundant (more than enough). C expresses only what is as well expressed by either s or k. The words city and can are pronounced tity and kan respectively. Q is only km (or cw), and x is only ks (or cs). The words guee'i and box are pronounced euieen (or kween) and Aofcs (or bocks, or 6ocs) respectively. In the words Philip anda single sound has a double sign.
23. Six of the simple, elementary sounds have no sign or letter corresponding to them in the English alphabet These six sounds are, — 1. The u in but. This is expressed by the letter u the proper sound of which is to express the vowel sound in words like bull. 2. The th in thin. 3. The fh in thine. 4. The sound of the sh in shine. 6. The sound of z in asure. 6. The sound of the ng in king.
Questions.—11. What are the Vowels .' 12. What do yon understand by Cognate Consonant Sonnds the Aspirate letter? the Liquids ? the redundant signs f 18, 14 What other classifications are there of Consonant Sonnds? 15. What is a Diphthong? Name the distinction between a proper and improper diphthong. What is a Triphthong 16. What is a Letter? 17. What is the peculiarity of Consonant Sonnds! Why are they so called I Why are Vowels so called f I8. Name the distinction. 19. What is meant by explosive Consonant Sonnds f What by continuous I 20. How are elementary sonnds classified? 21. Name the Componnd Vowel Sonnds. The Componnd Consonant Sonnds. 22. What do yon understand by the word redundant t What are the redundant letters of the English Alphabet? 23. What the deficient t
RELATIONS OF THE VOWEL LETTERS TO THE ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.
24. A.—It has been seen that a represents four elementary sounds: 1 The ancient or Italian sound, as in father. 2. The short sound, as in mat. 3. The long sound, as in mate. 4. The broad sound, as in full. These sounds are variously modified, according to their combinations with other sounds ; as in the following words: liar, care, what, many.
25. The sound of a interchanges with o in salt, wash, &c., where the a has nearly the sound of o in not It interchanges with the sound usual)}