Изображения страниц
PDF
EPUB

seasons.

are many little fragments of stone, some of out. I found the wheat quite sound, but a them carried to the very top, any one of which little swelled. In the evening of the same day would weigh more than 25 apts. Internally I passed there again ; the wheat had dried, and the ant mound contains many neatly constructed they were busily engaged carrying it in again. cells, the floors of which are horizontal; and The species of grass they so carefully cultiinto these cells the eggs, young ones, and their vate is a biennial. They sow it in time for the stores of grain are carried in time of rainy autumnal rains to bring it up. Accordingly,

about the first of November, if the fall bas been The mound itself, and the surface of the seasonable, a beautiful green row of the ant ground around it, to the distance of four or five rice, about 4 inches wide, is seen springing up feet, sometimes more, from the centre, is kept on tbe pavement, in a circle of 14 to 15 feet very clean, like a pavement. Everything that in circumference. In the vicinity of this cirhappens to be dropped upon the pavement is cular row of grass they do not permit a single cut to pieces and carried away. The largest spire of any other grass or weed to remain a dropping from the cows will, in a short time, day; leaving the Aristida untouched until it is be removed. I have placed a large corp-stalk ripe, which occurs in June of the next year, on the pavement, and in the course of two or they gather the seeds and carry them into the three days found it hollowed out to a mere granaries as before stated. There can be no shell; that too, in a short time, would be cut doubt of the fact that this peculiar species of to pieces and carried off. Not a green thing is grass is intentionally planted, and, in farmersuffered to grow on the pavement, with the ex- like manner, carefully divested of all other ception of a single species of grain-bearing grasses and weeds during the time of its growth, grass, (Aristida stricta.) This the ant nurses and that after it has matured, and the grain and cultivates with great care; having it in a stored away, they cut away the dry stubble and circle around and two or three feet from the remove it from the pavement, leaving it unencentre of the mound. It also clears away the cumbered until the ensuing autumn, when the weeds and other grasses all around outside of same species of grass, and in the same circle, the circular row of Aristida, to the distance of appears again, receiving the same agricultural one or two feet. The cultivated grass il urishes care as did the previous crop ; and so on, year luxuriantly, producing a heavy crop of small, after year, as I know to be the case on farms white, fioty grajos, which, under the micro where their habitations are, during the sumscope, bave the appearance of the rice of com. mer season, protected from the depredations of merce. When it is ripe it is harvested by tbe cat:le. Outside of the fields they 80w the workers, and carried, chaff and all, into the grass seeds, but the cows crop it down two or granary cells, where it is divested of the chaff, three times, when, fioding that there is no which is immediately taken out and thrown chance to carry on their agricultural pursuits, beyond the limits of the pavement, always to the they cut it all away and re-establish the clean lee side. The clean grain is carefully stored pavement. Our cattle did not often crop the away io dry cells. These cells are so constructed ant rice until their increased numbers have that water cannot reach them, except in long forced them to feed on all kinds of grass. That, wet spells, when the earth becomes thoroughly however, has turned out favorably to the ant saturated, and dissolves the cement with which interest. For, while the prairies are being the grapary cells are made tight. This is a great denuded of the stronger grasses, we have a calamity, and if rain continues a few days it delicate little biennial barley (Hordium pusil. will drown out the entire community. In cases, llum) that is filling all the naked places. It however, where it has contioued long enough rises from 3 to 6 inches, producing fine grain only to wet and swell their grain, as soon as a for ant consumption. It matures about the last sunny day occurs they take it all out, and days of April, and from that time all the agrispreading it in a clean place, after it has sunned cultural ants are seen packing it home daily a day or two, or is fully dry, they take it in again, through the summer. This species of ant subexcept ihe grains that are sprouted; these they sists entirely on vegetable seeds. I have someinvariably leave out. I have seen at least a times seen them drag a caterpillar or a crippled quart of sprouted seeds left out at one place. grasshopper into their hole, that had been

They also collect the grain from several other thrown upon the pavement, but I have never species of grass, as well as seed from many observed them carrying any such thiogs bome kinds of herbaceous plants. They like almost that they had captured themselves. I do not any kind of seeds-red pepper seeds seem to think they eat much animal food. be a favorite with them.

(To be continued.) Io & barren rocky place in a wheat field, a | few days after harvest, I saw quite a number of Have the courage to provide entertainments wheat graios scattered over the pavemeut of an for your friends, within your means--not beant city, and the laborers were still bringing itl yoad.

NEAR AND FAR SIGHTEDNESS.

permanent change took place in the form of the Until recently " pear-sightedness" and leds, since this would impair the eye for . " long-sightedness” bave been explained by seeing objects at a distance, as well as those assuming in the first case that in consequence Dear at havd. Kramer and Helmholtz have of the too great convexity of the cornea and shown ibat the accommodation of the eye to seecrystalline lens, one or both, the focus is formed ing near objects depends upon a temporary in front of the retina, while in the second the change in the form of the lens, this becoming rays of light are concentrated behind the retina, more and more convex as the object approaches because the convexity of the parts just mentioned the nearest point of distinct vision. This is proved is too small. The correction of these imperfec- by watching the relative position of the three tions by the use of copcave glasses in the first images of a candle as seen reflected, 1st, from instance, and of convex ones in the second, the front of the cornea ; 2d, from the foremost or seemed to be all that was needed to show that convex surface of the capsule of the lens; and the explanation was true. It certainly had ihe: 3d, from the hindmost or concave surface of nierit of meeting the facts, and so has been al- ' this capsule. The image from this last is in. most universally accepted by physiologists, and verted, and that from the front of the capsule has found its way into every text-book touch- is in the middle of the three. The attention of ing upon the optical structure of the eye. That the person whose eye is observed being directed these conditions, if they existed, would produce to a distant point, if it be suddenly changed to a the effects indicated, no one will doubt; but it near one, in the same straight line with the first, should not be lost sight of that the alleged con- so that no motion of the globe of the eye will ditions of the cornea and lens were never satis. b9 necessary, the central image will change its factorily shown to be attendants of the two ab- size, becoming smaller, showing that the reflecnormal states of the eye of which we are speak. ting surface has become more convex, and at ing. Recent investigations have proved that the same time will change its place to one side, both near and long sightedness may be, and in showing that the front of the lens has moved most cases are, the result of wholly other causes. forward. The first and third images undergo A moment's reflection will make it apparent to little or no change. It is the loss of this power ady one that, the refracting media being quite of changing the form of the lens, a power necesnormal, if, in consequence of the axis of the eye sary to the distinct vision of near objects, that being too long, the retipa is too far behind the cbiefly gives rise to long-sightedness in persons lens, the rays will meet in front of this, and thus growing old. The inability to accommodate, sbort-sigbtedness will of necessity follow. The according to Dopders, depends upon the lens average length of the axis of the eye is a little becoming harder, and therefore less compres. less than an inch, viz. : 21.25 millimetres, or five, and so offering greater resistance to the about 0.95 inch. Donders bas shown that in ciliary muscle, the chief agent in producing the near-sighted persons it exceeds an inch, and compression required. may amount to 1.20 inch and even more, the When directed to distant objects the accomo. other diameters being unchanged. In this case dating power is at rest, so that the sense of efthe ball of the eye becomes more or less oval fort is wholly absent. Most persons are, how. or cgg-sbaped, and when turned strongly to-ever, conscious of a distinct effort, and those wards the nose will fill the orbit more tban who are becoming long-sighted, painfully so, usual at the outer angle. Concave glasses will, when the eye is directed to a near object. It of course, be required to disperse the ligbt suf- is commonly believed that near-sighted persons ficiently to bring the rays to a focus on the re-' as they grow old acquire the power of seeing tina. In proof that too great convexity of the objects at ordinary distances, because their too cornea does not produce Dear-sightedness, may convex refracting media become flattened with be urged the fact that this convexity is greatest advancing age. This may and does bappen to in childhood, but, as Volkunan observed, cbil. ' a slight degree in a few, but not in the majority dren are rarely pear-sighted.

of cases. For the most part, near-sighted perIn regard to long-sightedness, if the alleged sons as they grow old find that the pear point cause of it, viz., the flattening of the cornea and / of distinct vision recedes, while the far point crystalline lens, existed, this would of necessity undergoes but little change. This is an importform the focus, other things being the same, be- ant fact in opposition to the theory of fattening hind the retina; but po proof was ever brought heretofore so generally accepted, and is fully forward that this flattening actually did exist explained by the loss of the power of acconin the majority of cases. In adopting this ex- modation.-Nation. planation, its inconsistency with the fact that elderly persons still see far objects distinctly, It is easier to make a complete sacrifice which seems to bave bees overlooked by physiologists. will fully satisfy conscience, than a half-sacri. The persistence of this faculty was of itself suffice which falls short of it.- Select Memoirs of fioiont evidence to make it probable that - 20 | Port Royal.

STRENGTH OF WILL TO DO RIGHT. | defeat of evil allurements, will often render the While the error of a few is that overstrength rest of the struggle ea-y, or the resolute choice of mere will which we call obstinacy or self. of suitable coun pany, and the rejection of that will, the error of the vast multitude is feebleness known to be enslaving, may settle the whole of will. The bodies of most control their minds. question. How many eat where reason would say abstain, But there is one habit which, more than any or drink that which steals away the senses ! other, before the business and confusion of the How many are too feeble of purpose to lay aside day he entered on, will strengthen the wisdom an interesting book or pursuit at the hour when and the vill-i. e., the practice of forecasting it infringes on other duties ! what hours most the whole difficulties, dangers and plan of the waste in profitless reading! Indeed, there is day devourly in communion with the beavenly a fascination and tyranny about the present, no Father. They that wait upon the Lord shall matter what-company, passion or pleasure-renew their strength. As the moulting bird feelings that we are all asbamed of afterwards. recovers youth and renewed energy from the

The ancient moralists felt tbis as much as we process, so has man in all ages been found to do do. Seneca says, in language quite as strong from real communion with the Father of Spirits. as that of St. Paul, that he sees the right and The power of vigorous will is thus most effecadmires it, and the wrong and hates, while yet tually increased. Dean Trench has thrown he practices it. Many persons seem to think this thought into a most beautiful little poem, it enough to admit all this without attempting lately much quoted, though given more at to overcome it. In fact, to be weak of will, length in the Ilymns of the Ages : amiable and easily turned, they thiok a sort of Lord, what a change within us one short hour Christian virtue. Yet it is one of the most Spent in thy presenre can avail to make! radical of vices. For all cbaracter is determined What beavy burdens from our bosoms takel by the will, wbich is therefore essential to all / What parched g will which is therefore essential to ou l What parched grounds refresh us with a shower!

We knerl, and all around us seems to lower; virtue. The glory of every human being is to

We rise, and all t?e distant and the near have a strong will, which need not be self-willed, Stand forth in sunny outline, brave and clear; but bowed ever reverently to truth and justice We kneel, how weak I ve rise, how full of power! and eternal law, and the Supreme Lawgiver. Why, therefore, should we do ourselves this wrong, But there must be a vital streogth of will tol Or others, that we are not always strong

That we ere ever, ever borne with carechoose the rigbt.

That we shouli ever wenk or heartless be, How to obtain this is the question. One clue Apxious or troubled, when with us is prayer, is the observation that our strength is not the Aod joy and strength and courage are with Thee ? same on all subjects nor in all circumstances and associations. Weakness or strength of bodi.

THE BIRD TEACHER. ly bealth bas much to do with this. Exercise Some years ago, when the Australian gold. and repose affect it. An overtasked nervous sever was bot in the veins of thousands, and system will often be weak and irresolute, when fleets of ships were conveying them to that far. balf an hour's vigorous exercise or a sharp walk off upcultivated world, a poor old woman landed in the open air will renew it. The hour of the with the great multitude of rough and reckless day will have much influence. On first rising men, wbo were fired to almost frenzy by dreams in the morning the resolution is clear, compre- of ponderous nuggets and golden fortunes. hensive and strong, while at night it is often For these they left behind them all the enjoyfeeble. Hence the most successful men geper. ments, epdearments, all the softening sanctities ally plan out the day early, and make their and surroundings of home and social life. For mark while the will is vigorous and uodistracted. these they left mothers, wives, sisters and Sleep often restores this faculty. Habit has still daughters. There they were, thinly teuted in more to do with it. Every success makes a the rain and the dew and the mist, a busy, future one in the same matter more easy and boisterous, womanless camp of diggers and Datural, while every instance of being subdued grubbers, rougbing and Tumbling it in the by circumstances makes every similar tempta- scramble for gold mites, with no quiet Sabtion proportionably powerful. Association has bath-breaks, nor Sabbath-songs, nor Sabbathmuch to do with it. In the company of those bell to measure off and sweeten a season of we respect we are easily led.

He, therefore, who would rule his own spirit, Well, the poor widow, who had her cabin and be strong, must attend to these conditions. within a few miles of “the diggings,” brought Habits that secure the most perfect health are with her but few comforts from the old homeland hence most favorable to virtue. Sound sleep, I a few simple articles of furniture, the Bible vigorous exercise, proper food, fresh air, thus be and psalm book of her youth, and a lark to sing come Cbristian duties, to be secured at almost to her solitude the songs that had cheered her any cost. The formation of habits such as shall on the other side of the globe. And the little secure the victory to all good choices, and the thing did it with all the fervor of its first potes.

rest.

Io her cottage-window it sang to her hour by must enlist the sympathies of the residents of large bour at her labor, with a voice never heard be cities, where the sad spectacle of overdriven and fore on that wild continent. The strange birds

worn out animals of draught is of too frequeut oc

currence, of the land came circling around in their gor

THE RUSSIAN-AMERICAN TELEGRAPH.-The Westgeous plumage to hear it. Even four footed ani.

ern Union Telegrapb Company bas abandoned the mals, with grim couotenance, paused to hear it. Russian-American telegraph project, aft:r expenda Then, one by one, came other listeners. They ing, as they allege, three millions of dollars in ex. came reverently; and their voices softened into plorations, in the purchase of materials, and in exsilence as they listened. Hard-visaged men,

tending their lines eight bundred and fifty miles

north of the capital of British Columbia. The re&. bare breasted and unshaven, came and stood

sons assigned, in a formal communication to the gentle as girls; and tears came out upon many Secretary of State, for this step, are, that the success a tanned and sun blistered cheek, as the little of the Allanric Cable destroys the hopes of reaping bird warbled forth the silvery treble of its song a commercial profit from the new line 8 a means of about the green hedges, the meadow-streams,

coma unication with Europe, wbile the expectation

that connecting links would be established, to esand the cottage-honies of the fatherland. Aod

tond southward from Northeastern Asia into China, they came near unto the lone widow with peb-India, and Japan, has proved delusive. The Secrebles of gold in their hard and horog hands, and tary of State, in reply, regrets this decision, withont asked her to sell them the bird, tbat it might questioning the wisdom of the action of the com. sing to them while they were bending to the them while they were bending to the pany, and says he does “not believe that the Uni

ted Sta'es and Russia bave given tbeir faith to piok and the spade. She was poor; and the

each other, and to the world, for the prosecution of gold was heavy; yet she could not sell the warb that groat enterprise in vain."--Philadelphia Press. ling joy of her life; but she told them that they 1 The American department at the Paris Exposition might come whenever they would to hear it is reported to be less complete in condition than the sing. So, on Sundays, having no other preacher, departmeot of any other country; but this is a nate por teacher, nor sanctuary-privilege, they came

ural and almost inevitable consequence, when we dowo in large companies from their gold-pits, goods to Paris with less trouble than many Ameri.

consider that the European exbibitors sent their and listened to the devotional (?) hymns of the cans were subjected to in forwarding their packages lark, and became better and happier men for its to the point of departure from our country. music.-Elihu Burritt.

The Trustees of the Peabody Educational Food

determined upon a general plan, in session at New Have the courage to prefer comfort and pro York, 3d mo. 25th. It was resolved that the promopriety to fashion, in all things.

tion of Primary or Common School Education should

be the leading object, and that in aid of it normal For friends' Intelligencer,

schools should be established in the Southern and

South-Western Siales. Dr. Sears was chosen the The eighty dollars credited to R. W. Moore for

General Agent, and intrusted with the whole charge New Orleans Howe should have been collections as

of executing the plan, under the direction of the follows :

Trustees. George Peabody sent a letter to ibe Board, Dr. Thomas Moore......... ................ $20.00

in which he says that in making this noble gift he A Friend..

25.00

designed to give absolute power to the Trustees in Mary Wright ...........

15.00

regard to its distribution. An Executive Committee Tbos. B. and Lydia Longstreth......... 10.00

of five gentlemen was appointed, and the distribution Jonathan Rittenhouse.....

500

of the fund will be speedily begun. Elizabeth Bacop........................ 5.00

i Appleton & Co., book publishers, of that city, have

magnanimously dodated 100,000 volumes of school.

$80.00 HENRY. M. LAING, Treasurer.

books in rid of the liberality. 4th mo. 1st. 1867.

A Republican State Convention has been held in

Norih Carolina, in which 100 whites and fifty colored The Treasurer of Friends' Association for the Aid

delegates, representing fifty-six counties, were assemand Elevation of the Freedmen has received since

bled. The resolutions a lopted were "radical." last report :

An Asylum for Orpbans, wbile and colored, has From City contributions..................... $141.00 been established in Cbarleston, S. C., under the man.

“ Women Friends of Sadsbury, Pa... 7.00 agement of prominent citizens of New York. It is 41 Friends of Warminster............... 17.00 called the Col. Shaw Orphan Home, and it is ready 1 Change, Cincinnati .......... ..... .. .88 to receive the fatberless and motherless—witbout Sarah W. Doughton, Lumberton,

distinction of color. Gilbert Pillsbury (oroiber of N. J.....................................

5.00 | Parker) is the Superintendent, and his wife, the mat4 Rachel Haines, Fallston, Md........ 10.00 ron, is said to be one of the ablest teachers in all the

Soulb; and it is difficult to see how the orphans of

$180.88 | South Carolina could be better provided for, either Henry *. Laino, Treasurer. physically or intellectually, Phila. 4ib mo. Sth, 1867. No. 30 N. Third St. There is a prospect that the cotton crop of the

present year will be much larger than that of 1866, ITEMS.

and not much below the average crop raised Among the bills just signed by the Governor of previous to the war. Thousands of planters in the Pennsylvndia is one incorporating a society for “the South bare already discovered that slavery was a prerention of cruelty to animals." Similar societies curse to the master as well as to ibe bondman, and hare been instituted in many places, and their object 'that freedom promoies prosperity as well as justice.

FRIENDS' INTELLIGENCER..

" TAKE FAST HOLD OF INSTRUCTION; LET HER NOT go; KEEP HER; FOR BIS 18 TAY LIFE.”

VOL. XXIV.

PHILADELPHIA, FOURTH MONTII 20, 1867.

No. 7.

EDITED AND PUBLISHED BY AN ASSOCIATION

OF FRIENDS.

COMUNICATIONS MUST BE ADDRESSED AND PAYMENTS

MADE TO
EMMOR COMLY, AGENT,
At Publication Office, No. 144 North Seventh Street,

Open from 9 A.J. until 5 P.M,
Residence, 809 North Seventeenth Street.
TERMS:-PAY ABLE IN ADVANCE.
The Paper is issued every Seventh-day, at Three Dollars per
andum. $2.50 for Clubs; or, four copies for $10.

Agents for Clubs will be expected to pay for the entire Club.

The Postage on this paper, paid in advance at the office where
It is received, in any part of the United States, is 20 cents a year.
AGENTS Joseph S. Cohn, New York.

Henry Haydock, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Bepj. Stratton, Richmond, Iad.
William H. Churchman, Indianapolis, Ind.
James Baynes, Baltimore, Md.

CONTENTS.
Review of the Life and Discourses of F. W. Robertson ......
Selections from the Writings of John Barclay...............
Letters from Sarah G. Rich...

... 102
Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane................. ... 203
EDITORIAL ...

... 104 OBITUARY........

..... 104 Freedmen's School at Lincoln, V

.... 104
Agricultural Ant of Texas...................

.... 105
PORTRY............................................. . ...
The Hebrew Books in the British Museum..

.... 107
Taste in Arranging Flowers...............................
Characteristics of Lamb—the Qualities of Mind and Heart..
Importunity...........
llow to Live Ea

................ 110
Indigo .........
Annual Report of the Female Association of Philadelphia for

the Relief of the Sick and Infirm Poor with Clothing..... 111
ITEMS...................

............ 112

110

[ocr errors]

REVIEW OF THE LIFE AND DISCOURSES OF recoils upon itself. If we impose on men a
F. W. ROBERTSON.

burden which cannot be borne, and demand a
BY SAMUEL M. JANNEY.

strictness which, possible in theory, is impossi(Contiuned from page 83.)

ble in practice, men recoil, we have asked too The first series of Robertson's published dis much, and they give us nothing; the result is courses consists of those delivered at Brighton, an open, wanton and sarcastic desecration of the during three years, commencing in 1849. We Day of Rest.” are informed in the Preface that “these are "If we say the Sabbath is shadow, this is not notes previously prepared, nor are they ser. only half the truth. The apostle adds, thə mons written before delivery. They are sim- body is of Christ.' ... Hence, a very natuply Recollections;' sometimes dictated by the ural and simple division of our subject sug. preacher himself to the younger members of gests itself: 1. The transient shadow of the à family in which he was interested, at their Sabbath, which has passed away. 2. The perargent entreaty; sometimes written out by him- manent substance, which cannot pass. self for them when they were at a distance, and Under the first of these beads he says: unable to attend his ministry."

| “The history of the Sabbath is this:-It was The sixth sermon in this series is entitled, gived by Moses to the Israelites, partly as a “ The shadow and the substance of the Sab. sign between God and them, marking them off bath.” It embraces some very lucid views on from all other pations by its observance ; parily a subject that now claims much attention, and as commemorative of their deliverence from the whole of it is well worthy of perusal. The Egypt. And the reason why the seventh day text is, “Let no man therefore judge you in was ixed on, rather than the sixth or eighth, meat or in driok, or in respect of a holiday, or was, that on that day God rested from his laof the new moon, or of the Sabbath days : which bor. The soul of man was to form itself on are a shadow of things to come ; but the body is the model of the Spirit of God.of Christ.” Col. ii. 16, 17.

| “There is not in the Old Testament a single He observes that peculiar difficulties attend trace of the observance of the Sabbath before the discussion of the subject of the Sabbath. the time of Moses." “ The observance of one “If we take the strict and ultra ground of Sab- day in seven is therefore purely Jewish. The bath observance, basing it on the rigorous re- Jewish obligation to observe it rested on the enquirements of the fourth commandment, we actment given by Moses. The Spirit of its obtake ground which is not true, and all uptruth, servance, too, is Jewish and not Christian. whether it be an over statement or a half-truth, There is a difference between the sii'it of Ju

« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »