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humane. It was throuyh her assistance that Kin., land; she thinks there should be a dozen kel aud ('arl Schurz escaped to America. While classes of the same kind in Hauburgh as well I wasio Hamburgh, she invited the elder pupils as in other cities. The Society of the " Froeof the Paulsen Stift and the Froebel Union Class bel Union" hits to contend with the prejudices to spend an afternoon at her villa, to which en. against it, caused by the breadth of its foundatertainment I had an invitation, and it was very tion. pleasant to see how elegantly they behaved.

BERLIX, Sept. 10th, 1867. It was a Sunday afternoon, and tea was served I am just on the point of leaving this city, of in the garden, after which they played games which I shall have more to say in another leton the grounds. There were none present unter ; but just now I wish to speak of a subject der fourteen years of age, and their manners that may interest you as the friends of educa. were worthy of more refined and fortunate cir tioa. You know that Germany is the hevd. cumstances than their owu poor homes hidquarters of the science of Geography. Kie. offered; but kindergarten education of the fert, the Professor of Geography in the masses would banish vulgarity and coarseness University of Berlin, is the great authority from all ranks of society. Several persons dis. since the death of Carl Ritter, and was even tinguisheri for their educational eminence or as before; his maps are the standard. I havo patrons of education were also invited, and found here an American gentleman of educathey were much interested to hear of our pub tion, who for the last seven or eight years has lic-school system and to have it introduced into given all his time to elaborating a school atlas Hamburgh, where it would tell, by comprehend for America, which shall contain the perfection ing kindergartens as the foundation. The two of geographical attainment aod the method of countries can learn much of each other. I teaching geography, founded on the deepest made very bappy a certaio Dr. Rée, who is di philosophy of memory, which is, that indelible rector of one of the finest private schools io impressions are only made when the eye and Hamburgh, by telling him about the noble the pleasurable activity of the mind conspire. school for colored people in Philadelphia, taught Carl Ritter was not only a great geographer, by Mr. Bassett and Miss Jackson, both persoas but he spent his life in making himself a great of color. He is a transcendental Jew, and be educator, and was practically engaged in it lieves that the negro race should be admitted always. His life, recently written or translated to all the chances of humanity, and rejoices in into English by Mr. Gage, and published by the political equality wbich will insure this on Scribner, in New York, ought to be in the every plane of life. I told you that Mrs. hands of every friend of education; and who. Goldschmidt had retired from the presidency of ever should read that, would need no other recthe Paulsen Stift, but it was only to devote ommendation of Mr. Fay's plan than to know herself to a branch of the school which bas that Carl Ritter was counsellor and friend to Daturally grown out of it. The normal class, him, and that his sympathy and approval acsupported by the “Froebel Union,” supplies companied the beginning of the work and en. assistants as well as principals to the kinder-couraged Mr. Fay to persevere. Humboldt gartens. Each pupil goes into the gartens in the also examined the plan and the maps. As long morning to exercise herself in what she has as these two great men were alive they inspired learned; many of these girls, who must get their Mr. Fay with ardor to overcome all difficulties. living, are in great demandas nurses for children ; Kiefert also has examined every proof and corand as soon as they graduate from the normal rected every map, and gives his written testischool, they can go into families in that capacity; mony to their accuracy. and they do so, not only in Hamburgh, but else! The plan is, that the stádents should have where. Mrs. Goldschmidt told me that there the maps before their eyes while the teacher was always a greater demand than supply; and gives the lesson word by word (which they rethis had suggested to her another idea, which peat) together with an oral lecture. The adwas to bave the girls trained to all kinds of vantage this method has over Naylor's chant of domestic services. It was also designed that topography is, that the mind is not lulled by they should spend a few weeks in a children's the chant, but kept wide awake by the conversahospital as assistant nurses, attending lectures tion, and the eye is informed at the same inoand receiving such instructions as is given ment, so that the memory of the eye is assothere. Each lady of the “ Froebel Võionciated with that of the ear, and the mind is binds herself to take into her own family one relieved of that unnatural straip made upon it of these girls for a month, as an assistant cham- when the will (rather than the affections aod bermaid or parlor girl, in order that she may senses) is brought to the aid of the memory. learn household ways such as she could not | The truth is, that the memory is not aided but learn in her owo poor home. It is the eminent hindered by painful efforts of will. There is a success of this plan which has made her girls deep philosophy suggested by the expression, in such demand all over Germany and Eng!" learning by heart." The author of this geography has such an appreciation of the dig!

VISIT TO A SALT MINE. nity of science that he does not intend to force One of the Editors of the Scientific American, it into circulation by buying up and destroying who is now in Europe, communicates to that others, but wishes it to establish itself on its paper the following account of one of his ad. own merits and take its proper place through ventures : intelligent teachers who insist upon having the “About ten miles above Salzburg, in a deep best means of education. When school atlases gorge of the mountains of Bavaria, are the were first introduced (I remember the time the famous salt mines, which have been worked study of geogaphy was made the most delight upwards of two hundred years. Wishing to ful in school, because the maps were always see these mines, a party was made up, and, before the eyes of the scholar during the reci afier a carriage ride of nearly two hours up the tation of the lessou, and he answered questions valley of the Sa Za, which winds around between directly from them, by which means they were high mountain peaks, we reached the mides, daguerreotyped upon the memory. Now lessons and, without difficulty, obtained permission to are recited without the maps, and thus the most enter, Ladies, as well as gentleruen, are perimportant advantage of ihe school atlas is lost. mitted to enter the mides; but before doing so This pian of Mr Fay's will comprehend the first they must put on the breeches. The dress plan, with the additional advantage of placing provided coosists of trowsers, a coarse blouse, a before the popil maps so beautiful and prepared brigand hat, and a leather apron, strapped with such skill as to give, first, the patural, then about the waist to cover the seat. Ladies thus the political divisions of geography, so that the rigged looked comical in the extreme; but eye and wind are alike delighted. E. P. P. such is their praise worthy curiosity, they

cheerfully submit to ihe grotesque costume, For Friends' Intelligencer.

and, with lantern in hand, they join in the CHRYSANTHEUM.—( White.)

procession, and, behind a trusty guide, enter Pale Chrysantheum! On thy stem

the main adir, which has the appearance of a . Sittest thoo, like Eastern gem.

receiving tomb. After traversing the adit for All thy snow-white petals fair

nearly half a mile, straight into the mountain, Clustering in the autumn air.

we ascended a flight of 150 stone steps, which Snow his come and beat thy leaf; 'Tis beat, as if with weight of grief.:

brought us to a salt water lake, forty teet deep, Sill, lifts thy head, as if in hope

all beautifully lighted np. We were ferried That fairer suos may come and ope

across this gloomy Siyx in a small boat, and Thy unblown buds,-to cbeer the eye

then again entered the adit, and after a short Of every traveller passing by.

walk we reached the pithole, where we discov. Pale Chrysanthem! Lovely flower!

ered the value of our leather aprons. To enter Reared beside a coltage bower,

this pit it was necessary to slide down upon two By the whiteness of thș bloom,

smooih bars, which resembled a ladder without By thy leaflets glad perfume,

rounds when placed up the sides of a building. Thou canst cast a glory round,

With a lantern in one hand, and a leather As of prayer, or hymo profound.

| gauntlet upon the other, to clasp a rope, the Thou art no weakling! Thou hast known guide slides upon the bars, and the party fol. Autumn winds around thee blown.

low his example;' and thus, holding tightly Strong and pure! Our hearts with thee

upon the rope and riding pick.a.back, we went Are linked in sweetest sympathy.

down two or three fearful descents until we Like thee, torn by wintry blust,

reached the great salt cavero where the miners Are oor poor barks, when thick and fast

were at work. The ascent of the 45 ) steps, Clouds come o'er. Turn we must To Heavenly suu for hope aod trust,

and the descent made upon the leather aprons, For strength and joy, or else decay,

brought us again to one of the branch adiis, on And drop like autumn leaves away.

a level with the main adit, where the party were Prophetstown, Illinois.

E. A.

requested, without respect to sex, to get astride

a car, upon which, by our own momentum, we TUE WAY.

made a rapid railway ride to the place of enOh, Father, lead me; guide me in thy way,

trance, tbe whole tour occupying an hour. And keep me strong against temptation's sway. Within the mine there is an artificially preOh, hear my prayer; I ooly ask that thou

pared grotto or chapel, which, when lighted up, Wilt lead me onward in thy pathway now; I only ask tbat thou my prayer wilt bear,

shows a most beautiful effect upon the salt And, looking in ward, see that 'tis sincere.

crystals, which are arranged in fanciful fornis. Thou seest the heart, knowing each wish that's there; A stream of fresh water has been introduced Oh, give me wbat tbou wilt of thy kind care,

Tinto the mines, and the bride is carried in Not what I ask, but wbat tbou koowest is best;

| wooden pipes, loog distances, where fuel can Not what I seek, but what thy love can bless. Oh, Father, as thy child, to thee I come,

I be obtained abundantly for its evaporation. , Wilt thou not gently lead me to thy home? T.C. These conduits are carried along the sides of

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precipices, through tuppels, or canals, cut in the prevailing belief now is that these meteoric rocks, and over deep ravines, supported upon showers are caused by the passage of the eartb and pilcs or props, in one instance, as I was in

its 'atmosphere through a stream of nebulous dr

cloudy matter, loosely aggregated, which stream bas formed, a distance of thirty miles.”

an orbit reaching in a long ellipse from a peribelion

point bear the sun, to an apbelion point near the ITEMS.

orbit of the planet Uranus. From the length of The Philadelphia Ledger gives the following ac-time-say an hour and a half-taken up by the count of the late meteoric shower. .

earth in passing through the denser part of the The periodicity of the shower, its probable reap

shower, the thickness of the stream is believed to be pearance on the morning of the 14th of November, 1

about three times the diameter of the earth, or

about 30,000 miles. 1867, its path ibrough the solar system, and the

The length of tbe streain of probable length, breadth and depth of the stream

meteoric matter must be many millions of miles, as

it consumes some eight or nine years in passing that of meteoric matter, were reasonably well established.

part of tbe earth's orbit which our planet reacbes Accordingly, the astronomers of the United States

about the 12th to the 15th of November each year. and Europe prepared themselves for a new series of

This is held to account for the great difference in observations, and those of tbe United States were not disappointed. There were scientific watchers at

the display, in different years, as the earth sometimes Pbiladelpbia, Haverford College, near Philadelphia ;

passes through tbe very centre of the stream, as in Naval Observatory, Wasbington; Vassar College,

1832 and 1833, and at others through the thinner

| sides of it, ag io 1866 and 1867. With respect to Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; Dudley Observatory, N. Y.; Yale College, New Haven, Connecticut; University

1:1 tbe distance of the meteors from the surface of the of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and perhaps at other

earth at the time of their appearance, there is at places. We have to do bere with the observers in

least one satisfactory observation on record. This and near Pbiladelpbia. Mr. Benjamin V. Marsh, of

one was "timed” and its path noted, during the this city, and Professor S. J. Gummere, of Haver

shower of 1866, at Sunderland, England, and Aberford College, were prepared with chronometers and

deen, Edinburgh and Glasgow, Scotland. Its alti. star cbarts, by means of which they and their as.

tude was ascertained to have beeu from 51 to 57 sistants could note the time of appearance and lay miles, over a spot near Dundee, in Scotland. down the exact path of certain of the meteors, with Worthington Hooker, whose death was mentioned a view, in connection with other observers, to de- / in our paper last week, vas a native of Springfield, termining their probable distance from the earth, and since 1852 Professor of Medical Science ai Yalo and the point in space from wbich the meteors ap. College. The Springfield Republican says tbat Propear to radiate. The meteors, altbough noticable fessor Hooker was a graduate of Yale College in before twelve o'clock, became so frequent by four 1825, of Harvard Medical School in 1829, and deroo'clock, that the observers ceased their efforts to ted all his years of active life diligently and successtime and map them, and only counted. They then fully to his chosen profession. In it he bad attained increased in frequency until one of Mr. Marsb's ag- an eminence fully worthy tbe position be filled for sistants counted thirty-pine in a single minute, fifteen years in Yale College, and did mncb to render about half-past four. This, according to the usual his difficult science one of popular use and knowl. method of computation, would make about 195 edge. Several valuable works, treating of medicine visible in a single minute around the whole sky at and cbemistry and their practical combinations, that time, as a single observer can see only about came from his peo, and have been extensively used one-fifub of the bemisphere. Professor Gummere as school text.bouks. says, in a hurried note to Mr. Marsh, that having mapped out a good many paths, and having counted

Mount VESUVIUS IN ERUPTION. about one thousand previous to four o'clock, he then Naples, Nov. 14.-Mount Vesuvius, on the east ceased counting, on account of the frequency of the side of the Bay of Naples, is in volcanic action and meteors. At tbis time he estimared them as appear- sending forth a pillar of fire, wbich has a magoifiing at the rate of about three to five every second, | cent effect as seen from the city. or about 180 to 300 a minute.

New craters bave been formed, and the usual They continued until daylight, some being very point of issue-in latitude 40.49 north and longitude hrilliant. and leaving long trains of light, one of 14.26 east-ig also engaged. which remained visible nearly two minutes. Mr. Marsb's observations began at 11.10 P. M. of the

During the past night red-hot stones were ejected 13th. He timed and mapp d the first meteor at 29

| in large quantities from the burning mountain. minutes 7 seconds past 11 o'clock, mean time, Phila

The surrounding earth is in tremulous motion for delpbia. Between that time and 20 minutes past 2 a considerable distance; tbe lara is pouring forth A. M. be succeeded in timing 64 meteors, and in

d in and running down the sides of the mountain in vol. mapping the exact paths of 36. These all show the

w the lume and with rapid flow, and the general upbearing po ni of radiation to be in the centre of the space

from the volcano gives warping of a grand, unenclosed by the group of stars popularly known as

usually grand, eruprion, from which we may look the " Sickle," in the constellation Leo. Astronomi- | for very serious consequences, as in forner years. cally stated, it is near the star x, centre of Leo's

of the more remarkable pbenomena Vesuvius. sickle, or in rigbt ascension 148 deg., and north dec

The first eruption of the more serious kind from lination about 24 deg. This coincides with the ra

Mount Vesuvius occured in the year 79, when tbe diating point of the sbower, as in icated by Professor

elder Pliny perisbed, and the then vast cities of Twining after the great shower of 1833, and it is

Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabig were overwhelmvertically over the precise point in space towards

ed by tbe burning torrent and buried in lava and wbicb the earth is moving in its orbit at the time. ashes thrown from the crater. This will doubtless be confirmed by other observers, Forty-nine eruptions of Vesuvius occurred from and ibus one important point concerning the track that disastrous period to the year 1850, of which and probable orbit of the great Noveniber stieam of the most celebrated in history took place in the years meieors will be firmly established.

| 472, 1779, 1794, 1819, 1834 and 1839.

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BY S.M. JANNEY.

The result was that Moses fled from his native ON OVERCOMING EVIL WITH GOOD.

country and dwelt in Midian.

In this instance, Moses was overcome of evil The apostolic injunction, “ Be not overcome under the specious guise of goodness. He of evil, but overcome evil with good," is appli sympathized with his suffering brethren, he cable to all times and to every station in life. was indigvant at the cruelty indicted on a The proper antagonist of evil is goodness, and fellow creature, and these feelinge, in themselves God himself being the only source of good, it poble, were naturally called forth by the scene is our duty to apply io prayer to Him for light he witnessed ; but he had no right to do evil 10 enable us to see the evil within us and around that good might come-no authority to take the us, and for strength to overcome through the life of the oppressor, and thus avenge one crime Gospel of Christ, which is “the power of God by committing another. The fact that he enunto salvation."

deavored to conceal the deed, and his subsequent In the history of Moses, as recorded in the flight on its being discovered, afford sufficient Book of Exodus, we find that be was, in one evidence that he was self condemned for his coninstance, overcome of evil, but afterwards, duct. And here we may observe, that the through Divine aid, he was enabled to over. slaying of the Egyptian did not promote the. come evil with good. The account is very in. deliverance of the Hebrews; the time had not structive and worthy of our consideration. yet come; and it was not by the hand of man

We read that “when Moses was grown he that their deliverance was destined to be acwent out unto bis brethren and looked on their complished. burdens, and ha spied an Egyptian smiting a After Moses had dwelt forty years in the Hebrew, one of his brethren. And he looked land of Midian, he was called by the Most High this way and that

way, and when he saw that into his service, being commissioned to declare there was no wan, he slew the Egyptian and His will to Pharaoh and to bring forth the hid him in the sand. And when he went out children of Israel out of Egypt. On what

the second day, he beheld two men of the He-arm did he rely for the execution of this great · brews strove together; and he said to him that purpose ? Did he take sword, or spear, or

“Wherefore smitest thou thy buckler ? No; he went with the rod of Ged brother ? And he said, who made thee a prince in his hand and the word of Divine power in ' and a judge over us? 'intendest thou to kill me, his heart and in his mouth. as thou killedst the Eyyptian? And Moses In accordance with the ideas then prevailing feared, and said surely this thing is known." among the Hebrews, who attributed all events

did the wrony,

to the immediate action or command of God, it charity and universal love. Its spirit is not is said that He hardened Pharaoh's beart. separation, but diffusion. It does not set apart According to our ideas, this was the result of one people, but unites all as one brotherhood, God's providental government, who has so con- having one Father, and actuated by one prinstituted man that disobedience to the Divine ciple of divine life. It does not set apart an law always hardeny the heart, or, in other words, order of priests, but proclaims that all God's renders the conscience less susceptible of Dipeople are priests, ordained to offer up “spirit. vine impressions. It may therefore be truly ualsacrifices acceptable to God by Jesus Christ.” said, Pharaoh's heart was hardened, without It does not teach that one day is holier than aninfringing his free agency, and through the other, but that all days should be sanctified to operations of a law impressed by the Creator. the Lord and devoted to his service. Its great

The mercy and long forbearance of the Most purpose is to overcome evil with good, and to High were evinced towards the Egyptians in cast out error by the power of Truth. warning them of impendiog calamities, in mani. The principle of overcoming evil with good festing before their eyes, by fearful signs and was most beautifully and thoroughly exemplified wonders, that Omnipotence was pleading with in the life and character of the Messiah. It them, and in giving them many respites before was indeed the great purpose of his mission to He inflicted the last of the plagues, the death destroy the kingdom of evil and to bring in of the first-born, which sent a wail of woe everlasting righteousness; a work that was then throughout the whole land of Egypt. We see, begun in his personal ministry, and which his then, that the oppressed Hebrews were delivered church was intended to carry forward until by Divine power; for with a high hand and an “pation shall not lift up sword againt nation, outstretched arm He brought forth his people. neither shall they learo war any more.”

In the wilderness He gave them, through! It is objected to the lamb like nature of pure Moses, a law adapted to their low condition, for Christianity, that it is not adapted to the pres. they had, during centuries, been in bondage to ent condition of the world, which connot be one of the most superstitious pations of antiq. governed without recourse to physical force. uity, and had cootracted a proneness to idolatry To this it may be answered, that the great far removed from the enlightened views of work of reforming the world, and introducing Abrabam, Isaac and Jacob.

a better system of government, founded on love The laws of Moses, how imperfect soever to God and man, must have had a beginning they may appear now, when viewed in the light before it could spread and prevail over the which Christianity has shed over the civilized world. That beginning having already been world, were far superior to any other code then made ia the introduction of the gospel dispenexisting. When we contrast the religious sys- sation, it will be advanced by the fidelity of the tem of the Hebrews with those of the Egyp- disciples of Christ in each succeeding age, and tians, Greeks and Romans, we are struck with spreading gradually from nation to pation, the the vast superiority of the former. As the reign of the Prince of Peace may ultimately Hebrews were not a highly cultivated people, prevail over all. to what shall we attribute the superiority of To bring forth this blessed consummation their religion, if it be not to Divine inspiration ? | without interfering with the frce agency of

The distinctive feature of Judaism was sep. man, on which depends his responsibility, dig. · aration. To separate one people from all others, nity and virtue, is the grand problem which

in order to promote purity of morals and to Divine Providence is working out in the gov. educate them for a bigher life. To separate ernment of the world. Never before has there one tribe from all the other tribes of Israel, in been, in this country, a more general disposition order that it might be devoted to the offices of to recognize the hand of God in the affairs of religion and the service of the temple. To men, than in regard to the momentous events set apart one day from all the other days of the that have transpired within a few years past. week as a Sabbath to be kept holy unto the While we behold in the dispensations of Lord. This characteristic of the Jewish relig. Providence, the evidences of His power and wision was doubtless adapted to the condition of dom who controls the universe from seem. that people, and to the great purpose of their ing evil still educing good,”-shall we not en. calling, which was to bear testimony to the deavor individually and as a religious Society upity and spirituality of the Divine Bzing in the to perform that part in the great work to which midst of surrounding nations given up to the we are called. grossest idolatry.

He has instruments for various purposes, and The law was a schoolmaster to lead them to dispenses to each the qualifications required for Christ; and when the fulness of time was come, the task assigned. the more glorious dispensation of the Gospel It appears to me that those who are convinced was proclaimed and exemplified by the Son of of the peaceable nature of Christ's kingdom, God. It is not a system of exclusion, but of and the incompatability of war with his spirit.

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