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Review of the Life and Discourses of F. W. Robertson....... 481 COMMUNICATIONS MUST BE ADDRESSED AND PAYMENTS Thoughts, by Sarah Ilunt..
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American Schools seen by English Eyes.
492 Henry Haydock, Brooklyn, N. Y. Two Epitaphs.
495 Benj. Stratton, Richmond, Ind.
496 James Baynes, Ballimore, Md.
BY S. M. JANNEY.
REVIEW OF THE LIFE AND DISCOURSES of chance of remedy; but we have got doctrines
about Christ, instead of Christ, and we call the
bad metaphysics of Evangelicalism “the Gos(Continued from page 119, and concluded.)
pel," and the temporary, transient forms of As the life of Robertson drew towards its Tractarianism,“the Church.” “ To know Him, close, his views became increasingly spiritual, the power of His resurrection, and the fellow and bis enlarged charity embraced as brethren ship of his sufferings,—that is all in all; and and sisters all who were sincerely devoted to if the death and life of Christ are mockery in the cause of truth. He could say with the a inan, he is our brother, whether Tractarian apostie of the Gentiles, “Grace be with all or Evangelical, if we could but believe that that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity.” very simple proposition."
Io reply to a letter from one of the High In the spring of 1853, he fainted and fell in Church party he wrote as follows :
the street. On his return to consciousness, he “Spirit is eternal,-Form is transient; and was affected with intense pain in the back of when men stereotype the form and call it per- the head, and his strength, which had been for petual, or deny that under other and very dif- some months declining, seemed to waste rapidly ferent forms the self-same truth may lie (as the away. Being urged by his pbysician, he conuncovering of Moses' feet is identically the sented to go to Cheltenham for rest.
In desame as uncovering our heads, -aye, and I will scribing his situation, he said, “ Severe and beeven dare to say, often with the covering of the wildering pain in the cerebellum has for the last Quakers, when reverence for God is the cause few days made work dangerous.” ..." The defor each), then I feel repelled at once, whether cline io mental power, and the entire incapacitathe form be a form of words or a form of ob- tion at times of some functions, and the severe servance. To announce spiritual religion as pain produced by the attempt to exercise them, Christ appounced it to the woman of Samaria, force me to look at the matter more seriously." independent of place, on this mountain or After a sojourn of three weeks at Chelten. that, -as Stephen announced it when they ham, feeling somewhat recruited, he returned stoned him for blaspheming the temple,-this to Brighton and resumed his labors; but it was thiuk is the great work of a Christian minister in vain he endeavored to arouse his energies ; in these days.”
his health was completely shattered, his power Referring to the bitterness of religious con. of mental concentration exhausted, and his troversy, he said, “ To understand the Life and body racked with pain, from a disease of the Spirit of Christ appears to me to be the only brain.
“He retained, however, to the last, his deep offered advancement in the Church if he would delight in the beauty of God's world. He got abate the strength of his expressions with reup once when scarcely able to move, at four gard to the Sabbath. He refused the proffer o'clock, and crept to the window, 'to see the with steroness. Har beyond all the other perils beautiful morning.' His hope and trust in his which beset the Church was, he thought, this Hcavenly Father never failed during this dread- | peril: that men who were set apart to speak ful time. He felt assured of his immortalitythe truth and to live above the world should in Christ. A night or two before he died substitute conventionable opinions for eternal he dreamt that his two sisters, long since truths,—should prefer ease to conscience, and dead, came to croya bim. “I saw them,' he worldly bonors to that which cometh from God said, earnestly. Nothing could be more touch- only." ing than his patience, thoughtfulness for others, He was, on account of his refined taste and and the exquisite and tender gratitude which high mental culture, a welcome guest with the hc showed towards those who attended him. aristocratic class, but by the convictions of his Those who had injured him he not only for- mind, and his sympathy with humanity, he was gave, but was anxious that all justice should be led to desire the elevation of the mass of man. done them."
kind, and hence he labored in conjunction with The last words he wrote were these :“I have those who inclined to democracy. grown worse and worse every day. From in- The extensive circulation of his writings, and tensity of suffering in the brain and utter power- the favor they have met with among thoughtful lessness and prostration too dreadful to describe, and devout minds of all Protestant persuasions, and the acknowledged anxiety of the medical is an encouraging sign of the times, showing men, I think pow that I shall not get over this. that the age of intolerance and sectarianism is His will be done! I write id torture.” passing away, and that the spiritual, practical
As the closing hour drew nigh, the pain be religion proclaimed in the gospel of Christ is came intense, and in agony be cried, “ My God, destined to gain the ascendency. my Father!" His attendants sought to relieve him by changing his position, but he could not
EARLY IMPRESSIONS. endure a touch. “I cannot bear it,” he said, ! A great part of the education of every child “let me rest. I must die. Let God do his work.” consists of those impressions, visual and other, These were bis last words. Immediately after which the senses of the little being are taking ward he expired, being on the 15th day of in busily, though unconsciously, amid the scenes Eighth month, 1853, in the 37th year of his of their first exercise; and though all sorts of age.
men are born in all sorts of places-poets in So greatly was he beloved, that on the day of towns, and prosaic men amid fielde and woody his funeral there was a universal mourning in solitudes pet, copsistently with this, it is also Brighton; many of the shops were closed, and true that much of the original capital on which business was generally suspended. “There all men trade intellectually through life, consists were united around his tomb, by a common sor- of that mass of miscellaneous facts and imagery row and a common love, Jews, Unitarians, which they have acquired imperceptibly by the Roman Catholics, Quakers and Churchmen; l observations of their early years.-Prof. Mason. tbe workingmen, the tradesmen, and the rank and wealth of Brighton. For once-and it
For Friends' Intelligencer. was a touching testimony to the reality of this. The following thoughts bave been induced work-all classes and all sects merged their dif- by reading two articles in last pumber of your ferences in one deep feeling."
paper. Complaints tend to scatter the flock. The most striking features of Robertson's 6 It is not by might, nor by power, but by character, and the chief elements of his power, my spirit, saith the Lord.” were his earnestness of purpose, his thorough! Here is a force God will employ to regenerate, sincerity, and his deep love of Christ, as the the world and to inspire new life. It has almanifestation of the Divine Life. His nat-ways been found adequate, and it has lost nope ural endowments, both intellectual and emo- of its power. “It is given to every man to tional, were of the first order, and had been im- profit withal.” I would therefore earnestly inproved by assiduous cultivation. His memory vite the attention of all, young and old, to it. must have been exceedingly retentive, for it is Should it come in prophetic vision, then “speak related, that “ before he left college, he had to edification and comfort;" stir up the pure literally learnt by beart the whole of the New mind by way of remembrance; say to the asTestament, not only in English, but in Greek." seubled multitude, “Come taste and see that
He was fearless in the utterance of his con- the Lord is good ;" that his mercies are over all victions, and being an independent thinker, he his works; that he delights to bless his intellioften gave offence by declaring unpalatable gent workmanship, created in his own image. truths or rebuking popular errors. He was. Feed the hungry with bread from heaven; give
the thirty the water of life,-lead them to , to Him. Will not this blessed intercourse exliving foun'ains,--and show them that the pure clude the thought that you are forgotten or forspirit of the Lord is in them," a well of water saken, or that he is dealing hardly with you?” springing up unto eternal life.” Cheer up, then, ye desponding! Take cour
SECRET PRAYER. age ye that are disheartened ; remember in days There are conditions of mind entering into of old, when Israel was in a great strait, be- and promoted by secret prayer, which must sieged by enemies on every hand, the Prophet ever commend it most strongly to every devout prayed that the Lord would open their eyes to person. It removes in a large measure from see the true state of things, and behold their the heart the temptation to ostentation in relig, surroundings were full of chariots and horses; ion. That the profession of Christianity is a more was with them than against them; all the cause of trial to many, and, under some circum. hill country was full of strength. Now this stances, to all miods, is beyond doubt; but it metaphor we would do well to consider, and cannot be denied that the outward confession look up above the weaknesses of men to the may so far cease to be a cross as to become a power of God. Instead of dwelling upon deso- means of self-glorying. In such case, it is a lations, let us arise and build every one over snare to the soul, a most pernicious one, superagainst his own house; then we would soon see inducing self-righteousness and hypocrisy. the multitudes come up like a flock of sheep Every man possesses what may be termed a from the washing, every one bearing twins, and double consciousness--one for himself and anoth, none barren among them.”
er for the world : with the one, he reads himself Such I believe is the power of the word of for himself, and with the other, he reads himlife when public expression is called for ; such self for others. Some minds seldom study the the burning of the fire kindled within, that the former, but almost exclusively the latter. To tongue must speak and tell what God has done. such the danger of performing their religious May all mind their calling, young and old, and duties for the inspection of men is very great, encourage one another to love and to good and nothing is more important to them than to works.
SARAH HUNT. be put under the pecessity of so far excluding
themselves from the observation of the world SCRIPTURE ILLUSTRATED.
as to temporarily free them from this exposure Not long since a man in India was accused by making them feel that they are alone with of stealing a sheep. He was brought before the Searcher of hearts. Tusensibly will the the judge, and the supposed owner of the sheep thought of another's opinion steal upon the was also present. Both claimed the sheep, and best of men in their most honest public devohad witnesses to prove their respective claims, tions, and in some degree, however slight, be an so that it was not easy for the judge to decide enticement to dissembling. To say nothing of to which the sheep belonged.
the desire to make one's self appear good-too Knowiog the customs of the shepherds, and easily excited in us all-the very uses of public the habits of the sheep, the judge ordered the worship to stir each other to increased piety in sheep to be brought into court, and sent one of some sort lay one under bonds, either real or the two men into another room, while he told imaginary, to try to please. One would natuthe other to call the sheep, and see if it would rally wish to make an impression favorable to come to him. But the poor animal, not know- religion by exhibiting its excellence in one's ing the voice of a stranger," would not go to own exercises.' This is a good; yet we must him. In the meantime the other man, who was see how this line of commendable virtue runs in an adjoining room, growing impatient, and by a brink—the temptation to appear better probably suspecting what was going on, gave a than we really are. Now, the correction for kind of “ cluck," upon which the sheep bounded this tendency is not abstinence from public away towards him at once. This “cluck” was worship, but frequent devotion under circumthe way in which he had been used to call the stances where it is impossible to be thus beset. sheep, and it was at once decided that he was! The soul, shut away from outward incitements, the real owner.
is led to turn in upou itself, and so a deeper, Thus we have a beautiful illustration of John jaster insight of its own condition is insured. x. 4, 5: " And the sheep follow him, for they Thus withdrawn from the eyes of men, it reads kpow his voice: aod a stranger will they not fol. itself for itself--not asking what will wen think low, but will flee from him ; for they know not of this or that act, but “What do I think of it the voice of strap gers.-- British Wurkman. for myself?” “Does it do for me?” “Does
it answer the ideal of truth and purity which "Maintain confidence in God by lookiog out I have formed for myself, and so command my for instances of His love. They will not be own respect, which is of infinitely grea'er nowanting; and when you meet with them, let a ment to me than the judgments of o hers?" word of grateful response rise from your heart The heart can seo much of iiself as reflects i in
the opinions of others; but the lesson will be: “How beautiful the thatch looks !” cried an* straightway forgotten unless it carry these teach other. ings into its own solitudes and ponder them. “Ah !" cried the old thatch, "Țather let The sun paints his pictures in the dark, and the them say how beautiful is the loving moss, that operator must hurry away his delicate tracery spends itself in covering all my faults, kecping to the little dark room to fix it. The outside the knowledge of them all to herself, and by surface man, comparing himself with men around her own grace making my age and poverty wear him, estimating himself by the average of man- the garb of youth and luxuriance.” kind, makes no advancement; while he who seeks retirement with God, bringing with him MAN AN ORIGINAL CREATION, NOT A DEVELOPthe results of his observations, finds a higher
MENT. standard of comparison for his character. A From an article under this head in the Theo. clearer light than the dim. confused opinions of logical Eclectic, for July and August, by Wor. men shines upon his soul, even that which thington Hooker, M. D., Professor in Yale Col. streams forth from the perfection of the Al- lege, we extract as follows: mighty. He and God are alone, and in God “How does map differ mentally from animals? there is no darkness at all. All is made mani. It has sometimes been said that man is govern. fest by this light, and as the soul can bear it, led by reason and animals by instinct. To nearevery motive and act stands out in full propor- ly the same purport, says St. Hillaire, an emi.
nent French naturalist, the plant lives, the aniThere is, moreover, absolute Deed of the mal lives and feels, man lives, feels, and thinks.' broader freedom which the soul can have only The truth is, that both man and the animal in closet prayer. Secret devotion may restrain bave instinct, thougbt, and reason. That comfrom pride, from dissimulatiou, but it also af- mon animals think, I need not stop to prove. fords the opportunity for, and the encourage. It is obvious, also, that they reason, if we call ment to the utmost directness and thoroughness the making of inferences reasoning. If you hit in one's approaches to God. Every thought a dog with a stone, and he afterward secs you can be expressed; sius which are hardly con- take up another stone, he infers that he had ceived may be confessed ; troubles which no better get out of the reach of that stone if he human breast could appreciate can be told into can. This inferring, or reasoning, is through an Ear that never wearies of listening and a the mere association of ideas, and differs from loving Heart that never wearies of feeling; a higher kind of reasoning, soon to be spoken emoticns of joy and sorrow can have their full of as belonging exclusively to man. Sometimes gush of expression without fear of annoyance this reasoning by association is more complex to one's highest friend. However much all than in the case just cited. I will give a few hearts may need the aid which contact with examples. A bird built its best in a quarry, other hearts imparts, there are times when where it was liable to disturbance from the blastevery heart absolutely requires the unrestrained ings. It soon, however, learned to fly off when liberty of privacy. Two are infinitely too many; it beard the bell ring to warn the laborers preone and God are enough. Then will the soul vious to a blast. They sometimes rung the bell open all its secrets, and from a deep sense of its when there was to be no blast, for the sake of bitterness and helplessness, pour out itself into amusement in seeing the bird start off when an urgent waiting and pleading before Him who there was no need of it; but it did not allow seeth in secret and rewardeth openly. Happy itself to be many times deceived in this way, for us if, when such seasons of want and anguish for it soon added another mental association to come, we have already learned the uses of se- the first one from which its inference was made, cret prayer ? — The Methodist.
and did not quit its best till it saw the men
run. Some horses in a field were supplied with THE CHARITY THAT COVERETI. water in a trough occasionally filled by a pump. “Dear moss!" said the old thatch, "I am One of the borses, more sagacious than the rest, $0 worn, so patched, so ragged ; really, I am if be found the trough empty, would take the quite unsightly. I wish you would come and pump-handle in his teetb, and pump into the cheer me up a little; you will hide all my in-trough. The otber horses seeing this, would, firmities and defects, and, through your loving whenever they found no water in the trough, sympathy, uo finger of contempt or dislike will tease the horse that knew how to pump by biting be pointed at me."
and kicking bim, till he would fill the trough "I come !" said the moss; and it crept up for them. In this case, the horse that did the and around, and in and out, till every flaw was pumping associated in his mind the motion of hidden, and all was smooth aud fair. Presently the pump handle in the hands of his master the sun shone out, and the old thatch looked with the supply of water, and he inferred that gloriously in the golden rays.
his mou h could do as well as his inaster's hand. “How beautiful the thatch looks!” cried one. And while they associated this supply with his pumping, he inferred what their teasing him I ly endowed of the brute creation. This intromeant from associating it with their motions duces him into a sphere of thought, and conseabout the trough, indicating so plainly that they quently of feeling, in which he moves in com. wanted some water.
mon with angels, and, we may add, in common Instinct is a very different thing from this with the Deity-the only differeoce being that reasoning by association. It makes no infer. God kaows all principles without the tedious ences. It is unreasoning and blind. The hen will processes of thought and reasoning which must sit on pieces of chalk, shaped like eggs, as readi- be gone through with by man. It is plainly ly as on real eggs. Tbe flesh-fly often lays its this which is signified when it is said of the eggs in the carrion-flower, the odor of which so creation of man, “In the image of God created resembles that of tainted meat as to deceive the he bim. insect. An amusing example of the blind dis! Let us see now what results come from the regard of circumstances in obeying instinct is possession of this power. furnished by an English gentleman Mr. Brode. First, it is only by a recognition of principles rip, in an account of a beaver, which he caught that man infers from nature the existence of a when very young. He gives a circumstantial Creator, or can teach this inference to others. narration of his operations in a rooc: in which And he can teach this to no brute, simply behe placed him, where there were also placed cause it has no power of admitting into its mind materials in great variety-rush baskets, band. the simplest principle. brushes, sticks, books, boots, clothes, turf, coal, Agaio, as the distinction between right and hay, etc. He went to work busily construct wrong is founded on principles, it is obvious that ing out of these a dam and a nest, very much as no animal but man can know this distinction ; he would if he were on the banks of a stream. and so no animal but man can act in obedience Now, if his instinct were at all rational, it would to conscience. Sometimes this knowledge is not have impelled him to make a dam and a loosely and inconsiderately attributed to brutes dwelling in a common room. Reason would of the higher orders. It has been said by some have dictated the construction of a nest, and one, that man is the god of the dog; but it is nothing more.
irreverent trilling thus to compare the regard of Instinct operates in many wonderful ways, the dog for his master to that which wan should but these we cannot stop to notice.
bear to the Creator. We usually recogoize the Reasoning by association is more prominent distinction between men and animals in respect in some animals than in others, but in none is to the existence of a conscience in the very it so much so as in man. It is with him a very language we use. We are not apt to speak of abundant source of knowledge.
punishing a dog, for the word implies a moral But there is a higher kind of reasoning, which fault as the reason for the indiction. We whip belongs to man alonc—a reasoning by which he him simply to associate in his mind pain with arrives at principles-abstract reasoning, as it the act dono, to prevent him from doing it again; may be terved. I will illustrate, in a very or, perhaps, to vent our ill feeling for the harm simple way, the difference between this reason. I done upon the innocent cause of it. ing and that which is common to man and the It is the power of abstract reasoning that is brutes. Newton had a favorite dog, Diamond. the source of language in man. This is maniWe will suppose that, happening to be under an fest if we consider what is the nature of apple tree with his master, he was hit by a fall. language. What we ordinarily term language ing apple. He would in fer, if he saw other is made up of vocal signs of an arbitrary charapples falling, that it was best to keep out of the acter, with corresponding written sigos. As Way of them. This would be the extent of his general principles are recognized in the coustruc. reasoning. But how was it with his master? tion and arrangement of these signs, we see at It is said that the seeing of an apple fall, led once the reason that brutes have no artificial him to such thoughts and reasonings on falling language-that is, no signs that are agreed upon and moving bodies that he at length discovered as expressive of ideas. They do indeed have a the great fact or principle of gravitation. natural language, made up of natural signs,
Here we have disclosed to us the grand discries, and motions, which vary in different tinction---the 'impassable chasm'--between tribes of animals; but artificial, that is, constructman and other animals. No animal, howevered language, is a wholly different thing, alextensive may be its meatal associations, and though it may incorporate into itself features inferences from them, can ever evolve a princi- from natural language. The parrot is iodeed ple, or receive one into its mind by instruction. I said to talk, but it is sheer imitation; and he This is not a difference of degree inerely, but of never originates any language. It is not the kind. Man is not merely a wiser being than mere possession of talking organs that gives to any other animal, but the main source of bis man the power of talking; the presence of the wisdom is a faculty or power which is not pos- minil of man is essential for this use of those sessed in the smallest degree by the most high-lorgans. The talk of Balaam's ass was a miracle